ᎪᏪᎵ

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Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902
Codex Dresdensis, Mayan 13th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ᎤᎧᏛᏗ ᏐᏁᎳ

ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂ, ᏩᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᎫᏝᎢ. ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏏᏴᏫ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᎦᎶᎬ. ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎦᏔᎯ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ electronic format ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ e-ᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ, ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏯᎢᏒ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ, ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ.

ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ, ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ 'ᏩᎦᏛ ᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ' ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ promotional ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎡᏗᏱ ᏅᎬᎪᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ. ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᏪᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ.

ᎠᏏᎤᎴ ᎡᎱ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ, bibliophilist, ᎠᎴ philobiblist, ᎠᎴ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᎯ, ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ.

ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏙᎾᏕ ᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏅᎬᎪᏙᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

ᏧᏆᎫᏔᏅᏒ[edit]

ᎠᎨᏴ ᏚᏂᏴᏒ ᎪᏪᎵ (ᎠᎴ ᎠᏜ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎠᏐᏴ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Pompeii, ᎤᏓᎷᎸ 79 ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ (ᎧᏁᏨ ᎠᎰᎵ, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎠᏛᎦᏅᎯ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏩᏕᎴᎩ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ—ᏅᏯ, ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, ᏡᎬ ᎤᏯᎸ, ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ—ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ.

ᎪᏪᎸ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏥᏈ, ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ (ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎪᏘ) ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏳᎳ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 2400 BC. ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᎨᏒᎩ glued ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏪᎸ. ᎪᎯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Hellenistic ᎠᎴ ᎶᎻ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ Ꮎ ᏡᎬ ᎤᏯᎸ (ᎳᏗᎾ liber, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ) ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Italy. ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ 'Ꭺ' ᎠᎴ 'ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ' ᎢᏧᎳ ᎦᎷᏨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏜ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ. ᎠᏜ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ reusable: ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ melted ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ carved ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏜ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏙᎢ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ codices ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ .D., ᏥᏄᏍᏗ witnessed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Pompeii. ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ; ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᏄᏬ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ Apophoreta CLXXXIV, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ Hellenistic ᎡᎶᎯ ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎥᏝ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏜ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎪᏪᎵ (ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎠᏓ) ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ phased ᎠᏥᏄqᎣᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ .D.. ᎪᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎦᏳᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ: ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ format ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ searchable. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵᏊ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏪᎸ.

ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ[edit]

ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ .D. ᎤᎪᎲᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎶᎻ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎶᎻ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ monasteries ᎠᏫᏛᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎳᏗᎾ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ Cassiodorus ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ monastery ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ. ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ Nursia, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏓᎵᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ stressed ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ influenced ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᏗᏂᎪᎵᏰᏍᎩ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ copied ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᏠᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏅᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᏗᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ:

  1. ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎦᎪ dealt ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏓᏛᎪᏗᏍᎬ
  2. Calligraphers, ᎦᎪ dealt ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏌᏂ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ
  3. Correctors, ᎦᎪ collated ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ
  4. Rubricators, ᎦᎪ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ; ᎠᎴ Illuminators, ᎦᎪ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ

ᎦᏁᎳ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏓᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏓᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ spacing ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎪᎯ facilitated ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏓᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏓᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ tended ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎳᏗᎾ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ 12th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ argued[1], Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ spacing ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᎩ-vocalized ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏙᏄᏛᎿ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ (ᏩᎦᎠᎩᎾ ᎦᏁᎦ) ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏆᏓᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎫᏝᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏃᏥ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏲᏔᏅ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ libraries ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ, ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ chained bookshelf ᎠᎴ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ libri catenati ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.

ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ copied ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ monasteries, ᏌᏊ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ universities ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 13th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏂᏯᏙᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ (pecia), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏯᏔᎵᏍᏔ ᎠᏥᏄqᎣᏫᏍᎬ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ stationers ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ.

ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ incunables[edit]

15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ incunable. ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏫ-tooled ᎫᏢᏗ, ᎤᏅᏏᏴ bosses ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏚᏂᏴᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 14th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ (ᎯᎠ technique ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ centuries ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ, ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ carved ᎠᏥᏄqᎣᏫᏍᎬ ᏍᏆᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎠᏓ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ inked ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ. ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏗᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ. Creating ᏂᎦᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᏂᏁᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ-carved ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓ ᏍᏆᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏄqᎣᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏯ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ Sutra. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏲᏅ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1907 ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Marc Aurel Stein ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ walled-ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏔᎦᎳᏱ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Dunhuang, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎤᏕᎵᎬ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ, ᏓᎪᎵᏰ: ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ [caused to be] ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎾᎥᎢ Wang Jie ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ 13th ᎯᎠ 4th ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ 9th ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ Xiantong [i.e. 11th May, 868 CE].

ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᎪᏪᎵ ᎪwᎵᏍᎩ Pi Sheng ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ circa 1045, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ embedded ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎤᎧᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎠᏝᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎦᎶᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎠᏜ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᏒᏓᎷᎦ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎴ pressed ᎾᏍᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏝᏅᏙᏗ ᎦᎴᏯᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᏆᏓᏛ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ Johann Gutenberg ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏠᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ affordable (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏙᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ. ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ: Chwe Yun-ui ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1234 ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ Goryo ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Korea. ᎪᎯ ᏧᎷᏆᏗᏅᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ, ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ ᏄᏂᏪᏒ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ." ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1,000 ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.

ᎪᏪᎵ (Paper)[edit]

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᏴᏩtᎤᏫᏛ 11th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ 16th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ Ꭺ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ congruent ᏌᏊ ᏄᏓᎴ, ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ. ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ, ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ, ᎯᎠ Ꭺ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 200 BCE, ᎠᎴ ᏭᎷᏨᎩ ᏳᎳᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ muslim territories. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ Ꭺ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꭺ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᏄqᎣᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏓ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ[edit]

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎩᎦᏚᏏᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ commodities ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎥᏝ ᏳᏓᎷᎳ. ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ bookmark ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1584 ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ, Christopher Barker, ᎤᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ Elizabeth ᎠᏯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᏏᎵᎩ bookmark. ᏧᏣᏔᏊ bookmarks ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏁᎳᏚᏏᏁ ᎠᎴ nineteenth centuries ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏯᏙᎵ ᏏᎵᎩ ᏗᏓᏍᏚᏗ ᏩᎦᏛ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ detachable bookmarks ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1850 ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏏᎵᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ 1880', ᏄᏛᏁᎸ Ꭺ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ.

ᎠᏥᎸ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ-powered ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ presses ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᎴᏯᏛ 1,100 ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ 2,000 ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ.

ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ presses ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 6,000 ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ.

ᎯᎠ centuries ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ 15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏂᏩᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎪᏢᎯᏏᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎦᏅᏍᏙᎯᏍᏗ censorship ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎬᏗ ᎪᎳᏨᎯ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ, ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᏳᎳᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ risen ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 200,000 ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ (e.g. ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏓᏓᎶᏙᏗ, ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ), Ꮝ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ varies, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᎴ:

  1. ᎪᏪᎵ ᎫᏢᏗ (ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ, ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᎪᏪᎵ ᎪwᎵᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ)
  2. ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ (ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᎪᏪᎵ ᎪwᎵᏍᎩ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ)
  3. ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ
  4. ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ (ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ)
  5. ᎦᏍᎩᎶ ᎦᏛᎢ
  6. ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ
  7. ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ
  8. ᎠᏩᏛᏗ

ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ-19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, Ꭺ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ (cellulose, ᎠᏓ) ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏍᏗᎠᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᏟᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏄᏬ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ Ꭺ (ᎠᏄᏬ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ abaca). ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ Ꭺ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ paved ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏫᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ literacy ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ industrialized ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ eased ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ.

ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎪᎯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ Ꭺ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ Ꮎ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏗᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ ᎠᏥᎸ Ꮎ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Ꭺ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ. ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ techniques ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ Ꭺ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ limestone ᎤᏪᏴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ neutralized ᎯᎠ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ. Libraries ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ deacidification ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᏂᏝᏅ. ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ 1850 ᎠᎴ 1950 ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ; ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ-ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᎴ alkaline Ꭺ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ chemical ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎫᏢᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ. ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᎠᏨᏍᏛᏍᎬ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏥᏄqᎣᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎠᎦᎵᎭ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ. ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ, ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏓᎦtᎤᏫᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ.

ᏧᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᎿᎢ, monasteries ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ universities. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏥᏍᎪᏯ Carnegie. ᎪᎯ reflected ᏚᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ: ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᏛᏂ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ paperback ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ. Paperback ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ affordable ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ. Paperback ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎧᎵᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ paperbacks) ᎣᏤᎵ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᏑᎳᎪᏨ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, ᎡᏆ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎵᏃᎮᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏚᏙᏪᎸᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎠᏯᏔᎾᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ. ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎯᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ". ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ libraries ᎪᎯ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏀᏭᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ institutional ᎠᎴ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ANSI/NISO Z39.41 - 1997. ᎪᎯ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ (7 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ) ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ establishes ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᎪᏪᎵ ᎪwᎵᏍᎩ) ᎾᎿ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ "shelvable" ᎪᏪᎵ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ DVD, video ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎴ software.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎵ' ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ 8vo" ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ.

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏚᏓᏅ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎦᎶᏛ ᎾᎿ bookshelf, bookend ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎫᎳᎦᎷ.

ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎦᏅᏅᎢ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ cataloguing ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Dewey ᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎶᏒᎢ ᎠᏥᏄqᎣᏫᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Eurocentric ᎤᏞᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎾᏅᎾᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ libraries. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ libraries ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᏄᏓᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ libraries.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᎪᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ (ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏙᎾᏕ ᎶᏆᏍᎩ) ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏔᏅ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎦᏅᏅᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ Gutenberg ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ. ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ global ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᏕᎨᏌᏗᏒ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ (IFLA) ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᎵᎶᎲᏍᎬᎾ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ISBD.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ, ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏎᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ISBN, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ participating ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ, ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ISBN ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏅᎩ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ checksum ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 0–9 ᎠᎴ X (10). ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ Barcode ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ISBN ᎾᎥᎢ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ 978, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Bookland ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎨᎳᏗᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ISBN ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ISBNs. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ industrialized ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎡᏆ ᏚᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᏓᏓᎶᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎸᏅ ᎬᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ISBNs ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᏩᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ISBN ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮭ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏓ.

ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ digital format[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ e-ᎪᏪᎵ (electronic ᎪᏪᎵ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ digital ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ, CD-ROM, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Sony Librie EBR-1000EP, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᎥᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ digital ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ.

ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, libraries ᎤᎭ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎢᏳᏊ-ᎧnᏉᏤᎩ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ electronic ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꭺ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ online ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ digital ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ, ᎾᎿ CD-ROM, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ e-ᏗᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ digital ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ (ᎠᏯ.e. ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ), ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ Ꭺ ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎧᏛ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ digital ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ redistribution ᎠᎴ ᎢᎪᎯᏓ ᎨᏒ availability. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ spearheaded ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ Gutenberg ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏴ Proofreaders.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎢᏤ ᏚᎾᏙᎷᏩᏛᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ. Technologies ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎴᏯᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᏓᏍᏗ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏂᎦᎥ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. Paul Saenger. ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ: ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏙᏄᏛᎿ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ. Stanford ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ 1997.

Online ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏠᎨᏏ[edit]

ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]