ᎠᏂᏓᏪᎯ

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ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ - ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Gabriel ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸᏍᎬ ᎺᎵ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎵᏐᏆᎸᏗ ᏥᏌ (ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Greco, 1575)

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏦᎢ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ, ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ Islam.

ᎧᏁᏨ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏁᏨ originated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎳᏗᎾ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎪᎢ αγγελος, ángelos, ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᎠᏂᏙᎯ" (ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ gamma "γγ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ "ng" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎪᎢ). ᎯᎠ closest ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ מלאך, mal'ach 4397, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᎠᏂᏙᎯ". "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏦᎢ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ:

  • אביר, abbir 47, ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ 78:25 (ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ. "ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ")
  • אלהים, Elohim 430, ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ 8:5
  • ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᎵᏒ שנאן, ᏗᎬᏓᎨᏂ' 8136, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ 68:17

Angelology[edit]

Angelology ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ hierarchical ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᏂᏙᎯ, ᎡᎶᎯ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ kaballistic ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ[1], ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ, ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎬᎨᏫᏒ ᏌᏊ.[2]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ Ꮎ Judeo-ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏟᏚᎦ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ Zoroastrianism ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏓᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ angelology ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ (ᏨᏍᎩᎾ) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Iranian Avestan ᎠᎴ Vedic ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏐᎢ ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ Indo-European mythologies ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ existed ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ Zoroastrianism ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎾᎿ Jewish angelology[3], ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ angelology, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Zoroastrianism ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ Israel ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Persian ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Babylon,[4] ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ Zoroastrianism borrowed ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ. ᎤᏙᎳᏒ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ (ᎡᏙᎠ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ Islamic ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ), ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ[5]: comparing ᏨᏍᎩᎾ Angra Mainyu (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ) Zoroastrian ᎪᎯᏳᏗ[6], ᎦᎪ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ-ᏦᏍᏗᏓᏄᏫ Ahura Mazda, ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏍᎦᏯᎭ.[7]ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ depicted ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Zoroastrianism, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ hierarchy ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ Angelology ᎤᏤᎵ hierarchy[8].

ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ questioned ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ Torah, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ Jewish ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ predate ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ Persian ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎾᎿ Zoroastrianism. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗᏱ Ꮎ similarities, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᏐᎢ motifs, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ Zoroastrian ᎪᎯᏳᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎧᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ[9].

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Zoroastrian ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ[edit]

Zoroastrianism ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏚᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ (Ahura Mazda): ᎯᎠ Amesha Spentas, Yazatas, ᎠᎴ Fravashis. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ (cf. ᎤᏪᏙᎵᏍᏗ Dar, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 26), Zoroastrians ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎥᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ dedicated Ꮎ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ.

Amesha Spentas (Phl. Amahraspandan) ("ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ")[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩᏯ ᎪᏪᎸ, "ᏄᏓᏅᏘᏴ ᎠᏲᎱᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ", ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Ahura Mazda. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎠᎴ:

  • Vohu Mano (Phl. Vohuman): ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ. ᎣᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. ᏧᏓᏘᏅᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏩᎦ.
  • Asha Vahishta (Phl. Ardwahisht): ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ. ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ Asha, ᎯᎠ Amahraspand presiding ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ Asha ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸ.
  • Khshathra Vairya (Phl. Shahrewar): ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ. 'ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ', ᎯᎠ Amahraspand presiding ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ.
  • Spenta Armaiti (Phl. Spandarmad): ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ. 'ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ', ᎯᎠ Amahraspand presiding ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ
  • Haurvatat (Phl. Hordad): ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ. 'ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ'. ᏧᏓᏘᏅᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ.
  • Ameretat (Phl. Amurdad): ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ. 'ᎢᎪᎯᏓ', ᎯᎠ Amahraspand presiding ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

Fravashis (Phl. Farohars) ("ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ")[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Arda Fravash ("ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ"). ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ accompanied ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ (Y26.4, 55.1), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ patrolled ᎯᎠ boundaries ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ (Bd6.3, Zs5.2), ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. Ahura Mazda ᎠᏓᏕᏲᏗ Zarathushtra ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ (Yt13.19-20). ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ, ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᎾ Druj ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂ ᏂᎦᏛ (Yt13.12-13).

ᎯᎠ Fravashi ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎤᎭ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ (Y16.7, 26.7, 26.11, 71.23, Yt22.39) (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Dhalla, ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ Zoroastrianism, pg 232-243, 375-378)

ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᏛᏁᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ).

