ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎡᎶᎯᏱ

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ᎢᎾᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Saudi Arabia. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏳ ᎢᎾᎨ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ characteristics Ꮎ ᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏌᏊ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎢᎾᎨ(ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎡᎶᎯᏱ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ precipitation. ᏂᎦᎥᏊ deserts ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ areas Ꮎ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ precipitation ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 250 mm (10 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ).

Deserts ᎤᎭ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ supporting ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ wetter regions ᎪᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ deserts ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ biodiversity, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎦgantlaiᎾ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎬᏍᎦᎸ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎦᎫᏘ) ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ moisture. ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏌᏊ-ᎯᏍᎩᏁ ᎡᎶᎯ' ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎾᎨ.

ᎢᎾᎨ landscapes ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ. Deserts ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ composed ᎾᏳ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏯy surfaces. ᎾᏳ dunes ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ergs ᎠᎴ stony surfaces ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Reg ᎠᎴ hamada surfaces ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᎾᎨ surfaces. Exposures rocky terrain ᎠᎴ typical, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏨᏓᏓnusdv tsvdadakenedi minimal ᎦᏙᎯ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᎴ sparseness vegetation. ᎭᏫᏂ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎹ-ᎫᏝᎢ ᏗᏯᏖᏂ. Eolian (ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ-ᎤᏱᎵᏒᎩ) processes ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ factors ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ shaping ᎢᎾᎨ landscapes. ᎤᏴᏢ deserts ᎤᎭ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ precipation ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏥ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ Antarctica (composed ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 98 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏙᎯal ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ 2 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎣᏍᏛᎯ ᏅᏯ). ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Sahara.

Deserts sometimes ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ mineral ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ arid environment ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎩ exposed ᎾᎥᎢ erosion. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ deserts ᎠᎴ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ artifacts ᎠᎴ fossils ᎾᏍᏋ preserved.

Deserts ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ deserts ᎤᎭ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ (ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎤᏍᏗ moisture) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏗᏂᏂᏴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᏗᏫᏒᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎾᎨ cools ᏄᎵᏍᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, cloudless skies ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Köppen ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi, deserts ᎠᎴ classed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ (BW).

ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎢᎾᎨ[edit]

ᎯᎠ Thar ᎢᎾᎨ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Jaisalmer, India
File:High desert.jpg
ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ Oregon, United ᎧᏃᎮᎭ

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ classifications rely ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎦᏍᎬᎤᎶᏒᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ rainfall, ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, humidity, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ factors. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1953, Peveril Meigs ᎤᏂᏯuniyatolv ᎢᎾᎨ regions ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏦᎢ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ precipitation ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏊ widely accepted ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi, ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ arid ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ least 12 consecutive ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ rainfall, arid ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 250 millimeters ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ rainfall, ᎠᎴ semiarid ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ precipitation ᎠᏰᎵ 250 ᎠᎴ 500 millimeters. Arid ᎠᎴ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ arid ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ deserts, ᎠᎴ semiarid grasslands ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ steppes.

ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎦᎷᎶᎩ rainfall ᎤᏩᏒ ᏰᎵᏇ't ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᏧᎴᎯᏌᏅᎯ, Arizona ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 250 millimeters (10 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ) precipitation ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎾᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ Alaska ᎤᏤᎵ Brooks ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 250 millimeters precipitation ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏓᏂᎾᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ termed "ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ evapotranspiration." ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏓᏁᎶᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ calculated ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ formula P-PE+/-, ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ P ᎨᏒᎢ precipitation, PE ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ evapotranspiration rates ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ. Evapotranspiration ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ atmospheric evaporation, coupled ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ evaporative ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎠᎹ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ processes ᏗᎦdigakohidi. ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ evapotranspiration, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎹ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ evaporate ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. Tucson, Arizona ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 300 millimeters, (12 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ), ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2500 millimeters, (100 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ), ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵᏇ evaporate ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ, ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 8 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵᏇ evaporate ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎦᎶᏍᎦ. Rates evapotranspiration ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ regions ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Alaska ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ regions ᎠᎩᏍᏗ minimal precipitation, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ designated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎾᎨ: ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏢᏃ evaporation exceeds precipitation.

