ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ

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ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ; ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ focuses ᎾᎿ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ, ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ᎤᏟ ᏗᏰᎸᎯ, ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ, ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ, ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎯᎠ participants ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎦᎷᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎳᏗᎾ communis, ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᏧᏣᏔᏊ, ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ, shared ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ."[1] ᎯᎠ ᎳᏗᎾ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "communitatus" ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ" ᎦᎷᎦ, ᎨᏒᎢ comprised ᏦᎢ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ, "Com-" - ᎳᏗᎾ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ, "-Munis-" - ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ Indo-European ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ orgin, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ" (ᎢᏧᎳ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᎭᏂ), ᎠᎴ "-tatus" ᎳᏗᎾ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ. ᎠᏓᏥ sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies ᎤᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ" (gemeinschaft) ᎠᎴ "ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ" (gesellschaft). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ 1887 ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Tönnies argued Ꮎ "ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ" ᎨᏒᎢ perceived ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏍᏋ tighter ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ "ᏂᎦᏛ ᏫᎵ."[2] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ Ꮎ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ kinship ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎢᏳᏂᏪᏛ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᏐᎢ shared ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ gemeinschaft.

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ Stonehenge, ᎦᎵᏏh, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ solstice.

ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ[edit]

ᏴᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ-ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ. ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎲᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ participants ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏦᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ. ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏘᏴᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎠᎴ shared ᏧᏁᏉᏨ.

ᎯᎠ catalyst ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ participants ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ-ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ, ᎦᎪ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᎪᎯ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ.

Gerhard Lenski, sociologist, differentiates societies ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ, ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ: (1) ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ, (2) ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ, (3) ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ, (4) ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ.[3] ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ anthropologists Morton H. ᎪᎢᎯ ᎬᏂᏍᏙᏗ, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ theorist, ᎠᎴ Elman ᎾᏛᏁᎸ, ᏂᎦᏛ theorist, ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ societies ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᏅᎩ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ:

ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎤᎭ progressed ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ-ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ cultural ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏓᎪᎾᏛ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ-ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ seasonal foodstocks ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ. ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᏛᏒ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ-ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ-ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ.[4]

Fred Cox, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ (1970) ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ:

  • ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ geographic ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ
  • ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ organizations
  • ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ shared ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ

ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ strategies ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ nature ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᎾᏕᎬ.[5]. ᏯᏛᎿ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ nested, ᏌᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᏦᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ integrated, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ identified, ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᎠ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎾᎾᎢ planetary ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ geographic ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, 3rd ᎡᎶᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ; ᎯᎠ organizational ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ UNO ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ Ꮝ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ agencies, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ, IMF, WTO, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ cultural ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ globalization, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ disseminated ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏎᏍᏗ multinational media ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ, ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎠᏱᎴᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ complexes ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏱᎵᏒᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎪᎯ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᎠ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ cultural awareness ᎠᏂᏐᎢ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ.[6]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ societies ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏎᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ societies ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ privatization "ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ", ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᏱᎵᏒ laborers ᎯᎠ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ, ᎠᏎ ᎢᏳᏛᎾᏗ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ labor ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ labor ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ. ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ "privatizations" ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ eliminating ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏒ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ. ᎾᏊ, societies ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. Theorists ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ulrich ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ Anthony Giddens ᎤᎭ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎢᎦᏛ modernity, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ," Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᏭᏓᎪᎾᏛ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ vibrant global ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.[7]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ sociology, anthropology, ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ overlapping ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏁᎵᏒ. ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ theories sociology ᎠᎴ cultural ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ Ꮎ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ theories ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ organizational ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, organizational ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ (sociology), ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ computational sociology.

ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ[edit]

<ᎠᏰᎵ> ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ interacting

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᏴᏫ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏫᏒᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎦᏙᎲᏒ. ᎠᏲᎵ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ). ᎤᏅᏌ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ Ꮎ ᏗᎵᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ-ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᏂᎦᏙᎲᏒ.[8]

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ cultural ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ, ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎲ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ "ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ socialization. ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ interpersonal ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎦᎪᏃ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᏚᏍᏗᏓᏅ.[8]

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ adulthood, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.

