ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, ᎡᏗt

ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ subfields ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ, epistemology, ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏛᏙᏗ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ evaluate ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎴ methodology ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ debated, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ varies ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎦᎷᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏘ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎧᏁᏨ "Φιλοσοφία" (philo-sophia), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ "ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ" ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ "ᎤᎾᎵᎢ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ". ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎪᎢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ, ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏓᎴᏁ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏙᎳᏣᏅ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᏚᎵᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎪᎢ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎾᏁᎵᏍᎬᎢ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ) ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ labeled ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ Penguin ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏁᎵᏒ, ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ". ᎯᎠ Penguin ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᏗᎭ Ꮎ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ Ꮭ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ: "ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 20th-ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ... ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏛᏙᏓᎧᏂᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎬᏗ ᎪᎳᏨᎯ enquiry." ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎪᎴᎯ Ꭲ ᎢᎬᏁᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᏗ.

ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᎯ, "ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ" ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ethic ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ.

ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᏫᎵ Durant ᏠᎨᏏ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ, epistemology, ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎾᏭᏅᎩ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ.

ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᎭ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ. ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎦ: ᎯᎳᎪ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ? ᎯᎳᎪ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎣᎾᏛ Ꮎ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ? Epistemology ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎦ: ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ? ᎯᎳᎪ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎣᎾᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎣᎾᏛ? ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ? ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎦ: ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ? ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅᎯ? ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ? ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ? ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ? ᎯᎳᎪ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ? ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ? ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿᎢ normative ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ? ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ 'ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ' ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ (ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏗᎦᏍᎩᎶ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏍᎩᎶ) ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ontological ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ? ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎦ: ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᏚ? ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ? ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎦ: ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ? ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ? ᎿᏛᎦ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ?

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ. ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ (ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ Aristotle ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ), ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ), ᎠᎴ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

Main article: History of philosophy

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᏂᏯᏩᏙᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏦᎢ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ: ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Ꮝ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ argued Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏤ, "ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ" ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᎪᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ.

ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎠᎪᎢ-ᎶᎻ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᏯᏙᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-Socratic ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ Socratic ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-Socratic ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ", ᎠᎴ "ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ". ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-Socratic ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Democritus, Parmenides, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎪᎾᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ Socratic ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, Socrates, ᎦᎪ, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ Plato, revolutionized ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Socratic ᎢᎬᎾᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ, ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Socrates ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎦᎳᏩᏎᏗ" ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Plato ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. Plato ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ Aristotle, ᎦᎪ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ Plato ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎪ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ disagreed ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ Plato. ᎯᎠ ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ushered ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Euclid, Epicurus, Chrysippus, Pyrrho, ᎠᎴ Sextus Empiricus. ᎠᎨᏴ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Hipparchia ᎯᎠ ᎤᏢᏈᏌᏘ, ᎦᎪ flourished ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 300 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ.

ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᏒᎯᏰᏱ. Thomas Aquinas

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎶᎻ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎩᏥᏍᎬ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, Islam, ᎠᎴ rabbinic ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Augustine Hippo, Boethius, Anselm, Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, Roger ᎭᏫᏯ ᎤᎧᏲᏒ, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ Scotus, William of Ockham, Nicholas of Cusa, ᎠᎴ Francisco Suárez. ᎠᎨᏴ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏕᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ Abelard ᏓᎪᎥᎩ Heloise. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ Abrahamic ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Jewish ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ Saadia Gaon ᎠᎴ Maimonides, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Muslim ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ Avicenna, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ-Ghazali, ᎠᎴ Averroes, ᎨᏒᎩ intercommunicative. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ properties ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ; ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ involving ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ (Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎢᎦ ᏦᏍᏓ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎣᏏ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂ), ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ divisibility; ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎯᎠ theories Plato ᎠᎴ Aristotle. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Tertullian, ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ René Descartes, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏛᎪᏗᏍᎩ, ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎤᏪᏥᎠᏘ Elizabeth Bohemia, ᎦᎪ posed ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ-ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ Descartes.

ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎤᎪᎲᎩ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ Ꮎ questioned ᏓᎳᏏᏛ. Roger ᎭᏫᏯ ᎤᎧᏲᏒ (1214-1294?) ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᎲᏍᎬ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ. Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) challenged ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. Francis ᎭᏫᏯ ᎤᎧᏲᏒ (1561-1626) ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ.

ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ nineteenth ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎯᎠ 1950s, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ "ᎦᏙᎯ" ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ" ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎵᏏ-ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ.

ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ, ᎩᎳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ. ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Cartesian ᎠᎴ empiricist ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ dominated ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "obsession ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅ" Ꮎ pervaded ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ.

ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ (ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ Ockham) Ꮎ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᏗᎶᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᏓᎧᏁᎶᎰᎮᏎᏗ generated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᎢᏧᎳ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎧᏁᏨ (e.g. baldness, ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ) ᎾᎿᎢ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏗᏒᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ "ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ grammatical ᎤᏙᏢᏒ", ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏎ ᎠᏁᏢᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ (ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ (ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ Frege ᎠᎴ Bertrand Russell) ᎤᎭ argued Ꮎ ᎢᎬᏱ-ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏗᏒᏍᏙᏗ.

"ᎦᏙᎯ" ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎯᎠ phenomenologists ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Edmund Husserl ᎠᎴ Maurice Merleau-Ponty, ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎾᎪᎲᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗᏱ phenomena ᎠᏎ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ: ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ , ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ , ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ phenomenology ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ-ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ ᏔᎵ Cartesianism.

ᎩᎳ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ shared ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ (ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ externalism, ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ McDowell ᎠᎴ Gareth Evans. Externalism posits Ꮎ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ (Socrates, George ᎤᏩᎢᏢᎢ) ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏱᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ mediated ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ "ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ" ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏁᎵᏒ "Socrates ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏔᎾᎯ" ᎤᎭ Socrates ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎦ Ꮎ ᎠᎭᏂ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ Ꮭ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ; ᏯᏛᎿ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᎩᏯ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ Ꮭ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ Eiffel ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ London existed ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎿᎢ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ "ᎦᏙᎯ" ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Heidegger, ᎦᎪ argued Ꮎ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏐᏅ ᎠᏓᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎩᎳ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ, "ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ ᎠᏏᏇ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᏇ". ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ" ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ worldless. ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎴ embedded ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ societies ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᎭ influenced ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ᏲᏂᎢ, Jewish, Islamic ᎠᎴ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎳᏗᎾ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᎭ contributed , ᎠᎴ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ, ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎩᎳ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᎭ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᎯ ᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ.

ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, procedural ᏧᎾᏣᏅᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ commonalities ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂ.

"ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ" ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ Ꮎ originated ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ, Persia, ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ, ᏣᏩᏂᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᎬᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎸᎬ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ Abrahamic ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ).


ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

Main article: Indian philosophy

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ Hindu ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏓᏩᏛᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Vedic ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ (circa 1500 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ) ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ Rta - ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ. ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, ᎯᎠ Bhagavad Gita ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ Sutra, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ circa 1000 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ–500 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ[citation needed]. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ, ᎯᎠ shramana ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Jainism ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ Vedanta ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ Hindu ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ. ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᏩᏥᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏏᏴᏫ, ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ.[1]

Persian ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Persia, Zarathustra ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏤ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Iranian ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ Indo-Iranian ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ 900 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. ᎪᎯ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ Zoroastrianism, ᎠᎴ Iranian ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ.

ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, ᏚᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ & ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎸ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ, 1922, ᎾᎥᎢ E.T.C. Werner.

ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏳ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ formulated ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᎪᎲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏓᎾᎵᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ Ꮎ ᏚᎴᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, ᎠᎴ Legalism. ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ, ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏁᎵᏒ/ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ. (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ was not ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᎬᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏁᎵᏒ.) ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏗᎫᏝᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏁᎵᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ Tao Te Ching Laozi ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Analects ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ 600 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-Socratics ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ.

ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ philosophies, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᎯᏁᎩ Confucianism ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ. Confucianism ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ K’ung-fu-Tzu (ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Kong) ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 551–479 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ focused ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᎦᏯᏛ; emphasizing ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ governmental ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ, correctness ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ, ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, traditionalism, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ. Confucianism, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ Legalism, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ creating ᎯᎠ world’s ᎢᎬᏱ meritocracy, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ/ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ person’s ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ one’s ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ancestry, ᏄᏪᎾᎲᎢ, ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ ᎣᎵᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ debatably ᏄᏪᏒᎩ Ꮎ Confucianism ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ responsible ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ shaping ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ (ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ).

ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᎩ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Qin ᏓᎳᏏᏛ, ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏄᏓᎴ. ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ competition ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏄᏓᎴ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᎭ cooperated ᎠᎴ shared ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏙᏢᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ-Confucianism ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ revived ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ Confucianism ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ Ꮎ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ Ming ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ, Taoist, ᎠᎴ Legalist ᎢᎦᏛ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ integrate ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏍᎬᏎᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ modernization. ᎤᏂᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᏓᎳᏏᏛ, ᎠᎴ industrialism ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ Yat-sen ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. Mao Tse-Tung ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ Marxism, Stalinism, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ PRC ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏁᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏧᎳᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏓᏂᎸᎢᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏚᏂᏴᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ.

ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏐᎢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏤ Confucianism ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏅᏬᏘ). ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎦᎳᏩᏎᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ: Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, Legalism, ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ, Yin-Yang

African ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᏐᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ African ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ academia. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎾᎾᏭᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ, ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏗᏍᎩ.

ᏁᎵᏒ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ[edit]

ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ epistemology[edit]

ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ[edit]

René Descartes

René Descartes, ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏣᏙᏗ ᎾᎪᎯᏳᎲᏍᎬᎾ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᏯ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1641, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏑᏰᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎫᏍᏓᎥ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ Cogito ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ("ᎠᏯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏯ "). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ iyahdvnelidasdi ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᏪᎵᏒ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ; ᎾᏍᎩ attracted ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ Wolff.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Locke ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᏴᏫ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1689, ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ naturalism ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ. Hume ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ (1739-40) ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎾᎪᎯᏳᎲᏍᎬᎾ. ᏐᎢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Thomas Hobbes ᎠᎴ George Berkeley (ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Berkeley).

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏗᏒᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Berkeley ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ Isaac Newton ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎤᏎᏒᎲ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ. ᏐᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Blaise Pascal, ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ, ᎠᎴ Jonathan Edwards. ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Jean-Jacques Rousseau ᎠᎴ Edmund ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ, ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ. ᎯᎠ restricted ᏧᏁᏉᏨ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ specialization ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.

Kantian ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ[edit]

ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Kant ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ (1781/1787) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏧᏃᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ approaches ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏚᎾᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. Kant ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎣᎾᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎣᎾᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᏌᏊ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ Ꮎ ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. Kant ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ modeled ᎾᎿ Euclid, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ. Kant ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Schelling, ᎠᎴ Arthur Schopenhauer.

Kant ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏓᎶᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᎦᎥ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏓᏥ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. ᎠᏓᏥ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ G. W. F. Hegel ᎤᏤᎵ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1807 Phenomenology ᎠᏓᏅᏙ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, Hegel ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗᏱ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏐᏍᏛ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏓᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎶᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏩᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎦᏔᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒᏂ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ) ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᏗᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ. Hegel ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎪᏢᏗ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏗᎶᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "Hegelian ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ". ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Hegelian ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach ᎠᎴ Karl Marx.

ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Pragmatism[edit]

Main article: Pragmatism

ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 19th ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎡᎶᎯ. Charles Peirce ᎠᎴ William James ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ-ᎠᏩᏥᎩ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ pragmatism, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ instrumentalism, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ꮎ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏓᏛᏁ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ. ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Dewey, George Santayana, ᎠᎴ C. ᎠᏯ. Lewis. ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "pragmatist", ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Henri Bergson ᎠᎴ G. E. Moore shared ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ foundational ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ pragmatists. Pragmatism ᎤᎭ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ Richard Rorty ᎠᎴ Hilary Putnam.

ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ[edit]

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ Bertrand Russell ᎠᎴ Alfred ᎤᏴᏢ Whitehead ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ Mathematica ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1910-1913, ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ attracted ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ theories, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ shared commitment ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ. ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Rudolf Carnap ᎠᎴ Hans Reichenbach ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ confirmable ᎠᎴ falsifiable ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ; ᏂᎦᎥᏇ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ deduced ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ testable ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏦᏕ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ.

Phenomenology ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ[edit]

ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ Ꮎ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ Britain, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏳᎳᏛ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ Franz Brentano, Edmund Husserl ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎢᏤ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ (1901) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ (1913). ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ phenomenology, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎬᎿᏅᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏱᏓᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏴᏫ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ; ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏄᏁᎵᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏡᏡ Heidegger ᎠᎴ Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

Heidegger ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ phenomenology ᎠᎲᏲᎵᏓ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ. ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᏁᎳᏙᏗ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᎾᏎᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ. Heidegger stressed ᏔᎵ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ: Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏲᎯᎭ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏁᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ (e.g. "ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ"). ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Hans-Georg Gadamer ᎠᎴ Paul Ricoeur.

Existentialism[edit]

Main article: Existentialism
Søren Kierkegaard

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, existentialism, ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮝ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ Søren Kierkegaard ᎠᎴ Friedrich Nietzsche, ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ. Kierkegaard, Danish ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏓᏙᏓ Existentialism", argued Ꮎ "ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ subjectivity", ᎦᏛᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᎾᏕᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ. ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ (e.g. ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ) ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ observational ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎥᏝ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ. Nietzsche argued Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ "ᏫᎵ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ", ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎣᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ. ᎡᏆ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ. Kierkegaard ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ ᎠᎴ Nietzsche ᎤᏤᎵ Übermensch ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ.

ᏓᎾᏎᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, existentialism ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏁᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ authentically, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᏁᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏎᏍᏗ existentialism ᎨᏒᎢ Jean-Paul Sartre, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ existentialism ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ (1943). ᏐᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ existentialists ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Albert Camus, Simone ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty ᎠᎴ Karl ᎠᏣᏅᏙ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ[edit]

Main article: Analytic philosophy

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎦᎸᏔᏅᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎪᎲᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏓᏰᏏ ᎾᎿ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1921, Ludwig Wittgenstein ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ. ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏙᎬ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Tractatus, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ. ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ "ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ", ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ Gilbert Ryle ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ. ᎯᎠ "ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ" ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ shared ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ (Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Stuart ᏍᏙᏍᎩᏱ), ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎩᎵᏏ-ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ "ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ" ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ unified ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎡᏆ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, P. F. Strawson, Donald Davidson, Hilary Putnam, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Rawls, Noam Chomsky, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ Mikhail Bakhtin.

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎩᎵᏏ-ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᏓᎾᏎᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ metaphilosophical ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Wittgenstein ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ (1953), ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꮎ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᏎ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎠᏥᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎢᏤ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ methodological ᎾᎪᎯᏳᎲᏍᎬᎾ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ W. V. O. Quine ᎠᎴ Wilfrid Sellars (ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᏓᏰᏏ ᎦᏐᎯ Auguste Comte ᎠᎴ Whitehead). ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᏃᏝᎩ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ naturalism, holism (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ), instrumentalism, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ. ᏎᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎤᎭ branched ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Wittgenstein ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ.

ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ[edit]

ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎪᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎨᏒᎩ inescapably ᏗᎧᏁᎸ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎾᎿ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ. Plato ᎤᏁᏨᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ-ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏕᎳᎰᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ Plato, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᏍᎩᏍᎪᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Aristotle, ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ. Aristotle reasoned Ꮎ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎣᏍᏛ. Aristotle ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ inequalities ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ.

ᏔᎵ millennia ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, Thomas Hobbes contested ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Hobbes, ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ anti-ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ: ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ egoistic, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎣᏩᏒ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ. ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᎢ, Hobbes argued, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ inequalities, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ Ꮭ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏂᏍᎦᏅᎾ Ꮎ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏫᎵ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᏍᎦ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ inflicted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, Hobbes ᎠᏍᏆᏛ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏗᎶᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ (ᎠᎴ ᎦᎪ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᏗ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎵᏓᏍᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏒ marginalize ᎠᎴ ᎬᎨᏫᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ democratic ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᏌᏊ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ Jean-Jacques Rousseau, ᎦᎪ responded Hobbes ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ "ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ", ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏚᎾᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Locke ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎬᏙᏗ Hobbes Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ-ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏁᎲ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ argued Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ unmodulated ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ.

ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ-ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ David Hume, ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎥᏳᎩ. ᎡᏍᎦᏗᏢ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ realists, ᏙᎢ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ.

Consequentialism, ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ aretaic ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ[edit]

Jeremy Bentham

Template:Main article ᏌᏊ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ dominated ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ethicists ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ consequentialism ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ.

Jeremy Bentham ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Stuart ᏍᏙᏍᎩᏱ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ propagating utilitarianism, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ "ᏭᏔᏅ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ ᏎᏍᏗ". ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ promoting ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏎᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ promoted ᎯᎠ broader ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ consequentialism: Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᏁᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏕᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ consequentialism, ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Kant argued Ꮎ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ. Kant ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏫᎵ. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Kant, ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ 20th-ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ deontologist, W.D. Ross, argued ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ weaker ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏳᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ prima facie ᎢᏳᏛᏁᏗ.

ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᎭ emphasized ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ aretaic ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ. ᏌᏊ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ Bernard Williams. Williams ᎪᏪᎶᏗ Ꮎ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏧᎳ consequentialism ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ demanded Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎳᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ. ᎪᎯ, Williams argued, ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᏗᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ.

G.E.M. Anscombe, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ Ꭺ, "ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ" (1958), revived ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎤᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Aristotle ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ entrenched ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏙᎬ Kantianism ᎠᎴ consequentialism. ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Philippa ᎤᎳᏏᏕᎾ, Alasdair MacIntyre ᎠᎴ Rosalind Hursthouse.

ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎧᎵᎢ ᎠᏓᏓᎶᏙᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ, ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎬᏂ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ – ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ philosophies ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, Kautilya, ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ Zi, ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Kant, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Niccolò Machiavelli, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Karl Marx, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Stuart ᏍᏙᏍᎩᏱ, ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ Gandhi, Robert Nozick, Ayn Rand ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Rawls ᎤᎭ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎠᎴ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ championed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Dewey ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏓᎪᎾᏛ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏌᎹᏰᏟ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. Carl von Clausewitz ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏓᎪᎾᏛ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏙᎦᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ.

ᏐᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ epistemology, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎪᎯᏳᏙ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᎳᏏᏔᏅ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎠᎴ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ discusses ᎯᎠ underpinnings ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ. ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏁᎳᏙᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ, ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ "philosophies..." ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ deeper ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ conceptual underpinnings ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ.

ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᏋ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, sociology, ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ (ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ).

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏧᎵ ᏍᏆᎵᏓ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, Ꮭ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏚᎵᏃᎮᎸ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎵᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ Shakespeare ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ symphonies ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ Beethoven ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᏪᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Elvis Presley. ᎩᎳ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏫᎪᏍᏓᏴ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ. ᏗᏁᎸᏗᏱ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎵᏐᏆᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ. William McGaughey ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ, "ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎣᏓᏅᏛ", approaches ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎠᏂᏃᎮᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ Ꮝ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ.

ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ debated. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ pseudophilosophy.

Relativist ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ-ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ sceptical ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ-ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ shouldn't ᎾᏍᏋ.

Plato, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬ, Socrates, ᎦᎪ arguably ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏂᎸᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᏂᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏂᎥᏇ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏚᎸᎲ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Gorgias.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ affirmed Ꮎ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏙᎲᏅ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᎤᎾᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏚᎵᎭ.

ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ summed ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏪᎵᏍᏛᎾ, ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ-ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ; ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗᎾ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ; ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ connotation; ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ argued Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ termed ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, Leslie Stevenson, ᏍᎪᎯ Theories ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ, 4th ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 2004.