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Tanakh[edit]

ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏗᏓᏂᏐᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Metairie, ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ.

ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, מלאך ("malach"), ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏙᎥ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ," ᎠᎴ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ" (Zechariah|12:8|JP). ᏐᎢ appellations ᎠᎴ "ᏧᏪᏥ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ", (Genesis|6:4; Job|1:6 [R. V. v. 1]) ᎠᎴ "ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ" (Psalms|89:6-8).

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Jewish ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ, 'Elohim ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ; ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ 'Elohim (ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ), bnēi 'Elohim, bnēi Elim (ᏧᏪᏥ ᎦᏁᎸ) (ᎠᏯ.e. ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ) ᎨᏒᎩ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ (ᎠᏯ.e. ᏗᏄᎪᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ). ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ-ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ (e.g. ᎼᏏ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎯ 6:2; ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ 1:6; Psalms|8:5). ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ: ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ" (Zechariah|14:5) ᎠᎴ "watchers" (Daniel|4:13). ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ" (Deuteronomy|17:3) ᎠᎴ "Adonai" (oshua|5:14). ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ," צבאות Tzevaot ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ Adonai Tzevaot (ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ, Adonai Tzivo'ot), ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ identified ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ" ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎦᎷᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ; ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏛᏳᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᏄᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ forbidden ᎾᎥᎢ Moses ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ". ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ" ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ identified ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ armies Israel, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏤ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ "ᏗᏓᏅᏙ," πνεύματα (Revelation|1:4).

ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Israel ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ Malach Elohim, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ Malach Adonai ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ interchangeably ᎬᏙᏗ Adonai (ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ). (cf. (Exodus|3:2), ᎬᏙᏗ 3:4; (Exodus|13:21) ᎬᏙᏗ (Exodus|14:19). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai ᎯᏁᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ (Genesis|32:30); (Judges|13:22). ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai (ᎠᎴ Elohim) ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎡᏆᎭᎻ, Hagar, ᏩᏏ, Gideon, &c., ᎠᎴ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ Israelites ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏛ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ (ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ 3:2). ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ Malach Adonai ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ; ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏑᎳᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ classified, ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᎦᏓᏊ identified ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎩᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ Jewish ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ. ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ Kabbalist ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎾᎯ kabbalistic ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai ᎠᎴ Elohim ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai ᎠᎴ Elohim. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏅ ᎢᏓᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ (Genesis|18,19). (J) ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎡᏆᎭᎻ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏦᎢ, ᎣᏂ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᏔᎵ, ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ; ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎤᏩᏒ (Cf. 18:1 ᎬᏙᏗ 18:2, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 19:17). ᎾᎾᎢ Bethel, Jacob ᎠᎪᏩᏘ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ (Genesis|28:12), ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᎾᎢ Mahanaim (Genesis|32:1). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏍᎦᏯ" ᎦᎪ ᎠᏁᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ Jacob ᎾᎾᎢ Peniel ᎨᏒᎢ identified ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ (ᎼᏏ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎯ 32:24, 30). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ (Isaiah|6) ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-exilic ᎪᏪᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ; ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-exilic ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎥᏝᎰᏩ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ (1|Kings|13:18) ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 19:5, cf. 7, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ exilic ᎠᎴ ᎨᏛᎢ-exilic. ᎡᏍᎦᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎢᏴᎵᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Israel ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ suppressed ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎠᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎠᏓᏘᏅᏍᏗ.

ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎢᏳᏂᏪᏛ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ (Deuteronomy|6:4-5 ᎠᎴ Isaiah|43:10), ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Ezekiel. Ezekiel, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ hierarchy ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Babylonian ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ angelology Zoroastrianism (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Zoroastrianism ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ). (Ezekiel|9) ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎲᏲᎵᏓ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ (ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ); ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎪᏩᏘ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᎷᏏᎳᎻ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎼᏏ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎯ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ "ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ"; malach, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ", ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ezekiel. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Zechariah, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᏛ; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ", ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ malach, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Malach Adonai ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᏂ (Zechariah|1:11). ᎯᎠ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎠᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎧᏁᎬ) ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ (Zechariah|3:1). ᎤᏠᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ bnei Elohim, ᏧᏪᏥ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ, ᏨᏍᎩᎾ (ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ-ᏨᏍᎩᎾ), ᎠᏏᏇ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏱᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ (ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ 1, 2. Cf. (1|Chronicles|21:1). ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Psalter (Pss. 91:11, 103:20 &c.); ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ (Psalms 78:49) ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏁᏤᎸ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᏩᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ", ᎠᏯ.e. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Ezekiel ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ digatoli ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Zechariah 3:9, 4:10. ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Ewald ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ (Tobit 12:15; ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ 8:2), ᏚᏦᏔᏩᏘ ᎠᎴ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Ameshaspentas (Amesha Spenta), ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏓᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ Persian ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ca. 400 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ (Genesis|1:26).