Socialization[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ socialization. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏘᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ socialization ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ.[8] ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ psychodynamic ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ socialization ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ 1 ᎠᎴ 10. ᎠᎴ socialization ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏎ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ.[9]

Socialization ᎨᏒᎢ influenced ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᏐᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎤᏂᏠᏱ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ media, ᎯᎠ workplace ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᎵᏯ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ, ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎰᏩ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ "ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ," ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Tocqueville ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.[10]

ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ[edit]

ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬ, participants ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎠᎵᏤᎸᎮᏍᎩ ᏗᏚᎳᏙ, ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎬᏗ ᎪᎳᏨᎯ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, enhanced ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ-solving. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ argued Ꮎ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏴᏫ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᏕᎦᎳᏅᏛ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ.

ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ" ᎢᎬᏱᏊ ᎦᏰᎯ ᏩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ. ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎤᏩᎾᏐᎲᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ behaviors ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏘᏴᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ, ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏓᎵᏍᎪᎸᏓᏁᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ (ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᎵᎪᏒ") ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏘᏴᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ observable ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.

McMillan ᎠᎴ Chavis (1986) ᎠᏓᏙᎯᏙᏗ ᏅᎩ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ "ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ": 1) ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ, 2) ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ, 3) ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ, ᎠᎴ 4) shared ᎠᎵᏤᎸᎮᏍᎩ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ interplay ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ:

ᎩᎶ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏩᎲᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏒᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏒᏓᎷᎦ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏒᏍᏗ ᏔᎷᏣ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ. ᏴᏫ ᎠᏁᏙ ᎯᎠ organizational ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎪᎵᎬᎾ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ (ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ). ᎯᎠ ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ (ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ boundaries ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ (ᎯᎠ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ). ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᏗᏁᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ (ᎦᏣᏄᎳ shared valent ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ). ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᏁᎳ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ (ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ). ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ ᎠᏁᎳ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎠᎴ congratulated (ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎲ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏁᎳ). ᎩᎶ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎭᏫᏂ ᏗᏄᏬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎳᏑᎶ (ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ (ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ).[11]

ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ (SCI) ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ Chavis ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ (1986). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ workplace ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.[12]

Communitarianism[edit]

Lewes ᏙᏱ ᎪᏛᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎠᎯᎸᏍᏗ commemorating 17 ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᏍᏛᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎴᏴᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1555 1557.

Communitarianism ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ philosophies (ᎠᎴ ideologies) ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ, capitalism ᎠᎴ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ advocating phenomena ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏎᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ, communitarianism ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ societies ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ, ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏕᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎾᏕᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ, multiculturalism, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᏗ.

Organizational ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ[edit]

ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴ organizational ᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ communicated ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏁᎳ, ᎯᎠ formulation agendas, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ. Organizational ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᏴᏫ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ organizational ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ organizational ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏗᏫᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ organizational ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ geared ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.

ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ connectedness ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ.[13]


ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Robert D. Putnam ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ (ᎦᎪ ᏴᏫ ᎣᎾᏛ) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ Ꮎ ᏗᎶᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎿᏛᎦ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ (ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ)." ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᎥ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ' ᏚᏁᏅᏒ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Putnam ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏩᏒ: ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎴᏂᏍᎬᎢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ (2000), ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᎶᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. Putnam ᎠᏩᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ 25 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᏁᏙᎲᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᏓᎾᏠᏍᎦ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎶᏒᎢ 58 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ, ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗ 33 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎲᎢ ᏧᎾᎵᎢ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎶᏒᎢ 45 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ.[14]

ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏲᎱᏎᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ Ꮎ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ. Sociologist ᎠᏨᏍᏛ Oldenburg ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᎿᎢ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏦᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ: 1) ᎯᎠ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ, 2) ᎯᎠ workplace, ᎠᎴ, 3) ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ hangout ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᎿᎢ.[15]

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ grassroots ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎪᎯ "ᏦᎢᏁ ᎾᎿᎢ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎪᏪᎵ, coffeehouses, ᎾᎥᎢ pubs ᎠᎴ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ innovative ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.[16]

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ[edit]

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ universities ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ agencies ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ, ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizing, ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ agenda. ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎠᏎ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎳᎪ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ' ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏙᎬ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ.

ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ universities ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏱᎴᎦ curricula ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ sociology ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ Chicago ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Saguaro ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ F. Kennedy ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ Harvard ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, Oxford ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Ꮝ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ, [17] ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ sociologists ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ.

ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᏌᏊ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎵᏯ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ ᎤᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ downloadable ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ[18] ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ focuses ᎾᎿ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᎭ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ "mobilizing ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ" — ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ.[19]

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ organizing[edit]

M. Scott ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏎᎦᏤᎸ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏯᎩ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 11, 2001, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ. ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ "ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ shared ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ consensual ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ, ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ inclusivity ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎡᎪᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ:

  1. ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ-ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ: ᎭᏢᏃ participants ᎠᎴ "ᎣᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ", ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ-ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎲᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ favorable ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎬᎨᏫᏍᏗ.
  2. ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ: ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ inauthenticity ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ-ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ "ᎤᏓᏴᎳᏛ" selves. ᎪᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ facilitator ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ leadership ᎠᎴ organization, ᎠᎴ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎭ Ꮎ "organizations ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ", ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ resisted.
  3. ᎤᏏᏩ: ᎪᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ attempts ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎧᏅᏬᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ acknowledging ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ woundedness ᎠᎴ brokenness, ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏏᏩ ᎦᎷᎦ
  4. ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ: ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᎨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎪᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎭ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ" ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏨᏓᏓᎧᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏴᏫ.

ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ Scott ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩlarger–scale ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ participants ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ contractors. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ "ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ" (LETS)[20] ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ currencies, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Ithaca ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ,[21] ᎠᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎠᎴ enhanced ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.

ᎯᎠ anti-ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ "ᎠᎦᏘᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ" ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Iraq ᏓᏄᏩ

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ geared ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ activism ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ termed "ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizing." ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏓᎩᏴᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏒᎧᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ. ᎭᏢᏃ ᎣᏍᏛ-ᎪᎯᏳᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ ᎤᏄᎸᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ constituency-ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ-ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᏓᏓᎸᏙᏗ, ᎤᏬᎳ-ins, ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏔᏲᎯᎯ, ᎠᎴ electoral ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎶᏗ Detroit! ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Toronto ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎧᎻᏘ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ activist ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ.

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizing ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ focused ᎾᎿ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎣᏍᏛ resolving ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ. Organizing ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ distributing ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizers ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎠᎴ democratic ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ governance. ᏯᏛᎿ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ.

ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizing ᎠᎴ grassroots organizing, ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizing (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizing," "ᎠᏯᏖᎾ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizing" ᎠᎴ "ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ organizing").

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ[edit]

ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ nonprofit ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ undertaken ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏓ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ sentencing approaches ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ.

ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ[edit]

Participants ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ Leafe ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ "ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ" ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏒᎯᏰᏱᏗᏢ ᏓᏂᎳᏫᎥ ᎾᎾᎢ.[22]

ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ" ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ:

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ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, "ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ" ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ. ᎠᏁᎳ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ interact ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ. ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ:

  • "ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ formalized ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ.
  • ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ communicating ᎠᎴ interacting ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ technologies, ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ, ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ.) ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ motivations ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ contributing online ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.

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ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ. ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏧᏁᏉᏨ.

  • ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ designated ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ retirees ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏍᏆᏗᏍᎩ –- ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ restricted ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 55. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎲᎢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᎿᎥ.
  • ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ residential ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏐᎢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏚᏂᏴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ, ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ responsibilities ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ. ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Amish ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ, ashrams, cohousing, ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ecovillages, ᎦᏁᎸ cooperative, kibbutzim, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎰᏩ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ.

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ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ[edit]

ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ interacting ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏄᏓᎴ,"[23] ᎾᎯᏳᎢ scientifically ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏩᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏛᏍᏓᏅᏅᏍᎬ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢᎨᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎥᏝ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ, ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. M. Scott ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ expresses ᎪᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ: "ᎾᎿᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ Ꮭ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ; ᎾᎿᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ Ꮭ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ; ᎾᎿᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ Ꮭ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ Ꮭ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ."[24] ᎪᎯ ᏩᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ distinctiveness ᏴᏫ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ, D. 2001. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  2. Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 22.
  3. Lenski, G. 1974. ᏴᏫ Societies: ᎾᏛᏁᎸ Macrosociology.
  4. Effland, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations.
  5. Cox, F., J. Erlich, J. Rothman, ᎠᎴ J. Tropman. 1970. Strategies ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ: ᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ.
  6. Durkheim, E. 1950. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ Sociological ᎢᎬᎾᏗ."
  7. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎤᏪᏴ, Ꭴ. ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ: ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏤ Modernity (1992), ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ globalization? (2000); Giddens (1999) “Risk ᎠᎴ Responsibility”
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Newman, D. 2005. Chapter 5. "Building Identity: Socialization". ᏚᏆᏓᏛ 134-140.
  9. Newman, D. 2005, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 141.
  10. ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, M. 2001. Community.
  11. McMillan, D.W., ᎠᎴ Chavis, D.M. 1986. "ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ: ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ," ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 16.
  12. Chavis, D.M., J.H. Hogge, D.W. McMillan, ᎠᎴ Wandersman, 1986. "ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Brunswick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ: ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᎦᏔ."
  13. Putnam, D. 2000. ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏩᏒ: ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎴᏂᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 19.
  14. Bowling Alone web site
  15. ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ. 2006. Ray Oldenburg.
  16. ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ. 2006. Social Capital in Tampa Bay: An Update Report.
  17. Community Development Journal, Oxford ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ
  18. ABCD ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ W.K. Kellogg ᎦᎫᏍᏓᎥ. 2006. Discovering Community Power: A Guide to Mobilizing Local Assets and Your Organization's Capacity.
  19. ABCD ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ. 2006. Welcome to ABCD.
  20. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ Michael Linton, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Courtenay, ᎩᎵᏏ Columbia, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ "LETSystems - new money". Retrieved: 2006-08-01.
  21. ᎯᎠ Ithaca ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ Paul Glover ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᎿᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ "Creating Community Economics with Local Currency". Retrieved: 2006-08-01.
  22. O.Ꭴ.R. Ecovillage
  23. Australian ᎢᎬᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ. Nova: Science in the News. Retrieved: 2006-07-21.
  24. M. Scott ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ, 1987. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᎱᎵ: ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 233.

ᏫᏓᏎᏄᎢ[edit]

  • ᎤᏪᏴ, Ꭴ. 1992. ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ: ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏤ Modernity. London: ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ
  • ᎤᏪᏴ, Ꭴ. 2000. ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ globalization? Cambridge: ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.
  • Chavis, D.M., Hogge, J.H., McMillan, D.W., ᎠᎴ Wandersman, . 1986. "ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Brunswick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ: ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᎦᏔ." ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, 14(1), 24-40.
  • Cohen, . ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 1985. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᏄᏯᎩ: Routledge.
  • Durkheim, Emile. 1950 (1895) ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ Sociological ᎢᎬᎾᏗ. Translated ᎾᎥᎢ Solovay ᎠᎴ J. H. Mueller. ᏄᏯᎩ: ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.
  • Cox, F., J. Erlich, J. Rothman, ᎠᎴ J. Tropman. 1970. Strategies ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ: ᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ. Itasca, IL: F. E. ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ.
  • Effland, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations ᏂᎬᏅ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ.
  • Giddens, . 1999. “Risk ᎠᎴ Responsibility” ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏅᎬᎪᏙᏗ 62(1): 1-10.
  • Lenski, G. 1974. ᏴᏫ Societies: ᎾᏛᏁᎸ Macrosociology. ᏄᏯᎩ: McGraw-ᎦᏚᏏ, Inc.
  • McMillan, D.W., ᎠᎴ Chavis, D.M. 1986. "ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ: ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ." ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, 14(1), 6-23.
  • Nancy, Jean-Luc. ᏂᏚᏍᏛᎢ Communauté désœuvrée (ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ).
  • Newman, D. 2005. Sociology: Exploring ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, Chapter 5. "Building Identity: Socialization" ᏃᏥ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ. Retrieved: 2006-08-05.
  • Peck, M. Scott (1987). ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᎱᎵ: ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ. ᏄᏯᎩ: Simon ᎠᎴ Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84858-9
  • Putnam, R. D. 2000. ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏩᏒ: ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎴᏂᏍᎬᎢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᏄᏯᎩ: Simon ᎠᎴ Schuster
  • Sarason, Semour B. (1974). ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ: ᎤᏚᎩ ᏗᎦᎬᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. San Francisco: Jossey-ᎤᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.
  • Sarason, Semour B. (1986). "ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ: ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ conceptual ᎠᏰᎵ." ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, 14, 405-407.
  • ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, M. K. 2001. Community. ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᎯ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. ᎣᏂ updated: ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 28, 2005. Retrieved: 2006-07-15.
  • Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Leipzig: Fues ᎤᏤᎵ Verlag, 2nd ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. 1912, 8th ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, Leipzig: Buske, 1935; translated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1957 ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ISBN 0-88738-750-0

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

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