ᎠᎹ

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ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᎭᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ
ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᏓᎵ Huron, ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ.

ᎠᎹ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ, ᎦᏩᏒᎩ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ[1]. ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᎹ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ, ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ, ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ aquifer, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ. ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏙᎢ, ᏑᎾᎴᎢ, ᎠᎴ runoff ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ. ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ.

Chemical ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ properties[edit]

ᎠᎹ
ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ geometric ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ.Hydrogen monoxide, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ, ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ.
Template:Chembox header | General
ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎠᎹ
ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᏆ
ᏗᎯᏠᎨᏃ ᎼᏃᏏᏙ
ᎯᏠᎨᏃ ᎣᏏᏙ
ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ H2O
ᏂᎯ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ 18.02 g/mol
ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᏴᏎᎬ 1000 kg/m3, liquid
917 kg/m3, ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ
ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ 0°C (273.15°K) (32 °F)
ᎠᎵᏢᏍᎩ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ 100 °C (373.15 K) (212 °F)
ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ (liquid) 4186 J/(kg·K)
Disclaimer and references
Main article: Water (molecule)

ᎠᎹ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ chemical ᏎᏍᏗ H2O ᎦᏛᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᏔᎵ ᎯᏠᎨᏃ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎣᏏᎨᏃ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ionically ᏥᏄᏍᏗ HOH, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᏠᎨᏃ ᎢᏲᏁ (H+) Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎫᏓᎸᏅᎯ ᎯᏠᏏᏙ ᎢᏲᏁ (OH-). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᏩᏒᎩ ᎦᎾ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏦᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ. ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ (aq) ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᎯ eg: CO2(aq),

ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎹ[edit]

ᎤᏴᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ Wilson Bentley, 1902

ᎠᎹ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ: ᎠᎹ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎾᏗ, ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᎸ, aquifers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᏚᏙᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ. ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏙᎢ, ᏑᎾᎴᎢ, ᎠᎴ runoff, ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎦᏛᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏄᏓᎴ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎦᏯᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ, ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ Ꮝ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ: ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᏐᎢ phenomena ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᎦᏁᏐᏍᎬ, ᎤᎾᏥ, ᎤᎬᎭᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ, ᎠᎹ ᎪᎭᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ refract ᎠᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᎪᎳᏛ.

ᎤᏠᏱ, ᎠᎹ runoffs ᎤᎭ ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ irrigation ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏜᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ. ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ, runoffs ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ shaping ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎵ.

ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎪᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ aquifer. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎬ. ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ.

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢᎭ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎯᎠ drinkability ᎠᎹ: ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎢ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ ᏌᎷᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏓᎾᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎣᏓᎸ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎠᎴ aquifer.

ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏙᎢ[edit]

ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ chemical ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏙᎢ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎯᏠᎨᏃ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏙ ᎠᏰᎵ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ properties ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏓᏁᏐᎳᏕᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ.

ᏗᎧᏃᏗ[edit]

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎧᏲᏙᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏗᏳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ infrared ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ.

Solvation[edit]

ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, dissolving ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ chemical ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ lipid, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ hydrophobic ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎯᎠ chemical ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ (ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏐᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ) ᎦᏙᏃ ᎪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ, ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ der Waals ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ. ᎦᏁᎸ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ chemicals, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ facilitated ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎹ.

ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ[edit]

ᎠᎹ ᎦᎾᏍᏓ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ (ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ) ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏄᏓᎴ (ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏓᎴᏁ-versa). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ, ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ electronegative - Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ "ᎦᎾᏌᏁᏍᎬ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ" ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ electron, ᏓᎾᏎᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ (ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏓ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏠᎨᏃ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ.

ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎠᎹ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ (ᎠᏫᏒᏗ).

ᎦᏚᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ[edit]

ᎪᎯ ᎤᏩᏚᎦᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ risen ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎾᎢ. ᎦᏚᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ submerging ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ.

