ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, ᎡᏗt

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ (ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᎸᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ centuries ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ, ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏝᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏅᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ, ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᏫᏒᏗ, ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ (trivalent ᎠᎴ univalent) ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ. ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎠᎴ electronics. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎲ (IMF) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ (ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ). Ꮝ ISO ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ XAU.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ chemical ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ (ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎳᏗᎾ aurum) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ 79. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ auric ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ chemicals ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ attacked ᎾᎥᎢ chlorine, fluorine, aqua regia ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏨᏕᎨᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ nitric ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ. Nitric ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ metallic ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎣᏌᏂ ᎤᏂᏯᏙᎸ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ colloid ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏑᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎩᎨᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏤᎵ plasmon ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏝᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ reflected, ᎠᎴ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ colloids ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ colloids ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ; ᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏥᏠᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᏌᏊ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ 300 ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎠᏥᏱ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ redder ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ, aluminium ᎩᎨᏍᏗ, platinum ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ bismuth ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎿᎨ. ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏧᏁᎳ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ — ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 20% ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ electrum. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎧᏁᏉᎠ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ whiter ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏊ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Earth's atmosphere ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ. ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, ᎤᎯᏌᏛ, ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ chemical ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᏧᎾᏙᎳᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗᎠᎴ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ; ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, halogen ᏫᎵ chemically ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᎴ aqua regia ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ.

ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ +1 (ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ(ᎠᏯ) ᎠᎴ aurous ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ) ᎠᎴ +3 (ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ(ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ) ᎠᎴ auric ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ). ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ions ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᎠᎴ precipitated ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ oxidized ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏢᏔᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ.

ᎾᏞᎬ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ undertaken ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᏚᏢᏫᏎᎲᎾ Reith ᎯᎠ Australian ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ, ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ precipitating ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏝᏅᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏂᏢᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ. [1]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ electrons ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ 5.90×1022 cm-3.

ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ, ᎠᏥᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏂᎾᏕᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ karats (k), ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ 24k. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏗᏟᎶᏛ 22k, 18k, ᎠᎴ 14k. ᎡᎳᏗᎨ "k" ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎠᏥᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏱ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ. ᏂᎦᏚ karat ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ-ᎠᏥᏱ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏬᏗᎨ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏗ. ᏁᎳᏚ karat ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᏥᏱ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏪᏘ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᏥᏱ ᏩᏗᏅᏗ, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎤᏠᏱ karat ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ alloyed ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎡᎳᏗ karat ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ", ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᏚ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏩᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ. Karat ᏂᏚᏓᎨᏒ ᏔᎳᏍᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ chemical properties, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ emerged ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᎨᎢ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎠᎴ connectors.

  • ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ.
  • ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎵᏍ, ᏧᎾᏓᏛᎪᎳᏅ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, spacecraft, ᎤᏪᏴ aircraft ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ Ꮝ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᎨᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ electroplated ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ connectors ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ.
  • ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎠᏒᏢᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ malleablity ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏂᎯ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏐᎢ ᏕᎦᏅᏙᎬ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏰᎯᎨ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏕᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ incisors ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᎦᎵᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ.
  • Colloidal ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ (ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ nanoparticle) ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ labs ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ, biological ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎦᎶᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ.
  • Chlorauric ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ.
  • ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ(ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ) ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ catalyst ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ.
  • ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ enabling biological ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ viewed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ scanning electron ᎢᎦᎢ.
  • ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎪᏅᏙᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Olympics ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Nobel ᎠᏌᏍᏛ, ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ winner (ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ-ᎾᎿᎢ finisher, ᎠᎴ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ.)
  • ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ infrared ᎠᎴ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ protective ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ astronauts' ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ.
  • Disodium aurothiomalate ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏅᏩᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ rheumatoid arthritis (administered intramuscularly). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ lymphocyte proliferation, lysosomal enzyme ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ reactive ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ macrophage, ᎠᎴ IL-1 ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ photosensitive ᎬᏍᎦᏍᏓᎩes, gastrointestinal ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎵ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ.
  • ᎯᎠ isotope ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ-198, (ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ-ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ: 2.7 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ ᎧᏅᏩᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏓᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏐᎢ ᎥᏳᎩ.
  • ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ. ᎤᏯᏅᎲ varak ᎠᎴ (varaq) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ. ᎤᎲᎢ Ꮭ reactivity ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ Ꮭ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎵᎪᎸᏓᏁᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ-ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ delicacies ($1,000 ᎠᎹ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏫᏍᎩ). ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏦᏕ, ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ radioisotopes (ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ) ᎤᎭ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ.
  • ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ (ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎬᏙᏗ platinum, ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ, ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᎳᏂ) ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ platinum.
  • ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ (ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ/ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ specialized ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏱ (ᎩᎦᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ (ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ).

