ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ

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ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Java, Indonesia.

ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ (ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ encompasses ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏚᎸᏓ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ. Agri ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Latin ager ("ᏠᎨᏏ"), ᎠᎴ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Latin cultura, ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏠᎨᏏ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ, ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ activities ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ techniques ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᎾᏝᎢ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ) Ꮭ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᏂᎧᏅᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ.

ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ specialization ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎸ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ specializations ᎤᎭ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ, inventor ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ chemical ᎠᏥᎸ ᏗᎯᎴᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ "ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ".

42% (2002 ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ) ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎩᎳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 4.4% (2005 ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ) ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ (ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ).[1]

ᎦᎶᎨᏒᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏙᎢᏥ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ.

Overview[edit]

ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎶᎩᏍᎩ/agriculturalist ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ/ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, (ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ) ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎯᏴ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎤᎷᏤᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ (ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ), ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ.

ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ—ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ.

ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ, ᎤᏬᏚ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ, ᎠᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏯᏖᎾ, ᎦᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᏗᏍᎦᎶᏗ, ᎦᏃᏥ, ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ chemicals (ᏗᏍᏓᎦᏯᏙᏗ, ᎧᎵᏎᏥ, ethanol, ᎠᎹ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ), ᎠᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ(ᎤᏥᎸ, ᎤᏩᏅ, hemp, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ), ᎪᏛᏙᏗ (methane ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ biomass, biodiesel) ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᏬᏗ (biopharmaceutical, ᏦᎳ, marijuana, ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ). Genetically engineered ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᏄᏬᏗ.

ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎤᎦᎾᏍᏙ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ gene ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ ᎦᏙᎯ nutrients, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎦᏄᎸ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ mechanization ᎤᎭ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ labor ᏚᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ, ᎤᎲᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏴᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ biological ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ. ᎠᎹ, ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ, ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᏂᏁᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ specialized ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏗᎯᎴᎩ.

ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏂᏃᏝᎩ ᎨᏒ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, insecticides (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ), ᎠᎴ fungicides, ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ, ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ nutritional ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ.ᎦᎪᏘ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ productivity. ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎤᎦᏔ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏊ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ. ᎡᏙᎠ-ᎢᎦ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ pesticides Ꮎ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ-ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ. Hydroponics, ᎢᎬᎾᏗ soilless ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ chemical nutrient ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎧᏁᏉᎠ.

ᎯᎠ ᎦᏇᏅᏍᎬ, ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ activities ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ. ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ-ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ dehydration ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ; ᎭᏫᏯ ᎦᏇᏅᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ).

Mechanization, ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 19th ᎠᎴ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᎤᎭ eased ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ backbreaking ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎶᎩᏍᎩ. ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ, mechanization ᎤᎭ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ ᎠᎴ productivity (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎪᏢᏂᏓᏍᏗ). ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏐᏈᎵ, ᏗᎦᎵᏯᏅᎯᏓ, oxen, ᎨᎻᎵ, ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ, alpacas, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏚᎷᎪᏗ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ, ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ, helicopters, ᏗᎦᎾᏌᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎦᏔ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ, ᏂᎦᏛᎢ topdressing, ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᎵᎲ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎠᏥᎸ. ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏴᎳᏛᏍᎩ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ Ꮎ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ. ᎡᎵᏍ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ.

ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ, ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᏊ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Indonesia.

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎢᎬᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ, ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ mechanization ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ 20 ᏭᏔᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᏌᏊ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏗᎦᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 2.5 ᏴᏫ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎦᎪᏘ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ agrichemical), ᏏᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 130 ᏴᏫ [1]. ᎪᎯ ᎦᎷᎦ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ input, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ, ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ.

ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎭᏫᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ (ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏅᏗ, ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏅ) ᎾᎿ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ intensive ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎠᎴ chemical ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ, ᎭᏫᏯ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ processors ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏣᏔᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏌᏊ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ. ᏄᏓᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏩᎦ Spongiform Encephalopathy ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎦ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ intensive ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎦᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎤᏓᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ Mississippi empties. Intensive ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ depletes ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏚ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏗ farmland ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎾᎥᎢ intensive ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᎲ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎡᎵᏍ software ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏘᏴᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎾᏛᎦᏅᎾ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏘᏲᎯᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏁᎸ biopiracy.

ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ nutrient ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎤᏂᏃᏝᎩ ᎨᏒ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1950s, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ waterways ᎠᎴ wetlands ᎾᎥᎢ nutrients ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ nitrogen ᎠᎴ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ.

ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ consumer awareness ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ-ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ, ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎳ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ fledgling industries.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Mesopotamia.[2] Pinpointing ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ problematic ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎵᏌᏛ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ-ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ societies, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ. Nonetheless, Archaeobotanists/Paleoethnobotanists ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏓᏩᏛᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᎩ-ᎦᏁᏔᏯ rachis ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᏔ, ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵᎨ Dryas (ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 9,500 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ Holocene ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ. ᏩᏎᎸᎯ anthropological ᎠᎴ archaeology ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ-ᎦᏅᎾᏩ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Nile ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ [[10th millennium BCE|10th ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ]] ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ seasonal ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ: ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏢᏔᎲᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Epi-Palaeolithic (10,000+ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ) ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᎾᎢ Abu Hureyra ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Syria, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎾᏍᏋ localized ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏓᏂᏙᎦ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎳᏍᎬᏓ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ. ᎾᎥᎢ 8000 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏙᎵᎠ. ᎾᎥᎢ 7000 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏭᎷᏨᎩ Mesopotamia, ᎾᎥᎢ 6000 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ Nile ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ 5000 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ. ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ. ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ teosinte ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 3000-2700 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏩᏥᎩ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ: ᎢᎬᏱ emmer ᎠᎴ einkorn ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ hulled barley, ᏒᏙᏂ, lentil, ᎤᏴᏍᏗ vetch, ᎤᏓᏩᏗᏍᎬ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎳ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ PPNB ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᏍᏋ sown ᎠᎴ harvested ᎾᎿ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ Ꮎ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ca. 8,500 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᎴ 7,500 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ contributed ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎳ' ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ eastwards ᎠᏰᎵ Asia ᎠᎴ westwards ᎾᎾᎯ Cyprus, Anatolia ᎠᎴ, ᎾᎥᎢ 7,000 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, Greece. ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ, ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ emmer ᎠᎴ einkorn, ᏭᎷᏨᎩ ᎤᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏳᎳᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ southeastern ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏳᎳᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ca. 4,800 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ.[3]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ (e.g. ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏥᎡᏗᏱ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ-ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ). ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ-ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ economies ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏓᎪᏂᏲᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ localized ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ favored ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ, ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ 'ᎦᎾᎬᎢ' ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ, ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

Sumerian Harvester ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ, 3000 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. Baked ᎦᏓᏆᎵ. ᏠᎨᏏ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ.

ᎧᎵ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ contributed nutritionally ᎪᎳᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ intensive ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, mono-cropping, ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ irrigation, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ specialized labor ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ "ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ" ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ Sumerians, ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ca. 5,500 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. Intensive ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎳ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ activities ᎤᎭ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ armies. ᎯᎠ agriculturalism ᎯᎠ Sumerians ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᏂ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ, ᎯᎠ Egyptians, powered ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ Nile ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, achieved ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎾᎵᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏎᏒᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ tripling ᎯᎠ Sumerian ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ.[citation needed]

ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᎠᏥᏚᎬ ᎤᏣᏘ Ꮝ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Muslims. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᏁᎵᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Muslim ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᎤᏴᏢ ᎬᎿᎨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ Spain, Artz ᏕᎪᏏᏏ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎲᏲᎵᏓ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎯᎠ Muslims ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏅᎩ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ:

• ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Norias, ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ exploitable ᎦᏙᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ.

• ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ techniques derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᏦᏬᏰᏂ ᎬᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎤᏅᏏᏴ ᎯᎠ Muslim ᎡᎶᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅᎢ ᎭᏢᏃ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ. ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ techniques ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Ibn al-Baytar ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎥᏝ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᎩ-ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ.

• ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏤ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ laborers' ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ, combining ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ.

• ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎢᏤ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏤ global ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ exported ᏂᎬᎾᏓ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏳᎳᏛ. Spain ᎤᎩᏒᎩ (ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ), ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ transmitted ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏳᎳᏛ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ-ᎠᏛᏏᏒ processes, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ, ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ Ꮎ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏊ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ, ᏗᎵᏊ, citrus ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏓᏛᏍᎩ, ᎤᏥᎸ, ᎬᎨ, aubergines, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ... ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ. Muslims ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ Ꮎ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎴᎹᏂ, ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎤᏥᎸ, almonds, ᎤᏓᏍᏓᏲᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏆᏁᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Spanish colonies ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏓᏟᏚᎦ ᎯᎠ Muslim ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ, ᏏᎵᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ flourished, ᎤᎦᏔ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏄᏬ ᎤᏁᎬ exported, ᎠᎴ esparto ᎧᏁᏍᎦ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏓᏂᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᏚᏓᏡᎬ.

ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᏦᎢ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ.

ᎤᎶᏐᏅ 1492 ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ shuffled ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Columbian ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ. ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏊ transplanted ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵᏁ vice versa. ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᏔᎹᏟ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ European ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎾ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏛᏒ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎤᏴᏢ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ.