ᎠᎹ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏗᏱ onto nonsoluble ᎦᏚᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ polythene: ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎭᏍᎬ. ᎾᎿ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᏓᎨᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏌᎨᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏓᎨᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ (ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ) ᎠᎴ ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏓ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ organelle, ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ hydrophilic, Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎦᏚᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ. Irving Langmuir ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ hydrophilic ᎦᏚᎢ. dehydrate hydrophilic surfaces—to ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏗᏳ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎹ hydration—requires ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ hydration ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ nanometer (ᎾᏃᎻᏓ) ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ V. Adrian Parsegian ᎯᎠ NIH [2]. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ dehydrated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ extracellular ᎤᏴᏢ.

ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏯᏙᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏌᏁᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏚᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏍᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎹ Ꮎ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎠᎹ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ[edit]

ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᎴ environmentally ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ Ꮝ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ, ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎦᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᏴᏎᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎾ ᎠᎹ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎯᏠᎨᏃ ᏗᏚᎳᏙ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ 11 ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᏴᏎᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ-XI, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ denser ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ 4 °C, ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ Ꮎ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ. ᎪᎯ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏫᎵ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎹ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎤᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎹ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ ᏫᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᏫᎵ ᏚᏂᏴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ 4 °C. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎬᏂ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ chemicals ᎠᎴ denser ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳᏛᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ.

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ[edit]

ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎢᏳᏊ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ. ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ properties ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏲᏁᎪᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ (ᎧᏉᏂ ᏗᎣᏍᏏᏙ) dissolved ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᎠᎹ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎣᏩᏒ-ionize ᎭᏢᏃ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᏠᏍᏏᏙ ᎠᏂᏲᏁ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎯᏠᏂᏲ ᎧᏘᏲᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏍᎦ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ. ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ electrolyzed ᎾᎾᎯ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎯᏠᎨᏃ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ dissolved ᏓᎢᏲᏁ, ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏛᎾᏛᎩ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ advertised ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢ ᎡᏙᎠ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ H2O ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ toxin, pollutant, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ.

ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᎹ[edit]

ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏔᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ, 97.2% ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ 90% ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ. ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ, contributing ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ albedo.

ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ byproduct ᏃᏈᏏ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ. Gary Melnick, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Harvard-Smithsonian ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Astrophysics, ᏕᎪᏏᏏ: "ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ Ꮎ aren't ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏕᏅ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ accompanied ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎪᎯ outflowing ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏚᏫᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᎦᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ." [3]

ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ, ᎦᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᏴᏎᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ solar ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ (i.e., ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ), ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏅ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ.

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ. ᎠᎹ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ dioxide ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏂᎬᎢ, thinner ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ(ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ).

ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎾ ᎠᎹ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, Ꮝ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ Ꮝ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ geologic iyuwakodi ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ (ᎤᎦᎾᏭ), ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ gases ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᎴ albedo. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎢᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ.

ᎠᎹ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ[edit]

ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ biological ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎹ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ properties Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ proliferation ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ Ꮎ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏫᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎹ. ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ solutes ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ metabolic processes ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ (e.g. ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ).

ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎤᎭ Ꮝ ᏭᏔᏅ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ 4 °C, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳᏛᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᎯ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ - ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳᏛᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ). ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ, ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ infrared ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ -18 °C.

ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ Ꮎ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ[edit]

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᏜ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᏣᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ amphibians ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ. digakohidi ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ kelp ᎠᎴ algae ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ underwater ecosystems. Plankton, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎫᏍᏓᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏜ diatom - ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ phytoplankton ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ

ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᎹ ᏕᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ. ᎠᏣᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏣᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ lungfish ᎤᎭ ᎢᏧᎳ. Marine mammal, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᏣᏗ, ᏥᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᎯᏙᎯ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ.

ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ flourished ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ waterways; Mesopotamia, ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏪᏴ Tigris ᎠᎴ Euphrates. ᎡᏆ metropolises ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ London, Montreal, ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ, ᏄᏯᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏙᎩᏲ ᎠᏥᏚᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ accessibility ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᎠᎹ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Singapore ᎠᎴ Hong Kong, ᎤᎭ flourished ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ Africa ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ scarcer, ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ.