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  • ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, David, ᎯᎠ Penguin ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, Penguin ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, 2004, ISBN 0-14-051543-7.
  • Curley, Edwin, Spinoza ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏍᎩ, Princeton, 1994, ISBN 0-691-00067-0.
  • Descartes, René, ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᏅᎩᏁ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, Hacket ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ, 1998, ISBN 0-87220-421-9.
  • Dolan, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ P., ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ Erasmus, ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅᎢ, 1964, ISBN 0-452-00972-3.
  • Ducasse, ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, Philosophy as a Science, 1941.
  • Durant, ᏫᎵ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎠᏜᏩᏛ, 1991. ISBN 0-671-73916-6.
  • Durant, ᏫᎵ ᎠᎴ Durant, ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ, Rousseau ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ: ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ, ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1756, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏳᎳᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1715, 1789 (ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ, 10), MJF ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, 1997, ISBN 1-56731-021-4.
  • Heidegger, ᏡᏡ, ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ: ᏔᎵᏁ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ, HarperSanFrancisco. 1993, ISBN 0-06-063763-3.
  • Hobbes, Thomas, ᏂᎬᎢ, Penguin ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, 1985.
  • Husserl, Edmund ᎠᎴ Welton, Donn, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ Husserl: ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ Phenomenology, ᎢᏂᏗᏰᎾ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1999, ISBN 0-253-21273-1
  • Kant, ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, 1990, ISBN 0-87975-596-2.
  • Kierkegaard, Søren, ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ, Penguin ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, 1986, ISBN 0-14-044449-1.
  • Kierkegaard, Søren, ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ, Princeton ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1992, ISBN 0-691-02081-7.
  • Kung Fu Tze (ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ), D. C. Lau (Translator), ᎯᎠ Analects, Penguin ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, 1998, ISBN 0-14-044348-7.
  • Lao Tze (Laozi), Stephen Hodge (Translator), Tao Te Ching, Barron ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ, 2002. ISBN 0-7641-2168-5.
  • Leibniz, G. W., ᏁᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, Hackett ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ, 1989. ISBN 0-87220-063-9.
  • Mauter, Thomas (ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ), ᎯᎠ Penguin ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, Penguin ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, 1998, ISBN 0-14-051250-0.
  • McGaughey, William, "ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎣᏓᏅᏛ: ᎢᏤ ᏧᎵᎶᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Electronic ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ", Thistlerose ᏚᏂᏃᏣᎳᏅ, 2001. ISBN 0-9605630-4-0.
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏁᏨ Zarathustra, Penguin ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, 1961. ISBN 0-14-044118-2.
  • Popper, Karl R., ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ, Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-27844-9 .
  • Sigmund, Paul E., ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Locke, Norton, 2005. ISBN 0-393-96451-5.

ᎾᏛᏁᎸ[edit]

ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ[edit]

  • Copleston, Frederick. ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏂᎢ: ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Herzen Lenin ᎠᎴ Berdyaev. ISBN 0-268-01569-4
  • Critchley, Simon. ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ: ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ. ISBN 0-19-285359-7
  • Hamilton, ᎢᏯᏓᏪᏎᏗ. ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ: ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ. ISBN 0-19-285374-0
  • Harwood, ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ., ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ., 2000); www.sterlingharwood.com
  • Imbo, Samuel Oluoch. ᎾᏛᏁᎸ African ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ISBN 0-8476-8841-0
  • Kupperman, Joel J. ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ Asian ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ: ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ. ISBN 0-19-513335-8
  • Leaman, Oliver. ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ Islamic ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ISBN 0-7456-1960-6
  • ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ, Joe ᎠᎴ Powell, Jim. ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏕᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ISBN 0-86316-282-7
  • Nagel, Thomas. ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ? ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ISBN 0-19-505292-7
  • Scruton, Roger. ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ISBN 0-415-26763-3
  • ᎡᎯᏍᏛ, Ninian. ᎡᎶᎯ Philosophies. ISBN 0-415-22852-2
  • Tarnas, Richard. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎨᎵᏲᏤᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ: ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ. ISBN 0-345-36809-6
  • The Branches of Philosophy
  • A Glossary of Terms

Anthologies[edit]

  • ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ: ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Plato Derrida (4th ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ) ᎾᎥᎢ Forrest E. Baird
  • ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (Vols. 1 & 2, 2nd ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ) ᎾᎥᎢ Louis P. Pojman
  • ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ: ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏑᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ (Vol. 3) ᎾᎥᎢ Louis P. Pojman
  • ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᏯ ᎤᎧᏲᏒ ᏍᏙᏍᎩᏱ ᎾᎥᎢ Edwin Arthur Burtt
  • European ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Descartes Nietzsche ᎾᎥᎢ Monroe Beardsley
  • ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ: ᎠᏰᎵ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ James Baillie
  • Existentialism: ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ (ᏔᎵᏁ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ) ᎾᎥᎢ Charles Guignon, Derk Pereboom
  • ᎯᎠ Phenomenology ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Dermot Moran, ᎦᎪᏘ Mooney
  • ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ Islamic ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ edited ᎾᎥᎢ Muhammad Ali Khalidi
  • ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Charles . Moore
  • ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᏯᏛ-tsit Chan
  • Kim, J. ᎠᎴ Ernest Sosa, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. (1999). ᎣᏓᏅᏛ: ᎠᏓᏓᎶᏙᏗ. Blackwell ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ Anthologies. ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ, Blackwell ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ Ltd.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏫᎵ (2004) edited ᎾᎥᎢ Robert ᎧᏁ

ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ[edit]

  • ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ edited ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ Honderich
  • ᎯᎠ Cambridge ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Robert Audi
  • ᎯᎠ Routledge ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (10 vols.) edited ᎾᎥᎢ Edward ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, Luciano Floridi (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ online ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ); ᎠᎴ
  • ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ Routledge ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ edited ᎾᎥᎢ Edward ᏂᎦᏛᎢ (abridgement)
  • ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (8 vols.) edited ᎾᎥᎢ Paul Edwards; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1996, ᏐᏁᎵᏁ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ updated ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ 1967 ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ.
  • Routledge ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (10 vols.) edited ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Marenbon
  • ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (9 vols.) ᎾᎥᎢ Frederick Copleston
  • ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (5 vols.) ᎾᎥᎢ W. T. Jones
  • Encyclopaedia ᎠᏴᏫᏯ Philosophies (8 vols.), edited ᎾᎥᎢ Karl H. ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ (ᎢᎬᏱ 6 ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎦᎴᏯᏛ)
  • ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (2 vols.) ᎾᎥᎢ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
  • ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (5 vols.) ᎾᎥᎢ Surendranath Dasgupta
  • ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ (2 vols.) ᎾᎥᎢ Fung Yu-lan, Derk Bodde
  • ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ edited ᎾᎥᎢ Antonio . Cua
  • ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, Franz-Karl Ehrhard, Kurt Friedrichs
  • ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ Asian ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Brian Carr, Indira Mahalingam
  • ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ: ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ . ᎦᎳᏅᎯ
  • ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ Islamic ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ edited ᎾᎥᎢ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Oliver Leaman
  • ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ Jewish ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ edited ᎾᎥᎢ Daniel H. ᏂᏚᏢᏫᏎᎲᎾ, Oliver Leaman
  • ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏲᏂᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ: ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ Centuries ᎾᎥᎢ Valerii Aleksandrovich Kuvakin
  • Ayer, . J. ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. (1994) ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎩᎶ ᏄᏂᏪᏒ. Blackwell ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ. ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ, Basil Blackwell Ltd.
  • Blackburn, ., ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. (1996)ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ, ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.
  • Mauter, T., ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. ᎯᎠ Penguin ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. London, Penguin ᏗᎪᏪᎵ.
  • ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ, D., ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. (1942). The Dictionary of Philosophy. ᏄᏯᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ, Inc.
  • Angeles, P. ., ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. (1992). ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ Collins ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᏄᏯᎩ, ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ.
  • Bunnin, N. ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ. ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ., ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. (1996) ᎯᎠ Blackwell ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. Blackwell ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎦᎾᎵ-ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ, Blackwell ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ Ltd.
  • Popkin, R. H. (1999). ᎯᎠ Columbia ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᏄᏯᎩ, Columbia ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.
  • An historical timeline.

Bibliographies[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]