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

Funerary ᎠᏚᏢᏙᏗ Tutankhamun

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᏫᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. Egyptian hieroglyphᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2600 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Tushratta ᎯᎠ Mitanni ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Egypt. Egypt ᎠᎴ Nubia ᎠᏰᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ-ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎢᏤ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ-ᎧᎸᎬ ᎤᏅᏏᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ. ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ Midas, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Lydia ᎠᏰᎵ 643 ᎠᎴ 630 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ.

ᎯᎠ European ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ fueled ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ displayed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ ᏴᏫ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, Peru, ᎠᎴ Colombia.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ currencies (ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᏓᎳᏏᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ Ꮎ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ properties (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎪᏪᎵ). ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᏄᏪᎾᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᎫᏍᏓᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏬᏢᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Thomas ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ. ᎾᎿ Ꮎ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ-ᏗᎦᏗ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏄᏎᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᎷᏨ, ᏚᏄᏭᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎶᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏅᏯᎣᏌᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ, ᎠᎫᏱᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏢᏉᏛᎾ-ᏚᏄᏭᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ-ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ Ꮝ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ examining ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᎧᎷᏥ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎤᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ Mohs' ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎪᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎯᎠ purer ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᏪᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᎦᎶᏁᏛ ᎦᏂ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎪᎶᏄᎮᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ softer ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ geologically; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, 75% ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 1910.[2] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏏᏴᏫ ᏦᎢ 20 m (66 ft) ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ (8000 m³).

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ alchemists ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏂ — presumably ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ mythical ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏅᏯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎥᏝ succeeded ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ alchemists promoted ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᎦᎫᏍᏓᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎵ (☉), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ astrological ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ Egyptian hieroglyph ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ (ᎾᏊ 日). ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎬᏅᎢᏍᏗes ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ, ᎧᎶᏩᏓ, Otago, Australian, Witwatersrand, ᎬᎿᎨ ᏗᎦᏚᏏ, ᎠᎴ Klondike ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ rushes.

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ mined ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎾᏗᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ.

ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ[edit]

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏝᏅᎯ
ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ (ᎦᏚᎢ) ᎠᎴ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ (ᎭᏫᏂ), ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ octahedral ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ

ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ Ꮝ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ chemical ᎾᏍᏋ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎡᏆ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏝᏅᎯ) ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎪᎢ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ boundaries ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎪᎢ. ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛᎠᎴ sulfide ᎪᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ sulfide ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᎴ pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, stibnite ᎠᎴ pyrrhotite. Rarer ᎪᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᎴ petzite, calaverite, sylvanite, muthmannite, nagyagite ᎠᎴ krennerite.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ 0.03 g/1000 kg (0.03 ppm ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ). Hydrothermal ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ metamorphic ᏅᏯᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏅᏯ; ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛᎠᎴ placer ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏅᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ. ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ enrichment ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎳᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ: ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ chemical ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ processes ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ metamorphism, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ sulfide ᎪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ, ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ termed ᏅᏯ ᎤᎾᎦᏌᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎠᎴ eroded, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎦᏂᏟ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎪᎢ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ placer ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᏄᏓᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎬᎿᎨ shale ᎠᎴ limestone ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏌᏂ disseminated ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ platinum ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎾᎢ 0.1 2 mg/t (0.1 2 ppb ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ) ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ, ᏒᎳᏗᏝ
ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ

ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ achieved ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏲᏓᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 0.5 g/1000 kg (0.5 ppm) ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ mined ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏲᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ-ᎦᏙ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ 1–5 g/1000 kg (1-5 ppm), ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏲᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏅᏯ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ 3 g/1000 kg (3 ppm) ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ. ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏲᏓᏅ 30 g/1000 kg (30 ppm) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏂᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ.

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1880s, ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎯᎠ world’s ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ. ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1970 accounted ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 79% ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1,000 ᎢᏯᏛᏂ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2004 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ 342 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎸᏂ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ.

ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ Johannesburg ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏭᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏩᏛᏓ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Transvaal ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ deepest ᎠᏆᏤᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ Boer ᏓᏄᏩ 1899–1901 ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎬ Boers ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᎦᏓᏊ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏥᏃᏍᎦ ᎦᎴᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏄᏪᎾᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏝᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ

ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ, ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ. ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᏓᎧᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏁᏩᏓ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏔᎵ-ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. Siberian ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏲᏂᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ global ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ mining ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. Kolar ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ Pascua ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᎵᏐᏍᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏙᏓᎸ Atacama, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ Chile ᎠᎴ Argentina. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏌᏊ-ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ artisanal ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ mining.[3]

ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Wohlwill ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏙᏍᎩ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ. ᏐᎢ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ inquartation ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ cuppelation, ᎠᎴ refining ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ regia.

ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ (ᎠᏎᏱᎩ 1-2 ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᏍᎩ). Fritz Haber (ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏥ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Haber ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ) ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ Germany ᎤᏤᎵ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎡᏍᎦᎢᏳᎾᎵᏍᏓᏁᎸ, ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ unduly ᎦᎸᎳᏗ, ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏥ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏢᏔᎲᎢ. Ꮭ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎤᎭ ᎩᎳ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ identified. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎳᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ foreseeable ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ mining ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ $238 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ troy ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ mining ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2001, global ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏪᏨᎩ 2,604 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎸᏂ, ᎠᎴ 67% ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ 2001, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎢᏳᏊ mined totaled 145,000 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎸᏂ.[4]

ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ[edit]

LBMA USD ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ fixings ($ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ troy ᏄᏓᎨᏒ) ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 2001

ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ troy ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ alloyed ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ karat ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎡᏙᎠ, ᎬᏙᏗ 24 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏓᏂᎬᏩᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏳᏂᏪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 0 1, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩᏁ fineness, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 0.995.

ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏕᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎯᎸᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ London, originating ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1919, ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ-ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ benchmark ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏐᎯ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᏌᏊᎭ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎤᏃᏍᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏌᏊ troy ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᏗ $20.67 ($664.56/kg), ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1934 ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏍᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ revalued $35.00 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ troy ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ($1125.27/kg). ᎾᎥᎢ 1961 ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᎲ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᎴ European ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ devaluation ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ.

ᎾᎿ 17 ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 1968, ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏂᏚᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎦᏁᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ-tiered pricing ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ $35.00 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ troy ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ($1.13/g) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ; ᎪᎯ ᏔᎵ-tiered pricing ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏚᏲᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1975 ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ-ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ ᏙᎢ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ [[New York|ᏄᏯᎩ]].