ᏴᏫ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ[edit]

ᎠᎹ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ sprinkler
ᏦᏬᏰᏂ ᎬᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ

ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 72% ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎹ. ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᏤᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ litre ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ dehydration, ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ, ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, ᎤᎯᏌᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ingested ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ straight ᎠᎹ (ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ dehydration, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.) ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᎹ intake ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ ᏴᏫ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏧᏓᎵ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ exercising) ᎦᏂᏰᎬ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ. ᏴᏫ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ exercising, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏓᏂᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎲᏲᎵᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ "ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ" Ꮎ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏧᏁᎳ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏓᏩᏛᏒ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ.[4] ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎿ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏨᏕᎨᏫ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ dispelled.[5]

ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏴᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ intake ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ 2.7 liters ᎠᎹ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ) ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎠᎴ 3.7 liters ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ [6]. ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏗᎧᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ, ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᎵᎠᎷᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ.

ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎹ Ꮎ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ impurities. ᏧᏣᏔᏊ impurities ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ chemicals ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Vibrio. ᎢᎦᏛ solutes ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏂᎸᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ perceived ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ enhancement ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ electrolytes.

ᎠᎦᏍᎩ, ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎬᏍᏉᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ, ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ Ꮝ properties ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎬᏍᏉᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏩᏕᎴᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ, ᏧᎾᏄᏬ, ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ, ᏗᏦᏙᏗ, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎤᏓᏅᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎢᎬᏩᏕᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ.

ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎬᏍᏉᎥ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏩᏄᏑᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ. ᎠᎵᏢᏍᎩ, ᎠᏥᎸ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᏓᏬᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᏥᎸ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ.

ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ.

Recreational ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ[edit]

ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ recreational ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏁᎸᏗᏱ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᎬ, waterskiing, ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏠᎳᏙᏗᏱ, ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ, ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ diving. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ ᏗᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎩ, ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ.

Lakesides ᎠᎴ beaches ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ recreation.

ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ[edit]

ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ "ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎹ". ᎠᎹ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᎠᎹ.

ᎪᎯ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ resource ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ scarcer ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ availability ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ.

ᎾᏊ, ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1 ᎯᏍᎩ ᏴᏫ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏩᎪᏘᎶᏛ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᎭ accepted ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᏴᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ 2015 ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᎪ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ sanitation ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 2003 G8 Evian ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ [7]. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎾᏠᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᏍᎩ ᏴᏫ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 1 ᎯᏍᎩ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᎵᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ sanitation ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎢ sanitation ᎠᎴ ᏗᎯ; ᎢᎦᏛ 5 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ polluted ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ.

Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᏝᎰᏩ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ, 90% ᏂᎦᏛ wastewater ᏙᎢ ᎡᎪᎢ untreated ᎾᎾᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ. ᎢᎦᏛ 50 ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎯᎠ world’s ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ 17 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ recharged ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ groundwater ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎠᎹ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ[edit]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ; ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ Category:Water and politics ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏚᏓᏡᎬ ᏓᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ
ᏴᏫ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ Sarajevo.

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ overpopulation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏳᎩ, ᎯᎠ availability ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ capita ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ 2006. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ resource ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏕᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ predicted Ꮎ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎹ ᏫᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ "ᏐᎢ ᎪᎢ", ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎨᎾᏓ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ resource ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ richest ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᎤᏁᏉᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏍᏆᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ [8]. UNESCO ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎹ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ (WWDR, 2003) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Ꮝ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ Ꮎ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ 20 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ predicted ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ 30%. 40% ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎳ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ minimal ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ. ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 2.2 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2000 ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎥᏳᎩᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏣᏁᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2004, ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ WaterAid ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ Ꮎ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ 15 ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ preventable ᎠᎹ-ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎥᏳᎩ. ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ, ᎾᏊ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-tech ᎠᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ resource ᎠᏂᏁᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ sustainable ᎬᏙᏗ.

ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ OECD ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ[edit]

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ 2,000 cubic metres ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ capita (ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎾᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏦᏙᏗ ᎥᎬᏍᏉᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏓᏊ ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ-ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ (OECD) ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎦᎷᎦ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎨᎾᏓ ᎬᏙᏗ 1,600 cubic metres ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎹ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ, ᏦᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏓᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ Dane. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 1980, overall ᎠᎹ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᎾᏓ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ 25.7%. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ overall OECD ᎧᏁᏉᎩ 4.5%. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᏐᏁᎳ OECD ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ overall ᎠᎹ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 1980 (ᎠᏂᎤᎦᎾᏍᏙ, ᎯᎠ Netherlands, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᎯᎠ Czech ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢ, Luxembourg, Poland, Finland ᎠᎴ Denmark)[9] [10].

ᏐᏁᎳᏍᎪᎯ-ᎯᏍᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ' ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᏌᏊ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎯᎠ 800-ᏑᏟᎶᏛ (1,300 km) Ogallala aquifer ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ stretches ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏅᏓᎩ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᏓᎧᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏌᏊ ᎯᏍᎩᏁ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ irrigated ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎪᏢᎯ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎯᎠ Ogallala aquifer ᎤᎭ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Ꮝ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ depleted ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ 12 ᎯᏍᎩ cubic metres ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎢᏗᎦᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ 18 ᎧᎶᏩᏓ ᎤᏪᏴ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᏁᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 25 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏓᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏂᎬᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ rely ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ irrigated ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏯᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏗᏍᎩ overpumping [11].

ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ 40% ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎢᏳᏩᏂᏌᏛ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ[12].

ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎸᎬ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 1% ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ shared ᎠᏰᎵ 5% ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ resource. ᎾᎥᎢ 2025, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ predicted Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ Arabian ᎦᏙᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎹ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏂ.[13] ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᏔᎵ-ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1,000 cubic ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ.[14] ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ Chesnot ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ.[15] ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᏄᏚᏓᎸᎾ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ.[16]

Jordan, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ Ꮝ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎯᎠ 1994 Israel-Jordan ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ ᏅᎳᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ Israel ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ 50 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ cubic ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ Jordan, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏓᏱᎸ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1999 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ backtracking. ᎯᎠ 1994 ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎵᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ Jordan ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Yarmouk ᎤᏪᏴ [17]. Confronted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎠᎹ, Jordan ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏤ techniques ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏔᎵᏁ-ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ desalinization techniques, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎩᎳ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ. desalinization ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᏫᎵ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Hisban, ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Amman. ᎯᎠ Disi groundwater ᎠᏎᎸᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Jordan, ᏫᎵ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ $250 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ. ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Yarmouk ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ Jordan ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ. ᎤᏕᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1987, ᎯᎠ "ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ" ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ Jordan ᎠᎴ Syria. ᎪᎯ "ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ" ᏙᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ implemented ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, Jordan ᎠᎴ Syrian conflictual ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ investors. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, Jordan ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ Syria ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Hussein ᎾᏓᏛᏁ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏭᏔᏅ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏗᏍᎩ.[15] ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ Chesnot ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ.[15][18]

ᎢᏧᎳ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎠᎴ Jordan rely ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Jordan ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 9/10 ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ-Palestinian conflict - ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ, ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ Sharon ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Abel Darwish ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ BBC, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ 1967 ᏑᏓᎵ-ᎢᎦ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ practice ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ casus belli ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎦᏅᏍᏙᎯᏍᏗ Palestinians ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎦᏁᎳ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. Palestinians ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏃᏍᏗ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ [19]. Israelis ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏅᎩ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ Palestinian neighbors [20]. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ, 90% ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Israelis.[15] ᎤᏓᏡᎬ 40 ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ B ᎯᎠ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 28, 1995 Oslo ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸᎯ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ "ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ Palestinians' ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ".