Ꮎ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ deserts. ᎤᏴᏢ deserts ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏥ; ᏯᏛᎿ locations don't ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ precipitation, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏥ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ commonly ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ tundra ᎢᏳᏃ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ-freezing temperatures ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎦugatohvsvi, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ freezing ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ-ᎦᏌᏆᎸ, rendering ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ lifeless.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ non-polar deserts ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ. ᎠᎹ tends ᎤᎭ cooling, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ least moderating, ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ environments ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ plentiful. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ deserts ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎤᏓᏴᎳᏛ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ masses ᎤᏓᏲᎱᏎᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ moisture ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎣᏓᎸ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ; ᏐᎢ areas ᎠᎴ arid ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ moisture (ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ-latitude landmass ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ locations, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Asia).

Deserts ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ classified ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ geographical ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ dominant ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-latitude, ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎤᏓᏴᎳᏛ, coastal, monsoon, ᎠᎴ polar ᎢᎾᎨ. ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎢᎾᎨ areas ᎾᎯᏳᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ non-arid environments ᎠᎴ paleodeserts, ᎠᎴ extraterrestrial deserts ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏐᎢ planets.

Montane deserts[edit]

Montane deserts ᎠᎴ arid ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ altitude; ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎯᎠ Himalaya, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ Kunlun ᏙᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Tibetan Plateau. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ locations ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᎭ elevations exceeding 3,000 meters (9,843 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ thermal regime ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ hemiboreal. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᏥᏚᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏭᏓᎪᎾᏛ aridity (ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ precipitation ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 40mm) ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ moisture.

ᎢᎾᎨ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ[edit]

Satellite ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ Al-Dahna ᎢᎾᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Saudi Arabia. ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ depositional ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ.

ᎾᏳ ᏗᎫᏝᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 20 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ deserts. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏳ ᏗᎬᎯᏓᎠᎴ ᎾᏳ seas—ᎤᎪᏗᏗ regions undulating dunes resembling ᎠᎺᏉᎯ waves "ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ 6 ᏚᏙᏢᏒ deserts:

  • ᎣᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ deserts;
  • Hamada deserts, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ comprise plateaux landforms;
  • Regs ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏅᏯ pavements;
  • Ergs ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏳ seas;
  • Intermontane Basins;
  • Badlands ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ margins arid ᏗᎦᏙᎯ comprising ᎦᏓᏆᎵ-ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ; ᎠᎴ

ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᎾᎨ surfaces ᎠᎴ plains ᎭᏢᏃ eolian deflation—ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎣᏌᏂ-grained ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ—ᎤᎭ exposed ᏗᏲᏒᎯ gravels ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛ predominantly pebbleᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ cobble.

ᎯᎠ remaining surfaces arid ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ composed exposed ᏅᏲᎯ outcrops, ᎢᎾᎨ soils, ᎠᎴ fluvial ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ alluvial ᎠᏔᏃᏲ, playa, ᎢᎾᎨ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎠᎴ oases. ᏅᏲᎯ outcrops commonly ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏙᏓᎸ ᏓᎦdagatuwistanv ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ erosional plains.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ dunes. Barchan dunes ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎠᏦᏔᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ crescent-shaped. Longitudinal ᎠᎴ seif dunes ᎠᎴ dunes Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏦᏔᏩᏘ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ Ꮎ blows ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ. Transverse dunes ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᏃᏈᏏ dunes ᎠᎴ ᏃᏈᏏ-shaped ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ridges Ꮎ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᏥᏄatsinuqowisgv ᏴᏩyvwatuwidv ᎪᏍᏓᏱ.

Oases ᎠᎴ vegetated areas moistened ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ irrigation. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ. Oases ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ deserts Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ habitation.

Soils[edit]

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ moisture ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ dries ᎠᏥᏄatsinuqowisgv.

ᎦᏙᎯᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ arid climates ᎠᎴ predominantly mineral soils (classified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ aridisols) ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ organic ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏩᎫᏔᏅ accumulation ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ soils ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᎹ layers ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. Calcium carbonate precipitated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏅᏯ ᎠᏰᏍᏓᎥ ᎾᏳ ᎠᎴ gravel ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ layers ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "calcrete" ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 50 meters ᎤᎭᎨᏛ.

Caliche ᎨᏒᎢ reddish-ᏬᏗᎨ ᎤᏁᎬ layer ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎾᎨ soils. Caliche commonly occurs ᏥᏄᏍᏗ nodules ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ coatings ᎾᎿ mineral grains ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ complicated interaction ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ dioxide ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎪᏘ roots ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ decaying organic ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ.

Vegetation[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏗᎦdigakohidi ᎠᎴ drought- ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ-tolerant, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ xerophyte. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ, roots, ᎠᎴ stems. ᏐᎢ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏗᎦdigakohidi ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢᎾ penetrate ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎡᏙᎠ. ᎯᎠ stems ᎠᎴ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᎦdigakohidi ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ velocity ᎾᏳ-ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎬ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ erosion.

Deserts typically ᎤᎭ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎫᏢᏗ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ enormously diverse. ᎯᎠ Sonoran ᎢᎾᎨ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Southwest ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ complex ᎢᎾᎨ vegetation ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎯᎠ giant saguaro cacti ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ nests ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏕᏡᎬ" ᎯᎠ ᎢᎾᎨ. Saguaro ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ 200 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ 9 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 15 centimeters ᎦᎸᎳᏗ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 75 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎯᎠ cacti ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ ᎤᏛᏒ, saguaro ᎠᎴ 15 meters ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 10 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯhilvsgi iyatvni. ᎤᏅᏌ dot ᎯᎠ Sonoran ᎠᎴ reinforce ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ deserts ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏰᏍᏗ-ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ cacti ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏗᎦdigakohidi, ᏐᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᏗᎦdigakohidi ᎤᎭ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎯᎠ arid environment. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ pea ᎠᎴ sunflower ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ. ᎤᏴᏢ deserts ᎤᎭ grasses ᎠᎴ shrubs ᏥᏄᏍᏗ dominant vegetation.

ᎠᎹ[edit]

ᎯᎠ shifting sands simulator ᎾᎾᎢ Questacon, Canberra

ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ deserts, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎾᎨ storms ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ. ᎪᏪᎸ 44 millimeters ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎤᏅᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ 3 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Sahara. ᎡᏆ Saharan storms ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏩᎯᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 1 millimeter ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ. Normally ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ channels, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ arroyos ᎠᎴ wadi, ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎧᎵkalil ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎦᎨᏛ ᏗᎦᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎬ ᎦᏃᎱᎩᏍᎬᎪᏢᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ channels ᎦᏂᏰᎬ.

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎦᎶᏍᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ deserts, deserts ᎠᎩᏍᏗ runoff ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ephemeral, ᎠᎴ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ-ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ, streams ᎨᎶᎸᎯ ᎤᎪᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ sediment ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ deserts ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ basins ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ drainage, ᎦᏲᎵ deserts ᎠᎴ crossed ᎾᎥᎢ 'exotic' rivers Ꮎ derive ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎾᎨ. ᏯᏛᎿ rivers infiltrate soils ᎠᎴ evaporate ᎡᏆ amounts ᎠᎹ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ journeys ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ deserts, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎿ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ continuity. ᎯᎠ Nile ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎯᎠ Colorado ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ exotic rivers Ꮎ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ deserts ᏩᎯᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ sediments ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ.

Lakes ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏢᏃ rainfall ᎠᎴ meltwater ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ drainage basins ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ. ᎢᎾᎨ lakes ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎨᏰᎯ, ᎠᎴ salty. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ lakes ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᏂ gradient, ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ kilometers. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ lakes ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ crust ᎠᎴ hardpan. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, silt, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏳ encrusted ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ Ꮎ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ playa. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ playas ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ deserts. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ relics ᎡᏆ lakes Ꮎ existed ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ lyudetiyvda ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 12,000 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ. ᎥᏓᎵ Bonneville ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ 52,000-ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ-kilometer ᎥᏓᎵ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ 300 meters ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Utah, Nevada, ᎠᎴ Idaho ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ lyudetiyvda. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ remnants ᎥᏓᎵ Bonneville ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Utah ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏓᎵ, Utah ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎠᎴ Sevier ᎥᏓᎵ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ playas ᎠᎴ arid ᎦᏙᎯ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ wetter Ꮷtsuqagutanvsv, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ clues climatic ᏧᎾᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ precipitation ᎾᏛᏁ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ erodes ᎯᎠ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏅᏯ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ powerfully. ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ Ꮎ erodes deserts - ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎩᎳ ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ terrains hardpans ᎠᎴ playas ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎤᎵᎶᎲᏍᎩ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏔᏏᏅᏱ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ runways ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ airplanes ᎠᎴ spacecraft. ᎦᏙᎯ-vehicle ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᎴ commonly ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎿ Bonneville Speedway, ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ ᎦᏅᏅᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏓᎵ hardpan. ᎤᏜᏅᏛ shuttles ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎿ Rogers ᎥᏓᎵ Playa ᎾᎾᎢ Edwards ᎤᏃᎴ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏗalenvdidsv ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ California.

Mineral ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ[edit]

ᎢᎦᏛ mineral ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi, ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ, ᎠᎴ preserved ᎾᎥᎢ geologic processes Ꮎ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ arid ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ. ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎹ ᏝᏄᏏes ore minerals ᎠᎴ redeposits ᎠᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ zones ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ. ᎪᎯ leaching ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ concentrates ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ minerals ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ore Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ mined.

Evaporation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ arid ᏗᎦᏙᎯ enriches mineral accumulation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ lakes. Playas ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ mineral ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ evaporation. ᎠᎹ evaporating ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ basins precipitates minerals ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ gypsum, salts (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ sodium nitrate ᎠᎴ sodium chloride), ᎠᎴ borate. ᎯᎠ minerals ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ evaporite ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎯᎠ saline ᎠᎹᏱ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi deposition.

Significant evaporite ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎯᎠ United ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, mineral ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎢᎪᎯᏓᏊ ᎨᏒ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ "20-ᏗᎦᎵᏯᏅᎯᏓ teams" Ꮎ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ hauled borax-laden wagons ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏅᏃᎯ. Boron, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ borax ᎠᎴ borate evaporites, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ingredient ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏃᏢᏂᎥᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᎨᏗ, ceramics, enamel, ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ chemicals, ᎠᎹ softeners, ᎠᎴ pharmaceuticals. Borates ᎠᎴ mined ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ evaporite ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ Searles ᎥᏓᎵ, California, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎾᎨ locations. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ chemicals Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Searles ᎥᏓᎵ substantially exceeds ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ$1 billion.

ᎯᎠ Atacama ᎢᎾᎨ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ unique ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ deserts ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎡᏆ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ saline minerals. Sodium nitrate ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ mined ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ explosiveᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Atacama ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ 19th Ꮝsqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi. ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ 3 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ tonneᎨᏒᎩ mined ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏯ.

ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ minerals ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ arid ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎠᏥᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ United ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, Chile, Peru, ᎠᎴ Iran; ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂ-ᎦᏙ ᎤᎳᏂ ore ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Australia; chromite ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᎾ; ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ, ᎠᎴ uranium ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Australia ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ United ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. Nonmetallic mineral ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏅᏯ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ beryllium, mica, lithium, ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, pumice, ᎠᎴ scoria ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ arid regions. Sodium carbonate, sulfate, borate, nitrate, lithium, bromine, iodine, calcium, ᎠᎴ strontium compounds ᎦᎷᏨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ sediments ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ-ᎦᏚᎢ brines ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ evaporation inland ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ geologically ᎾᏞᎬ ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ Formation Colorado, Wyoming, ᎠᎴ Utah ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ alluvial ᎠᏔᏃᏲ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ playa evaporites ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ fluctuated ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. Economically significant ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ trona, ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ sodium compounds, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ layers ᎪᎢ shale ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ arid environment.

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Dunes ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏏᏩ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏳ ᎢᎾᎨ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1000 ft.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ productive petroleum areas ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ arid ᎠᎴ semiarid regions Africa ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Mideast, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢ ᏠᎨᏏᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ marine environments. ᎾᏞᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎾnanahwunvgi ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ reservoirs ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ arid environment. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ noteworthy Ꮎ Ghawar, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ productive oilfield ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏏᏩ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Al-Dahna deserts.

ᏐᎢ ᎪᎢ reservoirs, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ eolian ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ origin ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᏊ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ humid environments. ᎯᎠ Rotliegendes, hydrocarbon reservoir ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ evaporite ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ U.. hydrocarbon ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎷᏨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ eolian sands. ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ alluvial ᎠᏔᏃᏲ sequences ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Trivia[edit]

  • 2006 ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ Deserts ᎠᎴ Desertification.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]