ᎪᏢᏅ

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ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎾᏍᏓ (pictured) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏍᏆᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎵᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎭᏰᎳᏍᏗ.

ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᎦ ᏗᎦᏁᎩᎡᏗ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎴ fermented ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏚᎲᏍᎬ, ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ butterfat ᏓᎦᏚᏫᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏗ ᏤᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏩᎦ' ᎤᏅᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᏗ ᏐᎢ mammal, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏫ ᎤᏃᏕᎾ, ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ, ᎠᎹ ᏯᎾᏌ, ᎠᎴ yak. ᎠᎹ, ᎠᏑᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏅ. ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ clarified ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ghee, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ butterfat.

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ refrigerated, ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ spreadable ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏌᎨᎢ ᎦᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). ᎪᏢᏅ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ varies ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ manipulated ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᎴ carotene.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᎪᏢᏅ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ puréed ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏯ ᎠᏂᎳᏗᏍᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᏯ ᎠᏂᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏒᎦᏔ ᎪᏢᏅ. ᏐᎢ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎪᏢᏅ"; ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ shea ᎪᏢᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎬᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᎪᏢᏅ", ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦ ᏗᎦᏁᎩᎡᏗ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ (ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎳᏗᎾ butyrum, ᎤᏙᎳᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ boutyron. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᏩᎦ-ᎤᏅᏗ ᎦᏚᏅ" (bous "ᏩᎦ ᎡᏳᏍᏗ, ᏩᎦ" + ᏕᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ "ᎤᏅᏗ ᎦᏚᏅ"), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎳᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ Scythian.[1] ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏢᏲᎵᎲᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ butyric ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏲᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏲᎢ ᏩᎦ ᏗᎦᏁᎩᎡᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ-controlled ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ.

Unhomogenized ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ butterfat ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎦᏚᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛᎪᏢᏅᎯ phospholipid (ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏛ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ emulsifier) ᎠᎴ ᏤᎵ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏅᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏁᎲ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ agitating ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, separating ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ. ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ consistencies, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ butterfat ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏦᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ: ᎠᏎᏊᎢ butterfat, butterfat ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎠᎴ undamaged ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ, ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ consistencies ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ; ᎪᏢᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏰᎯᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎪᏢᏅ dominated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ.

ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ-ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ pasteurized ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 80 °C (180 °F). ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ churned, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 5 °C (40 °F) ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ butterfat ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᏨᏕᎨᏫ. ᎯᎠ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ, ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ.

ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎤᎩᏓᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎹ ᎦᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎤᏅᏗ—ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ fermented skimmed ᎤᏅᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ; ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎲᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ rinsing ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎠᎴ "ᏚᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ": pressed ᎠᎴ kneaded ᎢᏧᎳ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᏦᏬᏰᏂ ᎬᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᏓᎭ ᏗᏒᏓᎷᎦ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎦᏁᎳ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎵ ᏍᏆᎵᏓ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ embedded ᏓᏜᏩᏛ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ.

ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 80% butterfat ᎠᎴ 15% ᎠᎹ; ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ-ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 65% ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ 30% ᎠᎹ. Butterfat ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ-ᎢᎩᏛ ᏂᎬᏁᎸ, ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ hydrocarbon ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏛ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ triglyceride, ester derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ glycerol ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏛ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏲᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ butyric ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᎴ diacetyl.

ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎪᏢᏅ[edit]

ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ, ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏓᏂᏢᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ milkings ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ fermented ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎪᏢᏅ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ fermented ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ cultured ᎪᏢᏅ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᏧᎾᏦᏯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎾᎾᎯ lactic ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ diacetyl, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ fuller-ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ "ᎠᏓᎾᏅ" ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ.[2] ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, cultured ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ pasteurized ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ Lactococcus ᎠᎴ Leuconostoc ᎢᎦᎢ.

ᏄᏓᎴ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ cultured ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1970s, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏙᏢᏗ bacterial ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ lactic ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ. ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ, ᎯᎠ cultured ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᎠᏛᏍᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎦᏳᎳᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎩ, ᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ aging ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ. ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ lactic ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤᎢ-ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ; ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ cultured ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ cultured ᎪᏢᏅ.

ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᏩᎦ ᏗᎦᏁᎩᎡᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ pasteurized ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ pathogenic ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ pasteurized ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ. ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎦᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ separator.[3] ᎪᏢᏅ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎴ cultured unpasteurized ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ. ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎭ "cleaner" ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ, ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏄᏑᎯ-ᎤᏅᏗ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꮎ pasteurization ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ.

ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏳᎳᏛ, cultured ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎨᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎵᏍᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, cultured ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ labeled European-ᎠᏣᏅᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎾᏛᎦᏅᎾ-ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ.[4]

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ spreadable ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ softer ᎾᎾᎢ colder ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ chemical ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ incorporating ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎪᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ. Whipped ᎪᏢᏅ, ᏄᏓᎴ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ spreadable, ᎨᏒᎢ aerated ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ nitrogen ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ— ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎢ.

ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ salted ᎠᎴ unsalted ᏚᏙᏢᏒ. Salted ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎣᏌᏂ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎹᎭ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ Ꮎ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ salted ᎪᏢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ blander ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ uncultured ᎪᏢᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ.

ᏄᏓᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ butterfat ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎪᏢᏅ" ᎠᏎ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏭᏍᏗᎬᎢ 80% butterfat ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ; ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Ꮎ, averaging ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 81%. European-ᎠᏣᏅᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 85% butterfat. Clarified ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ Ꮝ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎲᏓ, ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ-ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ butterfat. Clarified ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏅ Ꮝ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ; ᎤᎶᏐᏅ settling, ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ, whey ᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎲᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ butterfat ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ poured ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏨᏕᎨᏫ ᏤᎵ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ. Ghee ᎨᏒᎢ clarified ᎪᏢᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ (120 °C/250 °F) ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏩᏄᏑᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏬᏗᎨ. ᎪᎯ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ antioxidant ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏲᎢ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ, ᎪᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏑᏓᎵ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ.[5]

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ techniques were still practiced Ꮎ ᎢᎬᏱ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ-Ꮒ. ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎠᏅᏱ 1914 ᎬᎾᏕᎾ Geographic.

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏎᎦᏤᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎡᎪᎢ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏩᎦ ᏗᎦᏁᎩᎡᏗ, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Mesopotamian ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏰᎵ 9000 ᎠᎴ 8000 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏫ ᎤᏃᏕᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏅᏗ; ᏩᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ.[6] ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ, ᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Palestine. ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎧᎵᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴ sealed. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎦᏛᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎾᎿ ᏦᎢ ᎦᎾᏍᏓ ᎠᎴ rocked ᎠᎴ fro ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ.

ᎪᏢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ Mediterranean Sea ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Greece ᎠᎴ ᎶᎻ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ, unclarified ᎪᏢᏅ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ— ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎦᏚᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Greece ᎠᎴ ᎶᎻ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏒ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎤᎸᏓᎴᏍᎩ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ Anaxandrides ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ Thracians ᏥᏄᏍᏗ boutyrophagoi, "ᎪᏢᏅ-ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᏅᎡᏁᎲ".[7] Pliny ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏓᏯᏂ ᎪᏢᏅ "ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᏂᎨ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᏐᏩᏅᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ", ᎠᎴ ᎡᎪᎢ ᎾᎿ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ properties.[8]

ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᎪᏯ Dalby ᎠᏗᎭ Ꮎ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎾᏍᏋ translated ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎢ. ᎪᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎯᎠ Erythraean ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1st ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ Arabian ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎶᎻ geographer Strabo ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Sudan.[9] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ, ᎪᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎪᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ—ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ Agni, ᎯᎠ Hindu ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᎸ—ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 3000 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ; ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎪᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Rig Veda, ca. 1500–1200 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ prehistory, ᎪᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᏗᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏓᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᏂᏐᏗ.

ᎪᏢᏅ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᎨᏴ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ Kalendrier ᏕᏍ Bergères, ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ, 1499.