ᎯᎠ Golan ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ 770 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ cubic ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏓᏛᏁ ᏦᎢᏁ Ꮝ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ Golan ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ ᎠᎹ ᎡᎪᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᎵ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ afterward redistributed ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ Golan, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ annexed, ᎾᏓᏛᏁ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ, ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ.[15] ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎦᎵᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏬᎭᏒᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ ᏧᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏓᎵ ᏫᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ salinated. ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ, ᎢᏍᏩᎵ threatened ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ[2002 ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Lebanon ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎢᏤ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Jordan. ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎢᏍᏩᎵ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎠᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ investigating ᎠᏓᏁᎸ desalination digakohidi.[20]

ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ, Iraq ᎠᎴ Syria ᎠᎦᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎯᎠ Atatürk ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ projected ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ 22 ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Tigris ᎠᎴ Euphrates ᎤᏪᏴ [21]. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ BBC, ᎯᎠ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ 'ᎠᎹ-ᎧᏂᎬᎩ' ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎢᎦᏘᎭᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏦᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1955 ᏧᏁᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1990 ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ utugi uwasv ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ 20 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏦᎢ Nile ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ (ᎯᎠ Nile ᎨᏒᎢ shared ᎾᎥᎢ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ).

ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ[edit]

ᏦᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ, ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ, upstream ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ, 26 ᎫᏰᏉᏂ, 2004

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ, Vietnam ᎠᎴ Cambodia ᎠᎴ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ Laos' ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏉᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ. ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Yangtze ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ, causing ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ environmental ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᏥᏍᏆᏙᏏᏰᏛ ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Yangtze ᎯᎠ dwindling ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ.

Ganges ᎤᏪᏴ ᎦᏙᎯ, Bangladesh ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ

ᎯᎠ Ganges ᎨᏒᎢ disputed ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ ᎠᎴ Bangladesh. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ depleted ᎠᎴ polluted, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ Hindu ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ global ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴ deforestation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Himalayas causing ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ Ganges ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ. ᎨᎢ, ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ Bangladesh ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Farakka Barrage, 10 km ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ. ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1990s, ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ barrage ᎤᏥᏍᏆᏙᏏᏰᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ. ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ Bangladeshi ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ Sundarban wetlands ᎠᎴ mangrove ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏔᏅᎯ threatened. ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏊ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎩ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ. ᎠᎹ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ untreated ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎹ [22].

ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ[edit]

ᎯᎠ Guaraní Aquifer, ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ Mercosur ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ Argentina, ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ, Bolivia ᎠᎴ Paraguay, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 40000 km³, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏤᎢ, drinkable ᎠᎹ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ.

Privatization ᎠᎹ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ[edit]

Privatization ᎠᎹ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ contested ᎾᎿ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᏲᎢ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ, ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Bolivia ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ privatization ᎠᎹ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ IMF ᎨᏒᎩ ᏚᎾᏠᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Cochabamba ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2000, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ousted Bechtel, ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ San Francisco. SUEZ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Buenos Aires ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Argentina, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Santa ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Córdoba, consumers ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎳᏅᏛ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 500 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ mandated ᎾᎥᎢ Suez). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, Suez ᎤᎭ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎡᎵᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ. "Bolivian ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏒᎧᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᏂᏌᏛ Suez ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏓᎾᎵᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᎿᎥ ᎠᎹ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ mandated ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏓᎫᏮᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ $455 ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏏᏅᏙ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏒ ᎠᏓᏠᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏕᎯ", ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᏗᏤᎢ [23]. ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ privatize ᎠᎹ, ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ 200.[24]

Regulating ᎠᎹ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ[edit]

ᏔᎵ ᏴᏫ reflected ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ

ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏓᏂᏢᏅ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎵᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ aquiferᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎡᎵᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ. ᏐᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ ᎠᎴ rainwater ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎹ. ᎪᎯ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᎹ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ purified ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, dissolved ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ. ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏳ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ chlorination ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏢᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ. ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏦᎢ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ. ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ techniques ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏙᏗ osmosis. Desalination ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎴ seawater ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎹ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ bottled ᎠᎹ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮭ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᏘᏲᎯᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏍᏓᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ resource, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎬᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ.

ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ, Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Hong Kong, ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ citywide ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ. Polluting ᎠᎹ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ; ᎯᎠ ᏫᎬᏍᏗ Ꮎ pollutant ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᏐᎢ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ resource, ᎾᎪᎲᎾ ᎤᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ polluter. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎥᏳᎩ, ᎪᎯ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᏒ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏛ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏁᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ externalities ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏐᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏳᎩ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᏚᎾᏓᎾᏅ' ᏗᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ redistributed ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎥᏳᎩ. ᎠᏅᏬᏗ consumed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ waterways ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ aquatic ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ bioaccumulate ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ biodegradable.

ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎿ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, Islam, ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ Shinto. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᏓᎪᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ Islam. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Islam, ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎥᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᎥᎬᏍᏉᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎹ (wudu). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Shinto, ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ 442 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ 363 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ James ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ: 2 Peter 3:5(b) ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, "ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎹ" (NIV).

ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Celtic ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, Sulis ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ Ganga ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ personified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᎨᏳᎢ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Saraswati ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Veda. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ "panch-tatva"(ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ 5 ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ, ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᎸ, ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎤᏜᏅᏛ, ᎤᏃᎴ). ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ, ᎦᏁᎸ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ: ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎶᎻ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, Peneus ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ Oceanids.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ Empedocles ᎠᏰᎲᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏑᏓᎴᎩᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ fᎠᏥᎸ, ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ylem, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎠᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᏬᏢᏗ, ᎠᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᎦᏎᏍᏛᎾ. ᎠᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ, fᎠᏥᎸ, ᎠᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ.

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  • OA Jones, JN Lester ᎠᎴ N Voulvoulis, ᎠᏅᏬᏗ: ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ? TRENDS ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Biotechnology 23(4): 163, 2005
  • ᏂᏚᏢᏫᏎᎲᎾ, F (ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ), ᎠᎹ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, ᎢᏤ York, 1972-1982
  • Property of Water and Water Steam w Thermodynamic Surface
  • PH Gleick ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎹ: ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ. ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, ᏩᏏᏓᏂ, DC. (ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1998.)

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. The Color of Water: Visibility Under Water
  2. [1] ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ Organizing Biomolecules (PDF)
  3. "Discover of Water Vapor Near Orion Nebula Suggests Possible Origin of H20 in Solar System." The Harvard University Gazette. (April 23, 1998)
  4. "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? ᎾᎥᎢ Heinz Valdin, ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, Dartmouth ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, Lebanon, ᎠᏤ ᎭᎻᏒ
  5. ᎠᎾᏗᏔᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ - ᎯᎳᎫ?, Factsmart.org ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ
  6. Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏒᏓᎷᎦ
  7. G8 "Action plan" decided upon at the 2003 Evian summit
  8. A Chronology of Water-Related Conflicts
  9. Water consumption indicator ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ OECD ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ
  10. "Golf 'is water hazard.'" BBC News. March 17, 2003)
  11. "Ogallala aquifer - Water hot spots." BBC News.
  12. "ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ: ᎠᎹ hot spots." BBC News.
  13. "Water shortages 'foster terrorism.'" BBC News. (March 18, 2003)
  14. "ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏂᎬᎩ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ", ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎹ gestion ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Amman, Jordan, ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 1-3, 1999.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 "Drought in the Middle East." Monde diplomatique. February 2000.
  16. [2]
  17. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ 1994 ᎢᏍᏩᎵ-Jordan ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ ᏅᏩᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ, ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ, ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᎦᏛ
  18. ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᏄᏚᏓᎸᎾ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ here.
  19. Darwish, Abel. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2949768.stm "Analysis: Middle East water wars." BBC News. May 30, 2003.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "ᎢᏍᏩᎵ - water hot spots." BBC News.
  21. "Turkey - water hot spots." BBC News.
  22. "Ganges river: Water Hot Spots." BBC News.
  23. "Bolivia's water wars coming to end under Morales." ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᏗᏤᎢ. February 26, 2006.
  24. "Water privatization: ask the experts." BBC News. December 10, 2004

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