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 1968 ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎤᎭ ranged ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ $850/oz ($27,300/kg) ᎾᎿ 21 ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 1980, ᎡᎳᏗ $252.90/oz ($8,131/kg) ᎾᎿ 21 ᏕᎭᎷᏱ]] 1999 (London ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ).[5] ᎾᎿ 11 ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 2006 ᎯᎠ London ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ $715.50/oz.[6]

ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 2005 ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ global ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ 3,859 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎸᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ 3,754 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎸᏂ, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ 105 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎸᏂ.[7]

ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ[edit]

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᎵᏯ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ restricted ᎠᎴ banned. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏓᏂᏟᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ banned ᎠᏰᎵ 1933 ᎠᎴ 1975. ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Franklin D. Roosevelt expropriated ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ 6102, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Richard Nixon ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏦᎳᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᏂᏃᏍᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ.

ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ(ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ) ᎠᏅᏬᏗ (ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢᎠᏑᎳᎪᎢᏍᏗ3) ᎠᎴ chlorauric ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ (HAuCl4) ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ(ᎠᏯ) (aurous, univalent, +1) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ(ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ) (auric, trivalent, +3). ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ +5 ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ +7 ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ fluorine (ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ pentafluoride, AuF5 ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ heptafluoride, AuF7), ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ -1 ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ- anion ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ aurides ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ caesium auride, CsAu, rubidium auride, RbᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎠᎴ tetramethylammonium auride, (CH3)4N+ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ-.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ:

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ Gold compounds.

Isotopes[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ isotope ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᎴ 18 radioisotopeᎬᏙᏗ 195ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ-ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ 186 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ.

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᎹ" ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ nuclear ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ(ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᎹ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ). ᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, irradiated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ neutron ᎤᏍᏉᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ exploding thermonuclear ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ isotope ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ-198 ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ-ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ 2.697 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ .411 MeV gamma ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎯᎠ radioactivity ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ fallout ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ, tested, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ.

ᏅᏬᏘ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎧᏲᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ. ᎤᏪᎳ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎵ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᎭ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 50% arthritis ᎤᏢᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ-ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏬᏗ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ safest ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ, ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ-coated ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ nano-ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ toxin-ᎪᎯᏳᏙ.[8]
Aurum Metallicum (ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ.

ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ extremities ᏭᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᎦᎠᎩᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏂᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏜᏩᏛ ᏩᏥ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ accessories ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏦᏍᏗᏓᏄᏫ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ. ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏪᎾᎲᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᎪᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ coloring ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ– ᎯᎠ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ “gold;” ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ-ᎿᏛᎦ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ, platinum (ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ-ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ-ᎣᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ) ᎤᎭ ᎾᏊ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ.

ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎼᏏ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎯ, ᎡᏆᎭᎻ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ. ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏏᏓᏍᏛ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ John Chrysostom ᎨᏒᎩ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎤᎭ “mouth ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎦᏅᎪ.” ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ anniversaries, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 50-ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏕᎨᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ, ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᎮᎵᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎡᏆ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ rewarded ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏥᎳᏓᏗᏍᎬ. Winners ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ awarded ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Olympic ᏧᎾᏁᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Nobel ᎠᏌᏍᏛ), ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ depicted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ Emmy ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ Palme d'Or, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎢᎬᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ).

ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ inaugurated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ, ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ symbolizing ᎯᎠ ᎢᎪᎯᏛ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ. ᏕᎨᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ; ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏔᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ adorned ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ varies ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ geographic ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Turkey ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Sicily.

ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᏚ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ.

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. "Environment & Nature News: Bugs grow gold that looks like coral." 28/01/2004 (2006-07-22)
  2. GOLDSHEET - YEARLY and CUMULATIVE WORLD GOLD PRODUCTION CHARTS. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-22.
  3. Template:Citation/core
  4. World Gold Council > discover > gold knowledge > frequently asked questions. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-22.
  5. kitko.com: GOLD - London PM Fix 1975 - present (GIF). ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-22.
  6. London Gold & Silver Statistics from the LBMA. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-22.
  7. World Gold Council > value > research & statistics > statistics > supply and demand statistics. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-22.
  8. BBC NEWS. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-22.

ᏫᏓᏎᏄᎢ[edit]

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]