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ. Scandinavia ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᎢᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏩᏗ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ, ᎠᏁᏎᎯᎲ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎠ 12th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.[10] ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎶᎻ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᎪᏢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ consumed ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏂᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ accepted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 16th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏪᎵᏒ Ꮝ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎠᏯᏔᎵᏍᏔ. ᎦᏚ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏦᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ, ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᎨᏳᎿᎲᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ melted ᎪᏢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎭᏫᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ.[11]

ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ-ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛIreland, Scotland, Iceland, ᎠᎴ Scandinavia—ᎪᏢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎾᏛᎦᏅᎾ-ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ: ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏇᏅᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ (ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ) ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏌᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᏝᏬᏚᎢ, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᏯᏛᎿ "ᏝᏬᏚᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ" ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎦᏳᎳᏨ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ, airless, ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔic ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᏝᏬᏚᎢ. ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎦᏂᏌᎲ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏧᏆᎫᏔᏅᏖ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ireland; ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎳ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ "ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎦᏚᏅ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ." ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ireland ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 11th–14th centuries; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.[12]

ᎦᎸᏥᏱ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Ireland, ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Normandy ᎠᎴ Brittany ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1860s, ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ Ꮎ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏌᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1869, ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ margarine. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ margarine ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏩᎦ ᎦᎵᏣᏔᏅ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ; ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ margarines ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ hydrogenated ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1900.

ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ, ᎾᎿ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1860s, ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎦᏚᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1870s, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ separator ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ, marketed ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᎥᎢ Swedish ᎠᏥᎸ ᏗᎯᎴᎩ Carl Gustaf Patrik ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Laval. ᎪᎯ dramatically ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ eliminating ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ ᎠᎳᏍᎬᏓ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᎪᎸᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎤᏅᏗ. ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏅᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏭᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᎿᎢ. ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ, ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ-ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ: ᎯᎠ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏭᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ. ᎾᎥᎢ 1900, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ; ᏳᎳᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎦᏚ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ capita ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏓᏱᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏌᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ margarine, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ, ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ perceived ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ healthier. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, margarine ᎤᏲᏨᎯ overtook ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 1950s[13] ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ Ꮎ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ margarine ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ Ꮎ ᎦᏅᏅᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ.[14]

ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎢᏅᏗᎾ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, dedicating ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ Ꮝ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ghee. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1997, ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ 1,470,000 ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏂ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᏔᎵᏁ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ (522,000 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏂ), ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ (466,000), ᎠᏂᏛᏥ (442,000), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏤ Zealand (307,000). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ 578,000 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏂ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1997, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ (528,000), ᏲᏂᎢ (514,000), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ (505,000). ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏢᏅ domestically. ᎠᏤ Zealand, ᏒᎳᏗᏝ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏳᎬᎳᎢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ Ꮎ ᏩᏗ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ.ᎢᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ USDA ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ (1999).[15] ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏗ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ European ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ inconsistencies ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ clarified butterfat ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ (ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎠᏤ Zealand ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᏩᏗ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1997 ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ).

ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ varieties ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. Smen ᎨᏒᎢ spiced Moroccan clarified ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎦᏂᏌᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏳᎳᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. Yak ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tibet; tsampa, barley ᎢᏒ ᏩᏂᎨ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ consumed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Himalayan ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ — ᎠᎴ "ᎤᏲᎢ"—ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ African ᎠᎴ Asian ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᎾᏦᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ workable ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ fermented ᎤᏅᏗ.[16]

ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ[edit]

ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ spreadable ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 15 °C (60 °F), ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ. ᎯᎠ "ᎪᏢᏅ ᎢᎦᏛ" ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎾᎿ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏙᎢ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ. ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏤ Zealand featured "ᎪᏢᏅ conditioner", ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ—ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ—ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ.[17] ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ wrapped ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᎢ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ hastened ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎾᏑᏰᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏩᏒᎩ. Wrapped ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏯᏔᎾᎵ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ.[18]

"ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ" ᎠᎴ "Acadian ᎪᏢᏅ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ" ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᎾᎦᎳ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᏂᏴᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎹ. ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏗᏂᏂᏴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᎾᎦᎳ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ. ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏇᏅᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏐᎠᏍᏙ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎢᏤᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ overheating ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ countertop ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ spoilage.

ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ softened, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎦᎪᏘ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ. ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, sliced, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ onto ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ. ᏰᎵ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ; ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᏅᏙ.

Hollandaise ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎬ asparagus ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾes.

Melted ᎪᏢᏅ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎬᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. Beurre noisette (hazel ᎪᏢᏅ) ᎠᎴ Beurre noir (ᎬᎿᎨ ᎪᏢᏅ) ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ melted ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏩᏄᏑᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᏬᏗᎨ; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎴᎹᏂ ᎦᏁᎲ. Hollandaise ᎠᎴ béarnaise ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏤᎵᎤᏪᏥ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ melted ᎪᏢᏅ; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ mayonnaiseᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᎢ. Hollandaise ᎠᎴ béarnaise ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᎴ stabilized ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ emulsifiers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᏰᎵᏊ emulsifiers—ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ—ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᏤᎵ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ. Beurre ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ (ᎤᏁᎬ ᎪᏢᏅ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏘᏣᏍᏗ, ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏤᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ. Beurre monté (ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏅ) ᎨᏒᎢ unflavored beurre ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏘᏣᏍᏗ; ᎾᏍᎩ adatolasdodi Ꮝ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ "ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗ" ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ: ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᎹ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎾᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ thicker ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎶᏂᏗ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ—ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ.[19]

ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ sautéing ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Ꮝ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎴᏴᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 150 °C (250 °F)—ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᏧᎦᏒᏍᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ butterfat ᎨᏒᎢ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 200 °C (400 °F), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ clarified ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᏧᎾᏙᎳᏨ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ.[20] ᎪᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ cultural ᎠᎴ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ.

ᎪᏢᏅ ᎧᎵᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏂᏚᎲᏍᎬ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎪᎢ, ᎪᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ baked ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᏑᎨᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎢᏧᎳ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ locked ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏓᏂᏚᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ aerate ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ shortbread ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅ. Pastries ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎨᎵᏍᏙᎩ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᎠᏙᏢᏗ ᏗᎬᎭᎷᏴᎯ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏩᏓᏆᎴᎸ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏓᏂᏚᎲᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ. ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ. ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏯᏙᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ.

ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ[edit]

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ USDA ᏗᏎᏍᏗ, ᏌᏊ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎪᏢᏅ (14 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ) ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ 100 calorie, ᏂᎦᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ, 11 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ 7 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ, ᎠᎴ 30 ᏄᏓᎨᏒcholesterol.[21] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ, ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ cholesterol. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ contributor ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎥᏳᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ margarine ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ unsaturated ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ cholesterol. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎯᏍᎩ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ accepted Ꮎ ᎯᎠ trans ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ hydrogenated ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ margarines ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ "ᎤᏲᎢ" LDL cholesterol ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ.[22] Trans-ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ margarines ᎤᎭ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ.

ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ lactose, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ lactose ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ.[23] ᏴᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ allergies ᎿᏛᎦ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎯᎠ allergy-causing ᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ.[24]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. Douglas ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ Online ᎧᏁᏨ ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ butter. Retrieved 27 ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 2005.
  2. McGee p. 35.
  3. McGee p. 33.
  4. McGee p. 34.
  5. McGee p. 37.
  6. ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ McGee p. 10.
  7. Dalby p. 65.
  8. Bostock ᎠᎴ Riley ᎠᏁᏢᏔᏅᎯ. Book 28, chapter 35.
  9. Dalby p. 65.
  10. ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ: ᎪᏢᏅ. Ancient Firkins.
  11. McGee p. 33, "ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ, ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ".
  12. ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ: ᎪᏢᏅ. Ancient Firkins.
  13. ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ: ᎪᏢᏅ. Eating less butter, and more fat.
  14. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ this chart ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ Margarine ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᏳᎳᏛ statistics. Retrieved 4 ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 2005.
  15. Dairy: Word Markets and Trade. Retrieved 1 ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 2005.
  16. Crawford ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, ᎢᎦᏛ B, ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ, ch. 1: Butter. Retrieved 28 ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 2005.
  17. Bring back butter conditioners. Retrieved 27 ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 2005. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ phased ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ.
  18. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ joyofbaking.com, unsalted ᎪᏢᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎣᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎠᎴ salted ᎪᏢᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᏍᎩ.
  19. ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ McGee, pp. 36 (beurre noisette ᎠᎴ beurre noir), 632 (beurre ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ beurre monté), ᎠᎴ 635–636 (hollandaise ᎠᎴ béarnaise).
  20. McGee p. 37.
  21. ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 27 ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 2005.
  22. Q&A about Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ (ᎠᎹᏰᏟ) ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, ᏧᏪᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎬ ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ (2005). Retrieved 15 ᎫᏬᏂ 2006.
  23. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ here, ᏌᏊ ᎤᏏ ᎠᏗᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ 0.03 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ lactose; ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ 400 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ.
  24. Allergy ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ. Milk Allergy & Intolerance. Retrieved 27 ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 2005.

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