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Persian ᎠᎴ ᎠᎪᎢ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ underwent ᎡᏆ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ, ᎢᎦᏓᏊ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Daniel, ca. 160 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, 71 ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ" ᎠᎴ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ-ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ", ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏬᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ; ᏓᏲᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ "ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ" ᎠᎴ "ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ" ᎠᎴ "ᎡᏆ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ"; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ, Gabriel, Michael; ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗ (Daniel|8:16; Daniel|10:13, 20-21), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ Israel ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ Judah. ᎠᏏᏇ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tobit ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Raphael, "ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ". (Tob. 12:15.)

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tobit, ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ/Aramaic ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᎵᏲᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ; ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎧᎵᏐᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏫᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ (ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ 4:18) Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ "ᏗᎫᏮᎶᏔᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᎵᎶᎲᏍᎬᎾ" ᏂᎬᎾᏗᏍᎪ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Daniel, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏯᏔᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ Michael, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Judah. ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tobit, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ, τὸ πονηρὸν δαιμόνιον, ᎦᎪ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ Sarah ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᎦᎭ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ "ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ", πνεῦμα (Tobit 3:8, 17; 6:7).

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᏤᎩ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ Gen. 6:2, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ interpreted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Enoch. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ bnē Elohim Ꮎ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ (cf. ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ), ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮭ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ bne Elohim ᎠᎩᎵᏲᏨ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Daniel ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏯᏔᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎳᏍᎬᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Milton ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ hierarchy ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏙᏣᎵ ᎯᎠ Jewish ᎪᏪᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ 200 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ – 100 ᎤᎶᏐᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Jewish ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᏚᏍᏆᎸᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᏚᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ; ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ Enoch ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏌᎳᏗᏍᎬ Isaiah ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ.

ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏬᏚ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ (Genesis|18:2, Genesis|19:5; Judges|6:17, Judges|8:6; 2|Samuel|29:9; ᎢᎦᏛ ᏛᎦ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ; ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ; ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎴ consumed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ; ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏗᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ sacrificial ᎠᏥᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Elijah, ᎦᎪ ᎤᎩᎸᏅᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᎸᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏲᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᎢᏢᎢ (Genesis|16:13; ᏗᏄᎪᏗᏍᎩ 6. 21, 22; 2|Kings|2:11; Exodus|3:2). ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ; ᏫᏄᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏥᎸ, ᎠᎴ encompassed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ (Job|15:15), ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Psalmist ᏄᏪᏒᎩ (Psalm|104:4): "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ, ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ." ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᏓᏡᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ/Deuterocanon ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏙᏄᏭᎢ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ; ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ. ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏓᎾᏓᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ᎾᏍᏋ fulfilled—generally, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎵᏐᏆᎸᏗ ᎠᏎᏒᏓ ᎭᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ hands—one ᎠᏫᏗ ᎦᏁᎯ ᏗᎨᏪᎶᏗ-ᎤᏲᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ side—and ᎠᎩᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏐᏈᎵ [(Numbers|22:23), (Joshua|5:13), (Ezekiel|9;2), (Zecheriah|1:8) ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ seq.]. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ contempory ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ (ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎤᎭ achieved, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ). ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ (Chronicles|21:16,30), ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ "ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ, ᎤᎲᎢ ᎠᏎᏒᏓ ᎭᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ". ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Daniel, ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ "clothed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏄᏬ ᎤᏁᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎨᏒᎩ girded ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏌᏂ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ Uphaz: ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎧᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ digatoli ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᎶᏂᏗ ᏣᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ ᏂᎬᎢ" (Daniel|10:5-6). ᎪᎯ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏥᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ ᎪᏯᏛ (Daniel|9:21), ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ depicted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ, Jewish ᎠᎴ Zoroastrian ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ depicted ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ.

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏚᏂᏴᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Bordeaux cathedral

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ. Depictions ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏴᏫ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ depictions ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ deities, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ adatolasdisgi ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎦᏁᎸ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Eos, Eros, Thanatos ᎠᎴ Nike.

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ portrayed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ, ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ agatohvsdi ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ, ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ, ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ: ᎤᏅᏌ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᏅᏘᏴ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ

ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ. Jacob ᏓᎾᏠᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ; Joshua ᎠᎪᏩᏘ ᎯᎠ "ᏗᏓᏘᏂᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ"; ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏬᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎸ, "ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ"; ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᎷᏨ "ᎡᏙᎠ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ" (Gen. xxxii. 2; Josh. v. 14, 15; ᎠᏯ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, xxii. 19; ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯ. 6, ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ. 1; Ps. lxxxix. 6; ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, xxxiii. 23). ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ (xxv. 3): "ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ armies?" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ "ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ".

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, embassies ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ comprised ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏎᏒᏓ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ designated: ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ.

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎥᎠᏩᏏᏐᏗ," "ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ," "ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ," "ᎠᏂᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ atuyasdodi," "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ," ᎠᎴ "ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ" (Gen. xlviii. 16; ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, xxxiii. 23; ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᎳ. xxiv. 16; Mal. ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ. 1; Isa. lxiii. 9; Ps. lxxviii. 49, R. V.). ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯim, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯim, chayot ("ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏕᏁᎳᏅᎯ"), Ofanim ("ᏗᎦᏆᏙᏗ"), ᎠᎴ Arelim (ᏄᏓᎴ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏁᎸ). ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ, ᎦᎪ dwelleth ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ"; ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏡᎬ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ (ᎠᏯ ᎦᏁᎳ. ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ. 4, Ps. lxxx. 2, Gen. ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ. 24). ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ Isaiah (vi. 2) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎲᎢ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ; ᎠᎴ Ezekiel ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ḥayyot (Ezek. ᎠᏯ. 5 ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ seq.) ᎠᎴ ofanim ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎸ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ (ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Zechariah [iii. 9, iv. 10]; ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Daniel), ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ; ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ.

ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏫᎵ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ agatudesdi ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸᏍᎬ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ, ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎢ, ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ foretold ᎡᏆᎭᎻ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᏅ Isaac, Manoah ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᏅ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆᎭᎻ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ Sodom. ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏓᏅᏙ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ. ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Egypt, ᎦᏂ ᎠᏂ ᎯᎠ atuyastanv ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ (ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ. 23.20, Num. 20.16).

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏄᎪᏗᏍᎩ (ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ. 1) ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ Lord—unless ᎠᎭᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ (ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ Isa. xlii. 19, Ḥag. ᎠᏯ. 13, Mal. ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ. 1), ᏴᏫ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ meant—addressed ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎯᎠ atuyastanv ᎦᏙᎯ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ Elijah ᎭᏫᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ (ᎠᏯ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, xix. 5); ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ Jacob, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᏓᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎦᎪ ᎤᎾᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ (Ps. xxxiv. 7, xci. 11). ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ, ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪᏃ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ Assyrian ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ 185,000 ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ (ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, xix. 35); ᎠᏂᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ "ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎨᏯᏔᎲᎾ Ethiopians ᎠᏍᎦᎢᎲ" (Ezek. xxx. 9); ᎯᎠ ᏦᏍᏗᏓᏄᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ scattered ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏓᏍᏓᏲᎯᏎᏗ (Ps. xxxv. 5, 6).

ᎠᏞᎢᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᎳ. xxiv. 15, ᎦᎪ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ personified, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ps. lxxviii. 49 ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ. "ᎤᏐᏅᎢ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎭᏂ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ causative ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ"; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᏄᏓᏅᏘᏴ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᎦᎷᎦ (Ps. xxix. 1, ciii. 20, cxlviii. 2; ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ Isa. vi. 2 ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ seq.).

ᎤᏅᏌ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᏂᏅᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ (ᎠᏯ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, xxii. 19; ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯ. 6, ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ. 1); ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏤᎵ "ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ" (Ps. lxxxix. 7, R. V.; . V. "ᏓᏂᎳᏫᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ"). ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ (Deut. xxxiii. 2; ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, xxxviii. 7). ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ; ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Zechariah, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ "ᎠᎢᏒ ᎠᎴ fro ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ (Zech. vi. 7).

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᏨ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ Haggai ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ (ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ); ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ Ꮎ "Malachi" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏙᎥ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ "ᎠᏂᏙᎯ" ᎠᎴ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ". ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏯ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, xiii. 18, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ existed ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ (Gen. ᎠᏯ. 26; ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, xxxviii. 7). ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏩᏒᏗᏱ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏂ; ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ. ᏫᏄᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ ᎠᏂ; ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏄᎪᏗᏍᎩ, xiii. 18, ᎠᎴ Gen. xxxii. 30, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ questioned, ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Daniel, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ Michael ᎠᎴ Gabriel. Michael ᎨᏒᎢ Israel ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᏐᎢ nations—the ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ instance—were ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏄᏓᏛᏁᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ. ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏦᎢ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Daniel ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ, Zechariah graded ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ digatoli (Zech. ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ. 9, ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ. 10) ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ amesha spentas Zoroastrianism (ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ Ezek. ix. 2).

Jewish ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ[edit]

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎢᏤ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ (ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ) ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ Sodom. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ "ᎤᎭᎿᎸ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ" ᎦᎪ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏓᏄᏫ ᎯᎠ Israelites. ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ Jewish ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎡᏙᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎪᏃ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏘᏉ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏫᎵ. ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Tanakh ᎡᏙᎠ stunningly ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Jewish ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎾᎿ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Ezekiel, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎵᏐᏆᎸᏗ Ꮭ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏆ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel, Raguel, Sariel, ᎠᎴ Jerahmeel. Gabriel ᎠᎴ Michael ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Daniel, Raphael ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Tobit (ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ Deuterocanon) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Enoch ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎢᏤ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ Pseudepigrapha (ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Ethiopian ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ).

Maimonides ᎠᎴ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ accepted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Maimonides, Gersonides, Samuel Ibn Tibbon, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ., ᎧᏃᎮᎭ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ mediated ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᏂᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ. ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ: Maimonides ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎦᏔᎲᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏗᎭ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏔᎾᎯ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎪᏩᏘ Ꮎ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎢᎪᎯᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ:4 ᎠᎴ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ:6.

ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ:4
"...ᎪᎯ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ Aristotle ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎿᏛᎦ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ. ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᎴᏴᏒ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ; ᎠᏥᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ; ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ 'ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ', ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ [planets] ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ....ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏟᏌᏃᏅᎯ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᏓᏅᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ intermediaries ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ [objects] ᎠᎭᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎡᎶᎯ."
ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ:6
"...Aristotle ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ nexus ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏪᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎥᏝ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎠᎴ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ", ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎯ ᎣᎾᏛ, ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ.
...ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᎠᎭᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎠᎳᏑᎶ ᎦᎵᏍᏜᎥ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ" ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎪᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ...(Maimonides ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎼᏏ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎯ, Plato, ᎠᎴ Midrash Bereshit Rabbah)...ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ not—as ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ mentality ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ suppose—to ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᎲᎢ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦᏛ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ? ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ Ꮎ existence—including ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ are—is ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ.
ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ! ᎯᎳᎪ ᏗᎨᏫ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏗᎨᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ naïve?! ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎯ ᎤᏃᎮᎴᎢ ᎩᎶ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ Israel Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏂᎸᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏪᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ Deity—despite ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎭ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏌᏊ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎪᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏁᎵᏍᎬᎢ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎯ ᏚᎵᏃᎮᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ demarcating ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ Intellect—that ᎠᎭᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎯᎠ "ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏓᎴᏁ-ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ" ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ sages—then ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏫᎵ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ [the naïve person] ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎯᎲ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ perceived ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ.
ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎥᏓᏗᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ clearly—to ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏔᎾᎯ themselves—that ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏗᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Midrash Bereshit Rabbah "ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ Ꮎ Ꮭ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎿᏛᎦ ᏔᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ."—which ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ. ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ", ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Bereshit Rabbah, "ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᏌᏊ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎪ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ." Midrash Bereshit Rabbah, LXXVIII. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎪᎯ midrash ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ countered ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ...ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏲᎠᏍᏗ. ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏛᎴᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ; ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ....[Giving a few more examples of the mention of angels in rabbinic writings, Maimonides says] ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ agatudesdi ᎯᎠ gayatohvsdi Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᏗᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᏬᏚᎯ ᎪᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ mind—and ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᏓᏕᏯᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ."

ᏌᏊ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎯᏁᎩ Ꮎ Maimonides ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ" Jewish ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 20th ᎠᎴ 21st ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ.

ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ Maimonides ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ Jewish ᏁᎵᏒ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ millennia.

ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏤ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ (e.g. Template:Bibleref (ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ), 4:11. (ᏥᏌ), Luke 1:26 (Mary), ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ 12:7 (Peter)); ᎠᎴ ᏥᏌ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏐᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ (E.g. ᎤᏙᏪᎸ 8:38, 13:27), ᎪᏣᎸᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏕᎨᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ (ᎤᏙᏪᎸ 12:25). ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏤ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ hierarchy, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Gabriel (Luke 1:19), Metatron (Rev. 10:1 - Ꮭ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ - ), ᎠᎴ Michael (Daniel 12:1), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ, (ᎤᏙᏪᎸ 3:22) ᏨᏍᎩᎾ (ᎤᏙᏪᎸ 1:13), ᎠᎴ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ (Rev. 9:11); ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ (Michael, Jude 9), principalities ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ (Rom. 8:38; Col. 2:10), ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ (Col 1:16). ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ (Rev 7:1). ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ Asia ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Rev. 1-3. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ-ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Daniel ᎦᏙᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ; ᎤᏠᏱᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Gabriel ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ Mary ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏕᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Matt. 28:2, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏥᏌ' ᎦᏂᏌᎲ, ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ, ᎤᏩᏓᏆᎴᎸ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏌᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᎮᎴᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ-ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᏥᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ. ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᏪᎸ 16:5, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏳᎳ-ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎦᏂᏌᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ." ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Luke ᎤᏤᎵ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ (Luke 24:4), ᏔᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏛᏊ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏌᎲ; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ clothed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ "ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎬ ᏗᏄᏬᏍᏗ." ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ 20:12, ᎭᏢᏃ Mary ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ "ᏔᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎬ" ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏌᎲ ᏥᏌ.

ᏔᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ witnessed ᏥᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᎠᎴ prophesied ᎤᏤᎵ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Peter ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᎦᎸᏗ, ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏍᏚᏗ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎧᎵᎢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏐᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ-ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ.

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ depicted ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎤᎭ argued Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎦᏛ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ depicted ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎲᎢ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ radiating ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᏰᎸ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ depicted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ 4th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ depicted ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᏯᏛ, presumably ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂ traveling ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ. ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏕᏕᏲᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏕᏕᏲᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ intermediaries ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎾᎢ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ (ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ). ᎤᏗᏗᏢᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎪᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ).

ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ: Hierarchy ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ

ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ hierarchy ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ Hierarchy, ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ-Dionysius ᎯᎠ Areopagite, ᎤᎧᏁᎳ 5th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏅᏗ Dionysius ᎯᎠ Areopagite. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ; ᎠᎴ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᎤᎭ tended ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏚᏂᏴ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏦᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ hierarchies ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ subdivided ᎾᎾᎯ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏍᎪᎯ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ Hierarchy ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ: ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, Principalities, ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ, ᎾᏂᏍᎦᏅᎾ, ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎦᏁᎸ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ hierarchy, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ closest ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᏂᏚᎾᏛᏁᎵᏙᎸ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ-ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎦᎷᏨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏚᏓᏡᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᏍᏋ referencing ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ tsuqagutanvsv ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏢᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Paul "ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏗᏒᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ principalities ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ" (ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᎩ, ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ).

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏚᏂᏴ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏕᏅ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎥᏝ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ, ᎡᏍᎦᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ Ꮎ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ denominatios ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎪᏍᎬ). ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ altar ᎤᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏌᏊ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎥᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ altar adalatudi ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏕᏅ ᏥᏌ). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ 40 ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᏍᏛᏗᏍᎩ Sebaste, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ 40 ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎶᎻ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏥ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ renounced ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᏩᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᏍᏛᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏍᎪᎵ.

ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Reformed ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ, ᏚᏂᏴ Ꮎ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎯᎠ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ" ᎠᎴ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᏥᏌ.

ᎢᎦᏛ lyudetiyvda ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ Maimonides, ᎠᎴ accepted ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᏗᏓᏂᎸᏨᎯ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ mainstream ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ.

ᏨᏍᎩᎾ, Beelzebul, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎪ rebelled ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ expelled ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ. ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ' ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ rebellious ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᏓᏅᏙ ᎦᎪ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏝᎥ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᎯ ᎠᏍᎦᏯᎭ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ afterlife, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗᏱ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ Ꮎ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ, ᏴᏫ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎪᎯᏓ (Luke 20:35-36), ᎠᎴ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎦ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎾᎾᎢ 1Cor 15:51, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ ᏫᎵ ᏗᎫᎪᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ (1 Cor 6:3). Flavius Josephus ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᏨᏍᎩᏃ, VI, ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎦ resurrected ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏴ. Zechariah 5:9 ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ interpreted Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ 1Cor 11:10 ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ interpreted ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ--ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ (Gen. 6) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ conceiving ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᏕᏕᏲᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᎠᎴ resurrected ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎤᎲᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏏᏇ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Swedenborgianism ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏕᏕᏲᏗ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ).

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎱᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᏴᏫ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎠᎴ risen ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᏅᏌ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏥᎵᏱᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ deemed ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ ᎠᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ.

Islamic ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ[edit]

ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ: ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Islam

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Arabic, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Qur', ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "Malaaikah"(ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ: Malak). ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ Islam, ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ Qur' ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ dictated ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ Muhammad ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Jibril (Gabriel). ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Islam.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Islam, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏫᎵ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ (ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ, ᏩᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᏲᎵ, ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ environmental ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ nurturing ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ distributing ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ) ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ. ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏬᏚᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎪᏯᏛ (ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, Gabriel ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎲᎢ ᏑᏓᎵ-ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ). ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎿᏛᎦ.

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ Islamic ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ committing ᎠᏍᎦᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ, ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ Iblis ᎦᎪ ᎤᏑᏰᏒ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ-ᏫᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᏒᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ. ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ Quranic ayat (ᎤᏓᏢᎬ), "ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ; "ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎢᏨᏌ unto ᎠᏓᏫ." ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ prostrated ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ Iblis. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ..." (Surat ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ-Kahf, 18:50). ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎣᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏁᎤᎸᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Jibril ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ, Torah, ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ Qur'. ᏐᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Michael (Mikaeel) ᎦᎪ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ, Sarafiel (Israfil) ᎦᎪ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎿ Yaum ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ Qiyamah (ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ), ᎠᎴ Azrael (Izra'il), ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ Ꮎ Gabriel ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ). ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Nakir ᎠᎴ Munkar ᎠᎴ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎢᎦ; ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏐᏁᎳᏚ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ-ᎥᎪᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᏨᏍᎩᏃ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ (Surat ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ-Muddaththir, 74:30). ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏁᎳ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ (Surat ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ-Haaqqa, 69:17). ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᏔᎵ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏗᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ resurrected ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎢᎦ (ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Jannah (ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ), ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ).

ᎣᏂᏯᎨ-ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ[edit]

Bern Switzerland ᏧᏂᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ Moroni

ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, Jr., ᎠᏩᏥᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ (ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᎿ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ kenohedv ᏥᏌ.

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᏥᏌ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ-ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ, (ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ "ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ"):

"ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 'ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᏗᏓᏅᏙ'. ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ-ᎢᎦ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ ᏚᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ: ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎳ. ᏗᏓᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᎪ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎩᎳ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎳ (ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ), ᎠᎴ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏘᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ (ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ). ᏥᏭᏣᏔᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ 'ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ' ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎳ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ resurrected ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ (reembodied), ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ translated, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ Enoch, Elijah, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ. (D&C 129)."

ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, Jr. ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ (ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ 1:31-33):

"ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᏯ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎦ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎠᏍᎦᏯᎭ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎦᏂᏜᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ.
"ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᎿ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏬᏚ ᎦᎸᏈᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏥ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᏥ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ; ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎠᏯ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏜᏗᏍᏗ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏣᏍᏆᎳᏛ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ. ᎠᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮭ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏄᏬ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᏥ.
"ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏁᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏯ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ yvwatuwidv ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏯ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᎦᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎠᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᎢᎲ; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏴ."

ᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, Jr., Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, ᏡᏡ Harris. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Cowdery, Whitmer, ᎠᎴ Harris ᏂᎦᏛ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ, ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎠᏂ retracted ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ conversed ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ.

ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎠᎴ Moroni, Nephi, ᏈᏓ, ᏥᎻ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏬᏍᎩ.

Michael ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏫ (ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ) ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ Gabriel ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Noah (ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ).

ᏐᎢ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Zoroastrianism, ᎯᎠ Amesha Spentas ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏅ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎤᏅᏌ don´t ᏩