ᏩᎶᏏ

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?ᏩᎶᏏ
Fossil range: Triassic - Recent
ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏡᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ (Litoria caerulea)
Scientific classification
ᎴᎬᎾᎻ: Animalia
ᏆᎢᎳᎻ: Chordata
ᏗᎦᎪᏗ: Amphibia
ᎣᎸᏙ: Anura
Merrem, 1820
ᏩᎶᏏ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ (ᎬᎿᎨ)
ᏩᎶᏏ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ (ᎬᎿᎨ)
Suborders

Archaeobatrachia
Mesobatrachia
Neobatrachia
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ᏙᎪᏩᎸ Anuran ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ

ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ amphibian ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Anura (ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᎦᏂᏓᏛ-ᎦᏲᎵᎨ" ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎪᎢ -, ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ + oura, ᎦᏂᏓᏛ). ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ characterized ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᏰᎸ, webbed ᏎᏍᏗ, protruding ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙᎲᏅ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏴᎩ-aquatic lifestyle, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏥᎵᎱ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ larvae, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏖᎦ, ᎤᎭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ. ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ arthropod, annelid ᎠᎴ gastropod. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ noticeable ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᎾᏛᎦᏅ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ tropic subarctic ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ rainforest. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 5,000 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ vertebrate. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ Decline in amphibian populations ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ.

ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ, prompted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ convergent adaptation ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ taxonomic ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏚᏙᎥ "ᏩᎶᏏ" ᎨᏒᎢ Bufonidae, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏩᎶᏏ," ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Atelopus ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᏩᎶᏏ."

ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Anura ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎢᎦᏛ 5,250 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 33 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ, whereof ᎯᎠ Leptodactylidae (1100 spp.), Hylidae (800 spp.) ᎠᎴ Ranidae (750 spp.) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ speciose. ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 88% amphibian ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎶᏏ.

ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ "ᏩᎶᏏ" ᎠᎴ "ᏩᎶᏏ" ᎤᎭ Ꮭ taxonomic ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ taxonomic ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Anura ᎠᎴ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Bufonidae ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ "ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏩᎶᏏ". ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᏩᎶᏏ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ aquatic ᎠᎴ ᏴᎩ-aquatic ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ ᎦᏁᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᏩᎶᏏ" ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Ꮎ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ, warty ᎦᏁᎦ. ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ-ᏂᎯ ᏩᎶᏏ (Bombina bombina): ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Ꮝ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ warty, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ.

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ classified ᎾᎾᎯ ᏦᎢ suborders: Archaeobatrachia, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏅᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ; Mesobatrachia, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ evolutionary ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ; ᎠᎴ Neobatrachia, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ 24 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ "ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ" ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎯᎠ Neobatrachia ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᏯᏙᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ Hyloidea ᎠᎴ Ranoidea.[1] ᎪᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏯᏛᎿ morphological ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ vertebrae, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ pectoral ᏕᎬᏔᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏖᎦ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆᏯ accepted, ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ debated. ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ evolutionary ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ.[2]

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ anurans ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗise ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ (Rana esculenta) ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎲ ᏩᎶᏏ (R. lessonae) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ (R. ridibunda). Bombina bombina ᎠᎴ Bombina variegata ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ.

ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ[edit]

ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ Rana

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ amphibians. ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᏔᎵ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ amphibians, (ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎴ caecilian), ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᎾᏙᎳᏨ ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎢᏒᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Ꮎ ᏐᎢ amphibians (ᎠᎴ ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ vertebrate) ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎦᏛᎴᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᎦ. ᎪᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ "ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏛ" ᎡᏆᏯ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎦ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ dissolved ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᎶᏍᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎠᏎ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ; ᎪᎯ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ toxins ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ bloodstream. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ shared ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 5,250 ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ amphibians. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏧᎾᏙᎳᏨ ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎬᏙᏗ elongated ᎤᏣᏍᏆᎳᏛ ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏓᏅᏅ, ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ vertebrae, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ fused tailbone (urostyle ᎠᎴ coccyx), ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ tailless phenotype.

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 10 mm (Psyllophryne didactyla Brazil ᎠᎴ Eleutherodactylus iberia Cuba) 300 mm (ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ, Conraua ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, Cameroon). ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎦᏛᏗ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ. ᎦᏁᎦ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ varies: ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, warty ᎠᎴ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏦᎢ eyelid ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ: ᏌᏊ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎸᏑᏘ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ underwater, ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏓᎨᏗ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏁᎦ.

ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ[edit]

Tyler ᎤᏤᎵ ᏡᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ (Litoria tyleri) ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ webbed ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ varies ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᏡᎬ. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ predators, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ adaptations ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ, ᎤᎭ webbed ᎧᎾᏌᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᎠᎴ webbed ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ aquatic African ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ (Hymenochirus sp.) ᎤᎭ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ webbed ᎧᎾᏌᏛ, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏡᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ, arboreal ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ webbed.

Arboreal ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ "ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ" ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎦᏚᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ, ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ, ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏛᏓᏓᏂᎸᎬ. ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ interlocking ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏓᏃᏢᎢ ᎦᏁᎸ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏂᎬᎾᏗᏍᎪ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ, ᎯᎠ interlocking ᎦᏁᎸ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ irregularities ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ substrate. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏌᎨᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ capillarity. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ.[3]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ arboreal ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎤᏍᏗ "ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᎧᏁᏉᎠ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏒᏂᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ substrate. ᎤᏗᏗᏢᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ hopping ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏕᏡᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ arboreal ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎧᏍᎨᏂ ᎤᏫᏢ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ hopping ᎠᎴ ᎠᎢᏒᎢ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ Ꮎ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ ᎠᎲᏲᎵᏓ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ webbing ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ aquatic ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ arboreal ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ "ᏥᏳ" ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏌᏊ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏄᏓᎴ.[4]

ᎦᏙᎯ-ᎦᏁᎸ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎯᎠ adaptations aquatic ᎠᎴ arboreal ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ webbing. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ extension—a metatarsal tubercle—that ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏡᎬ-ᎦᏁᎸ ᏩᎶᏏ.

ᎦᏁᎦ[edit]

ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ Froglet (Crinia signifera) camouflaged ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎧᏲᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ pelvic ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ permeability ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏡᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏁᎦ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ behaviors Ꮎ ᏰᎵ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ-conserving ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ. ᎪᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏝᎥ ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮝ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏰᏌᏛ tucked ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎭᏳᎨᏂ, ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗᏳ, ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮭ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ substrate. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎠᏒᏂᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎯᎠ neighboring ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏗᏄᏪᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ adaptations ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ arboreal ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ.

Camouflage ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ camouflaged ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎠᏗᏍᎦᎶᏗ. ᏒᎯᏰᏱ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ camouflaged ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎦᎸᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ restricted ᏚᏓᏩᏗᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏡᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ (Litoria caerulea) varies ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏓᏩᏗᏍᎬ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏬᏗᎨ. ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ-ᎦᏁᎸ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ. Arboreal ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎦᏁᎦ, enabling ᎠᏂ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ.

ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ.

ᎠᏓᎯᎯ[edit]

Dendrobates pumilio, ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ alkaloids ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ predators.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏂᎦᎳ toxin Ꮎ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ predators. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ glands—the parotid glands—located ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ. ᎯᎠ chemical ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ toxins ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎶᏏ varies ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ irritants hallucinogen, convulsant, ᎣᏓᎾᏛ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ, ᎠᎴ vasoconstrictor (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏯᏙᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ). ᎤᎪᏗᏗ predators ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏒᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ arthropods ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ;[5]ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Australian Corroboree ᏩᎶᏏ (Pseudophryne corroboree ᎠᎴ Pseudophryne pengilleyi), ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏃᏢᏂᎥᎥᏍᎬ alkaloid ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.[6] ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᎾᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ,[7] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏟᏓ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ "ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎦᏟᏓ ᏩᎶᏏ" "ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏩᎶᏏ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1980s. ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎸᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, adaptive ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ aposematism. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏔᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ (Eleutherodactylus gaigei ᎠᎴ Lithodytes lineatus) Ꮎ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ coloration ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏩᎶᏏ' ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ (Batesian mimicry).[8][9]

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ toxins ᎠᎴ extraordinarily ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ biochemists ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ". ᎯᎠ alkaloid epibatidine, painkiller 200 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ morphine, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᏐᎢ chemicals ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ HIV ᎥᏳᎩ.[10] ᎦᏟᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᏄᏬᏗ.[11]

ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Colorado ᎤᏪᏴ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ bufotoxin, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ bufotenin, ᎠᎴ psychoactive, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ recreational ᏄᏬᏗ. ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᏲᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ smoked. ᎦᏁᎦ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ psychoactive ᏩᎶᏏ.

ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏗᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ dioxide, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎩᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ underwater, ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ transmitted ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ bloodstream. ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏛ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᏥ ᎤᏇᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎦᏄᎳᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ (causing ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏤᏂ ᎠᏦᏔᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎰᎵ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ.

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏦᎢ-chambered ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ tetrapod ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ mammal. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ-chambered ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, oxygenated ᎩᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ-oxygenated ᎩᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ respiring ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ atria, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎠᏍᏚᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ vessel—ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ oxygenated ᎩᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ deoxygenated ᎩᎬ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎩᎬ ᏭᏍᏗᎬᎢ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ metabolic ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ.

ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Ꮎ ᏐᎢ amphibians, ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏅᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ: ᎤᏪᏥ, ᏖᎦ, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᎾ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᎿ aquatic ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏖᎦ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ behaviors Ꮎ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᏓᏯᏂ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᏪᏥ—ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ tadpoles—for ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏂᏝᎲᏍᎬ.

ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎤᏔᎾ[edit]

Frogspawn
ᏖᎦ
Froglet

ᎯᎠ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏪᏥ. ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏠᏗ ᎤᏪᏥ masses ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ frogspawn. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ predation, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ techniques ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ predators; ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏫᎵ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ predation, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏫᎵ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ. ᏄᏓᎴ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ predators ᎠᎴ pathogens ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏄᏪᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏠᏗ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎾᎿ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏖᎦ ᎪᎭᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏓᏂᏯᎢᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ nearby ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎧᎾᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎾᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᏓᏂᏯᎢᏍᎬ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ.[12] ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᏩᎶᏏ (Bufo marinus), ᎠᏠᏗ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏧᏪᏥ minimize predation. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ environmental ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, aquatic ᏧᏪᏥ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏓᏂᏯᎢᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᏑᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ.

ᏧᏪᏥ ᏓᏂᏯᎢᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏖᎦ (ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ polliwogs). ᏖᎦ ᎠᎴ aquatic, ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᎬ. ᏖᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎿ algae, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ diatom Ꮎ ᎠᎴ filtered ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏖᎦ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ, ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏖᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏣᏗ. ᏖᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ predation ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏣᏗ, newt, ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ diving ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᎷ. ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏓᎴᏁ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏖᎦ. ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏖᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎯᎠ ᏖᎦ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏑᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏖᎦ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ overwinter ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏗᏍᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ (Alytes obstetricans) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ Spadefoot (Pelobates fuscus).

ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏖᎦ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, ᏩᎶᏏ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎵᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏖᎦ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᎤᏓᏲᎱᏎᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗᏱ rostrally ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎪᎯ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ predator, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏖᎦ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ wider ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ apoptosis (programmed ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ) ᎠᎴ resorption ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ.

ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ aquatic ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᎾ. ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᎾ, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ invertebrates ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ arthropod, annelid ᎠᎴ gastropod. ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ mammal, ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏯᎸᎩ ᏗᎦᏅᎦ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ-ᎠᏓᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ Ꮎ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ.[13] ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ preyed ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᎡᏆ ᎠᏣᏗ, ᎢᎾᏛ, ᏥᏯ, ᏧᎳes, ᎤᎫᎾ, coati, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᏫ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎿ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎡᎳᏗᏢ).

ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ[edit]

ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏐᎲᎯ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏓᏟᏐᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏕᏅ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ involving ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ [[Europe|ᏳᎳᏛᎶᎶ, ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ migrating ᏩᎶᏏ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ, ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏐᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂ.

ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏩᎶᏏ (Bufo bufo) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ amplexus

ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ Ꮎ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎪ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎠᎨᏴ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ amplexus. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎴ gripping ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ. ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ: ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏗᎫᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎲᏲᎵᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ protective ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎿᎨ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ, ᏤᎵ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎤᎳᎪᎲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ frogspawn ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎦᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ timing. ᎠᎹ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ, ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ 10 ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘ Celsius. Reproducing ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᏖᎦ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ dissolved ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ. ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ, reproducing ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ.

ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᏗᎧᏃᏗ plate from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur, depicting frog species that include two examples of parental care.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 20% amphibian ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ behaviours.[14] ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏠᏗ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂ, ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ predation ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎠᏂ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏫᎵ urinate ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏓᏂᏯᎢᏍᎬ, ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ (ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ) ᏫᎵ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ, ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎦᏐᎯ, ᎠᎹ-ᏚᏂᏴᏒ bromeliad. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏝᎲᏍᎬ unfertilized ᏧᏪᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ bromeliad ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᎭ metamorphosed. ᏐᎢ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏖᎦ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏐᎯ (e.g. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏗᏍᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ, Alytes spp.). ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Australian Pouched ᏩᎶᏏ (Assa darlingtoni) ᎤᎭ pouches ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏖᎦ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ-ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᎶᏏ (ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Rheobatrachus) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ ᏦᏕ Ꮝ ᏖᎦ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ. ᎿᏛᎦ ᎪᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ-ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᏎ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏕᎵᏓ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ peristalsis (ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ). Darwin ᎤᏤᎵ ᏩᎶᏏ (Rhinoderma darwinii) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Chile ᏩᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏖᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ.

ᎤᏯᏅᏛ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ Ꮝ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎶᏍᎬ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏤᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ amplified ᎾᎥᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏤᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᏏᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎰᎵ Ꮎ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ genera Heleioporus ᎠᎴ Neobatrachus, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ buccal ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ, ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏗᏅᏓ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ Ꮎ amplifies ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᎹ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏎ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ Polypedates leucomystax, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏯᏂ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ', ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ catalyst ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ enhancement ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ.[15] ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ mounted ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏂᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏯᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ.

ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ, ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ, ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ-ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ. ᎯᎠ effectiveness ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏥᎳᏫᏎᎸ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ predator ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ attracted, distracting ᎠᏂ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᏓᏯᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ onomatopoeic ᏓᏂᏍᏇᎵᏲᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ "crrrrk" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Britain ᎠᎴ "ribbit" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ. ᎪᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ (e.g., ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏩᎶᏏ (Rana temporaria) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Britain ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ (Rana pipiens) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ). ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᏄᏄ (Rana catesbiana) ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ spelt "ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ o' ᎠᏓᏴᏍᏕᏍᎩ".

ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ[edit]

ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ (Bufo periglenes) - ᎣᏂ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1989

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏁᏍᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᏧᎾᏄᏬ ᏩᎶᏏ' ᏚᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎦ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎾᎨ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ, ᎠᎴ rely ᎾᎿ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ adaptations ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ Australian ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Cyclorana ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Pternohyla ᏫᎵ ᎦᏂᏐᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᎹ-ᎧᏁᏍᎦ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ. ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏍᎩ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎨᏰᎯ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ. ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏖᎦ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᎵ dries ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᏴᏢ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ buries ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎪᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳᏛᎯ.

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᏱᎸ dramatically ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1950s, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ threatened ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 120 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏥᎳᏫᏎᎸ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1980s.[16] ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ Costa Rica, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ-ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ. ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ pollutants, ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎢᎦᏛ predators/ᏗᏓᎦᏘᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ emerging ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ chytridiomycosis. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ environmental ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ Ꮎ amphibians, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᎶᎲᏍᎩ biological ᎪᎯᏳᏙ broader ecosystem ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ, ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ biphasic ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ (aquatic larvae ᎠᎴ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏔᎾ).[17]

ᎦᏁᎳ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2006 ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎦᎨᏛ ᏓᏓᏅᏓᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ.[18]

ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ[edit]

fossilized ᏩᎶᏏ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Czech ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ Palaeobatrachus gigas.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ proto-ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ Triadobatrachus massinoti, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ Triassic Madagascar. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 250 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎩᎳ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᎶᏏ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᎭ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ amphibia. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ilium, ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ vertebrae, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ vertebrae ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ (ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ vertebrae ᎠᎴ fused, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ urostyle ᎠᎴ coccyx). ᎯᎠ tibia ᎠᎴ fibula ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ unfused ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ Ꮎ Triadobatrachus ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ leaper.

ᏄᏓᎴ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Prosalirus bitis, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ uncovered ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1985, ᎠᎴ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Triadobatrachus. ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Triadobatrachus, Prosalirus ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏦᎢ-pronged pelvic ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ Triadobatrachus, Prosalirus ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏳᎳ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ Ꮝ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ Vieraella herbsti, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ Jurassic (188–213 Mya). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ventral ᏗᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ 33 mm ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎯ-ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ. Notobatrachus degiustoi ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ Jurassic ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᎵᎨ, ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 155–170 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ Anura ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Jurassic ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ evolutionary ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎧᎵ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ sanyanlichan, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ 125 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ 9 presacral vertebrae ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ 8 ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏘᏉ ᏙᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ.

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏧᏁᏍᏓᎸ.

ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ. ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ; ᏩᎶᏏ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ, ᎦᎸᏥᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ. ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏚᎾᎵᎪᏒ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ injected ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏑᏫᏒ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᏱᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎤᏂᏃᏝᎩ ᎨᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏅᏁᎯ.

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ. ᏁᎳᏚᏏᏁ-ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ biologist Luigi Galvani ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏚᎾᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᏩᎶᏏ. ᎯᎠ African clawed ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ platanna, Xenopus laevis, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ laboratories ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏍᏚ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏴᏫ chorionic gonadotropin, hormone ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏗᎧᏓ ᏔᎷᎵ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ, ᎨᏒᎢ injected ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᎨᏴ X. laevis, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏩᏂᏐᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏠᏗ ᎤᏪᏥ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1952 Robert Briggs ᎠᎴ Thomas J. ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ cloned ᏩᎶᏏ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎦᏁᎸ nuclear ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ technique Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ Dolly ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫ ᎤᏃᏕᎾ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ nuclear ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ metazoans.[19]

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ cloning ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ embryology ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ closest ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ vertebrates, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᏥᏍᏚ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ, biologists ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ Xenopus ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ developmental ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ manipulatable ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ. ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, X. laevis ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ X. tropicalis, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᎠ Ꮝ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ X. laevis),[20] facilitating ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᎨ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ genome ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ X. tropicalis ᏫᎵ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ 2015 ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏴᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ.[21]

ᏩᎶᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ[edit]

ᏩᎶᏏ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏱᏁᎯ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ portrayed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ, ᎤᏁᎩᎸᏗ, ᎠᏓᏲᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᏍᎦᎸ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎻᏏᎦᏂ Ꮴ. ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ, ᎠᎴ Kermit Ꮎ ᏩᎶᏏ. Michigan J. ᏩᎶᏏ, featured ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Warner ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏟ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎳᏍᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏩᎪᏘᎶᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ. ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎦᏘᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏫᎵ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᏩᎶᏏ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏓᎳᏍᏛᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ. "ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏁᎯ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᎠ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎠᏓᏔᏪᏙᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. Kermit ᎯᎠ ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᎶᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ disciplined ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ Sesame ᎦᎳᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Muppet ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ; ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎬᏩᎵᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎤᎾᎵᎢᏴ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ portrayed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᏅᎡᏁᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ behavior ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ flamboyant ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ.

Cited ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

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ᏂᎦᎥ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

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  • Gissi, Carmela, Diego San Mauro, Graziano Pesole, ᎠᎴ Rafael Zardoya. "Mitochondrial phylogeny of Anura (Amphibia): A case study of congruent phylogenetic reconstruction using amino acid ᎠᎴ nucleotide characters." Gene. Volume 366, ᎧᎦᎵ 2006: 228–237.
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  • San Mauro, Diego, Miguel Vences, Marina Alcobendas, Rafael Zardoya, ᎠᎴ Axel Meyer. "Initial diversification of living amphibians predated the breakup of Pangaea." American Naturalist. Volume 165, ᎠᏂᏍᎬᏘ 2005: 590-599.
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ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]