ᏣᎳᎩ

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ᏣᎳᎩ

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ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏓᏘ

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ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏓᏘ

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ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏓᏘ

Total population 316,049+
(ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ: 13,000+, ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ: 288,749, ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ: 14,300)[1]
Regions with significant populations ᎠᎹᏰᏟ (ᎦᏯᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ)
Language {{{langs}}}
Religion ᏧᎾᏁᏄᏗ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, Four Mother's Society, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᏩ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ

ᏣᎳᎩ (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ, ᎦᎪ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᏆ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 16th ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ Southeastern ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ forcefully ᎤᏓᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ Ozark ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏘᏌᏅ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ.

ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎪᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏓᏛᏁᎲ 250,000 ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᏣᎳᎩ, ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎵᏆ, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ (ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎩᏚᏩ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ) ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏣᎳᎩ, ᎤᏴᏢ ᎧᎶᎵᎾ (ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ). ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ-ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᏥᏱ, ᏨᎫᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏆᎹ. ᏐᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ, ᎻᏑᎵ, ᏖᎾᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ.

1984 KJRH-TV ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ, "ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ" explored ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎩᏚᏩ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ceremonies ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ. Redbird ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ Nighthawk ᎨᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ revitalized ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏣᎳᎩ, ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎳᏍᎩᏓ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᏚᏩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏂᏥ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏇᎵᏲᎬ "ᏣᎳᎩ" ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏙᎥ, "ᏣᎳᎩ" (ᏣᎳᎩ) - ᎪᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏄᎾᏓᏛᏁᎸ phonetically ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Portuguese (ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ barranquenho ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Soto ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Extremaduran) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ chalaque, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ cheraqui, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ.

ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ "r" ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᏣᎳᎩ" ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏂᏪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮳ-ᏂᏚᏍᏛᎢ-Ꭹ (ᎢᎦᏪᏛ Jah-ᏂᏚᏍᏛᎢ-gee ᎠᎴ Cha-ᏂᏚᏍᏛᎢ-gee) ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ "ᏣᎳᎩ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ trilled "r" ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ Europeans ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏍᏆᏂ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᏥᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏆᎹ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1700s. ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏂᎫᏔᏂ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ 'r' ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᏣᎳᎩ" ᎨᏒᎢ derived ᎧᏁᏨ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏣᏓ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏣᏓ ᎧᏁᏨ "Cha-ᏂᏚᏍᏛᎢ-kee" ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏓᎸ" ᎠᎴ "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏔᎦᎳᏱ." ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ Ah-Ꮒ-yv-wi-Ꮿ (ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏁᏢᏔᏅᎯ "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᏴᏫ"). ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ ᎪᎯ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏣᎳᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏣᎳᎩ.

ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏍᏏᏆᏱ

ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎧᏁᎬ Iroquoian ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ polysynthetic ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ syllabary ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏍᏏᏆᏱ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Syllabary Ꮎ predated ᏍᏏᏆᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏆ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏭᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎫᏔᏂ, ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ transliterated ᏣᎳᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎥᏳᎩ intercompatible ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎠᏥᏄ ᎪᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ syllabary. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᎣᏏ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ Unicode, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ experiencing ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 2006 ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-unicode ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ online ᎪᏪᎵᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎯ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ online ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏧᎴᎯᏌᏅᎯ.

Cherokee syllabary (2).png

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

U.S. Population[2]
Year Population
1650 22,000
1808 13,000
1835 21,500
1850 16,000
1890 28,000
1910 31,500
1970 66,000*
1980 232,000*
1990 308,132*
2000 729,533*
*new counting methods used

ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ unified ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ interrelated ᎦᏚᎲᎢ-ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ "ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ" Moytoy, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ, ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Alexander Cumming. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1730, ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Moytoy ᏖᎵᎪ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ "ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ" ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏁᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. Moytoy ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ recognize ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, George ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ. ᎯᏍᎩ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎪᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎦᎴᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏙᎳ Ꮿ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ Moytoy ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ avuncular ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ. ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᏓᏄᏩ (ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1700s), ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᏗᎳᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᎴᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎦᏁᎳ, ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᏄᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᏓᏂᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ treaties, ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏨᎫᎵ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ. Francis ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎾᎥᎢ 1800. ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ, ᎬᏙᏗ boundaries ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏪᏴ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏥᎧᎹᎩ. ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Dragging ᏥᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏥᎧᎹᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Shawnee ᎠᎴ ᏚᎾᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏲᏎᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ. ᏐᎢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ, ᏍᏏᏆᏱ, ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᏩᎶᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Dutch.