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1800s ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ cultivars, ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ Ꮎ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏌᏊᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ mechanization ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎲ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᏎᎦᏨᎯ imaginable ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ efficiencies enabling ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, Argentina, Israel, ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ.

ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ[edit]

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2004[edit]

ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏂ, ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ FAO ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏗ.

Top agricultural products, by crop types
(million metric tons) 2004 data
ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗs 2,264
ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏩᏒᎩ 866
ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢs ᎠᎴ ᎤᎸs 715
ᎤᏅᏗ 619
ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ 503
ᎭᏫᏯ 259
Oilcrops 133
ᎠᏣᏗ (2001 estimate) 130
ᏧᏪᏥ 63
ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ 60
ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ 30
Source:
ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ & ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ Organisation (FAO)
[2]
Top agricultural products, by individual crops
(million metric tons) 2004 data
ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ 1,324
ᏎᎷ 721
ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ 627
ᏗᎵᏊ 605
ᏄᎾ 328
ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎩᎦᎨᎦᎳᏗᏍᎩ 249
Soybean 204
ᎪᎢ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ Fruit 162
Barley 154
ᏔᎹᏟ 120
Source:
ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ & ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ Organisation (FAO)
[3]


ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ[edit]

ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ
ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏎᎷ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ
ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏘᏣᏍᏗ ᏔᎸᎳᏘ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ

ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ, ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎥᏳᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏣᏁᎬ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ, ᏩᎾᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ. Centuries ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ. ᎦᎪᏘ ᏗᏄᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ techniques ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏦᎢ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ.

ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1920s ᎠᎴ '30s ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᏩᎦ ᏗᏴᏙᏗ (grasses ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏤ Zealand. ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ (ᎠᏯ.e. ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ) ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 1950s ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ varieties ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ, ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ barley.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᏎᎷ (ᏎᎷ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2.5 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ hectare (40 ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏘᎶᏛ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1900 ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 9.4 t/ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ (150 ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏘᎶᏛ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2001, ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏠᏱ, ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1 t/ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1900 ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 2.5 t/ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1990. ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨn ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2 t/ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ, African ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1 t/ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ, Egypt ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 3.5 4 t/ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 8 t/ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ. ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ intensive ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ techniques (ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, chemical ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ, ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ). [Conversion note: 1 bushel of wheat = 60 pounds (lb) ≈ 27.215 kg. 1 bushel of corn = 56 pounds ≈ 25.401 kg]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ industrialized ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ "ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ" ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ nutritional ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎦ ᏦᏍᏓ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᏉᏨ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏙᏗ ᏔᎹᏟ-harvesters ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1960s, ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᏣᏘ ᏔᎹᏟ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏰᎯᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.[4] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ nutrient ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ 50 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ; ᎠᏫᏒᏅ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ 38 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ vitamin B2 ᎠᎴ 15 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ vitamin C.[5]

ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ herbicide ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ gene Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ glyphosate, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ. ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ toxin ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ (c.f. Starlink).

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎦᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ.

Aquaculture, ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᏣᏗ, ᎢᎦᎢ, ᎠᎴ algae, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ.

Apiculture, ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ—ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ pollination.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ : ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ, ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎦᎪᏘ, ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ

Environmental ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ (ca. 2005)

ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ environmental ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ-ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ:

ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ global ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ

ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Haskell ᏍᎦᏚᎩ, ᏧᏂᎦᏔᏩᏙᏅᏩᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 2001. ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ, ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ. ᏎᎷ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ. ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᏎᎷ, ᎠᏛᏍᎦ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ paler. ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᎭᎷᏱ. ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ harvested ᎠᎴ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎠᏫᏛᏓ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎾᎿ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎢᏧᎳ, ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ separated ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ. ᎪᎯ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ (ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ)ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ family’s ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ. ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ.

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎾᏝᎢ Hereford ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ
  1. [4]
  2. "A conversation with Christopher Ehret"
  3. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, D. [ed.] 2000. ᏳᎳᏛ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ. Cambridge ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ; Harris, D. [ed.] 1996 ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Eurasia. UCL ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ
  4. Friedland ᎠᎴ Barton 1975
  5. Davis ᎠᎴ Riordan 2004

ᏫᏓᏎᏄᎢ[edit]

  • Artz, F. B, (1980), ‘The ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ Ages’; ᏦᎢᏁ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅ; ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ Chicago ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ,
  • Bolens, L. (1997), `Agriculture’ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Encyclopaedia ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ, ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ: Helaine Selin; Kluwer ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ. Dordrecht/ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ/London, pp 20-2
  • Collinson, M. (ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ): ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ. CABI ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ, 2000. ISBN 0-85199-405-9
  • Crosby, Alfred W.: ᎯᎠ Columbian ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ : Biological ᎠᎴ Cultural ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ 1492. Praeger ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ, 2003 (30th ᎤᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ). ISBN 0-275-98073-1
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