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1820s, ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᏣᎳᎩ. ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ Washington, D.C., ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ. ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ: ᎠᎵᎪᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ (ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏁᎤᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1828, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᏗᏍᏡᏴ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏓᏰᏏ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ disobeyed ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ lobbied ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1900s ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎭ ignored ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏨᎫᎵ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᏗᎦᏌᏬᏍᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ. (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ "ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎩᎳ Conquered" ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Northrup, "ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ" ᎾᎥᎢ Thomas E. ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ, "ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ" ᎾᎥᎢ James Mooney)

ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Ross, ca. 1840

ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Ross ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ emigrated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Scotland ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᏥ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ-ᎩᎬ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Scotland. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏄᏛᏁᎵᏙᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1809. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1820, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎩᏴᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏒᎧᎵ. ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Ross ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1828 ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1866.

ᏣᎳᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏣᏥᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏯᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎦᎴᏂ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎬᏅᎢᏍᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏓᎶᏂᎦ, ᏣᏥᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1830. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ: ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ, ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ v. ᏣᏥᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᏗᎦᏌᏬᏍᏗ.

Samuel ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ, ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ, ᎪᏪᎵᎠ, "ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ... ᎾᎿᎢ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ-walled ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ fanned ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, invading ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ, ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎥᏝᎰᏩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏕᎳᎰᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ prodded ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏫ ᎤᏃᏕᎾ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, threatened ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎦᎶᏇ, ᎠᏥᏠᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ resisted."[3] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏓᏂᏐᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎢᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏰᎵᏊ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ, ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎢᎤᏪᏥ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᎩᏍᏗ.

File:CNCourthouse1800.jpg
ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ 1800'.

ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏭᎷᏨᎩ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ (ᎾᏊ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ), ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏚᏍᏆᎸᏔᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎩᎬ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ignored. ᎾᎿ ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 22, 1839, ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᎪᏂᏲᎢᏍᏗ tribal ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗᏱ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ signers ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ ᎠᏤ ᎡᏦᏔ ᎨᏒᎩ assassinated, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ drafter ᎯᎠ ᎩᎬ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏣᎴᎩ, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᏣᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ Elias Boudinot. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ 15 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ. ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ survivors ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎤᏪᏘ, ᎦᎪ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ "ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏘᏌᏅ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ" Ꮎ ᎠᏍᏆᏛ treaties ᎬᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎾᎥᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1848 ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏤ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᏪᏴ upstream Rocky ᏙᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏙᎠ-ᎢᎦ [[Colorado]|ᎧᎶᏩᏓ], ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏙᏓᎸ northward ᎾᎾᎯ ᎡᏙᎠ-ᎢᎦ ᏩᏲᎻ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏒ westward. ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ undertook ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎦᎬᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ, ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, noticing placer ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ tributaries ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Platte. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎬᎨᏫᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎶᏩᏓ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎬᏅᎢᏍᏗ 1859.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎲᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᏗᎦᏌᏬᏍᏗ. William Holland Thomas, ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᎮᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Jackson ᏍᎦᏚᎩ, ᎦᏯᎴᏂ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 600 ᏣᎳᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏆᎳ ᎦᏚᎲ (ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ-ᎢᎦ ᏣᎳᎩ, ᎦᏯᎴᏂ) ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎦᏯᎴᏂ citizenship. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 400 ᏐᎢ ᏣᎳᎩ hid ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏩᏓᎴ Snowbird ᏙᏓᎸ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ Graham ᏍᎦᏚᎩ, ᎦᏯᎴᏂ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ leadership Tsali[4] (ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ Unto ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏚᏏ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᎳᎩ, NC). ᎢᏧᎳ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ. ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᎮᎵᏣᏘ Thomas, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎦᏯᎴᏂ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ Thomas' ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ. Thomas' ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ mustered ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 2,000 ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᏓᎾᎵᎲ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Virginia, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏓᏚᏓᎸ[3]. Thomas' ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ capturing Waynesville, ᎦᏯᎴᏂ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 9, 1865. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎠᏑᎳᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ. ᎪᎯ, ᏔᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎤᏪᏘ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 23, 1865, ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᏂ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ.

ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ-ᎢᎦ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ Tribal ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ, ᎯᎠ Dawes ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ 1887 ᏧᎵᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ tribal ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Curtis ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ 1898, ᏣᎳᎩ ᏗᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ governmental ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ abolished ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ tribal ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ Statehood ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1907. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ leadership ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ convened ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1938 ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ J. B. Milam ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᎵᏯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Franklin Delano Roosevelt ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1941.

W. W. Keeler ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1949 ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ W. W. Keeler ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᏓᎩᏴᎲ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ, ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Nixon. Keeler, ᎦᎪ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Phillips ᎪᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ succeeded ᎾᎥᎢ Ross Swimmer, Wilma Mankiller, Joe Byrd, ᎠᎴ Chad ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎩᏚᏩ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎦᏅᏅᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ 1934. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ descended ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎦᏁᎳ, ᎠᎴ ᏣᎳᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏓᏅᏒ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎩᎬ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ.

ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ[edit]

ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎴᏆ, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ.

ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ (ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ[4]) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎭ excelled ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ugatohvsvi uprecedented ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ, ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ leadership ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Chad ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᏧᏁᏉᏨ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏢᏍᎩ casino ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ contractor Ꮎ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ clinics ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ, contributed ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ, ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ universities ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ, instilled ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ Gadugi ᎠᎴ ᎣᏩᏒ-utugi gvsv ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ, revitalized ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎧᏅᏍᎬ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ.

ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ 80,000 90,000 ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ Tahlequah, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ festivities. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸᏍᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏧᎴᎯᏌᏅᎯ, tribal newspapers ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 1828, ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸᏍᎦ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏏᏆᏱ Syllabary. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ Sundance ᎠᎴ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tahlequah, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, Utah, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ participate ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᏎᏚᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ[edit]

ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ environmental ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 1992 ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎧᏅᏍᎬ-Tribal Environmental ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ (ITEC).ᎯᎠ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ITEC ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ. ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ITEC ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ, ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ environmental ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ environmental ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ. ᎾᏊ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏦᏍᎪᎯ-ᏐᏁᎳ (39) ITEC ᎨᎳ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ, ᏍᏆᏂᏤᏍᏛᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏅᏓᎩ.

ᏣᎳᎩ Freedmen ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ Controversies[edit]

ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 7, 2006, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏚᏃᏣᎳᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ Freedmen, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ African ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ classified ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏴᎸᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Dawes ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᏗᏲᏛᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1900s [5]. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ viewed ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ racially ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ Freedmen, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎩᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᎤᏩᏒᎯ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ Freedmen ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᎪ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ Freedmen ᎠᎩᎵᏲᏨ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏣᎳᎩ Citizenship ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ viewed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ freedmen ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Dawes ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᏗᏲᏛᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1900'.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ traditionalists ᎤᎭ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎳᏗᏍᎩ tribal ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ ᎯᎠ Freedmen; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ Delaware ᎩᎬ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ treaties ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎯᎠ Freedmen ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏔᎵ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ Statehood ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ upheld ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏗ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ.

ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᏚᏃᏣᎳᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ ᎯᎠ Freedmen ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏊ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏑᏰᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ amendments ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏪᎵᏒ ᎠᏓᏍᏚᏁᏗ tribal ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎩᎬ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᎯᎠ Freedman ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Tribal ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ.[5] ᎾᏊ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏚᏁᏗ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎩᏴᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎩᎬ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏣᎳᎩ traditionalists ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ Freedman ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ contributed ᏣᎳᎩ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Freedmen ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᏐᎢ traditionalists ᎤᎭ asserted Ꮎ Freedmen ᎤᎭ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ CN.

ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏓᏓᎳᏑᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ, ᎤᎭ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ sued ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ceding tribal ᎦᏙᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᏓᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎳᏑᎸ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ dismissed. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ sued ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ HR ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ 3534, ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ Ꮎ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏲᏩᏁᎬ Riverbed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ hydroelectric ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎳᏑᎸ ᎤᏝᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏂᏙᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ HR ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ 3534 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ruled ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᏓᏓᎳᏑᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᏜᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ casino ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ casinos), ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏏᏇ sued ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ tribal ᎦᏙᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ casinos. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎳᏑᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ dismissed, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ruled ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ.

ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᎵᏒ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Chad ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᎪ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏎᎸ ᎢᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᎵᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᏎᎸ ᎢᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ, ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ perceived ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ garnered ᏄᎦᏎᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎪᎯᏳᎲᏍᎬᎾ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏤᎢ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏛᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Chad ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ casino ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ.

ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ reacted unfavorably ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ Chad ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ viewed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎾᏛᏍᎬᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ ᎯᎠ UKB ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ "ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ" ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏤᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎳᏅ. Chad ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ criticized ᎯᎠ UKB ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ disgracing ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ behaving ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ "ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ Societies, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎯᎠ UKB, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ democratic societies ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ tribal ᎠᏁᎳ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ UKB ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ criticized ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ UKB ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏅᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ revered ᏣᎳᎩ traditionalists ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ UKB ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ.

ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ[edit]

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ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎠᎴ participated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏫᏢ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎨᎳᏗᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ cultural ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏫᏢ Tribal ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᏓᎾᏠᏍᎦ involving councilors ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏂᏴᏗ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ. ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎩᏚᏩ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ adversarial ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ unified ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎦᏚᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏔᎵ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗᎯᏳᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎠᏂᏔᎵ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎠᏂᏔᎵ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ. ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗᎯᏳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ.

ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Joe Byrd ᎤᏤᎵ 1997 ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ Controversies[edit]

ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Joe Byrd, ᏧᏓᎩᏴᎲ 1995 ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ Ꮝ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᏗᏗᏲᎯᎯ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ, ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ wiretapping, ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ.

Joe Byrd ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1995 1999 ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Chad ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1999 ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒᎢ nationwide ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᏐᏅ ᎠᏓᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏓᎩᎡᏗ, ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏕᎠᎲ, ᎤᏲᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ. Joe Byrd ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᎤᏒᏕᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏓᏥᏂᏴᎡᎸᎩ ᎠᎴ orchestrated ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ. Byrd ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ boarded ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏕᎠᎲ. Byrd ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ re-ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2003 ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏏᏇ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎳ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Chad ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Joe Byrd (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ).

ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᏣᎳᎩ[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏍᏏᏆᏱ, ᎦᎪ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᏍᏏᏆᏱ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏴᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ. ᏍᏏᏆᏱ ᎥᏝ ᎤᏕᎶᏆᎥ ᎧᏁᎬ, ᎥᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. Nancy ᎠᏥᎦᏘᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ "ᎠᏓᎨᏳᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ" ᎯᎠ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ.

ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᎮᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Chad "ᎤᏥᏣᏔ" ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, Wilma Mankiller ᎠᎴ Ross Swimmer. ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ-ᏅᏯ guitarist Jimi Hendrix ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎤᎵᏏ, Nora ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ Moore. ᎧᏁᏨᎯ Roberts, ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1950s ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ 1990s, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎬ ᎨᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏣᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᏁᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏣᎳᎩ.

ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. "Pocket Pictorial." ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ ᎠᎾᏴᏫᏯᎢ ᏂᏚᎾᏛᏁᎵᏙᎸ ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ. 2010: 6 ᎠᎴ 37. (retrieved 8 ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 2010)
  2. Population figures (rounded off) from Russell Thornton, American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987), p. 115.; 1990 population figure from the Encyclopedia of North American Indians; 2000 population from a USA Today news story, which explains that the 2000 population figure increased so dramatically because of a greater effort to count everybody, and because multi-racial people were, for the first time, able to identify themselves as belonging to more than one group.
  3. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Samuel ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ, ᏣᎳᎩ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ: ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ Betrayed (ᏄᏯᎩ: Doubleday, 1976, ISBN 0-385-06735-6), p. 232.
  4. "ᏣᎵ."
  5. [1]
  6. [2]

ᏫᏓᏎᏄᎢ[edit]

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]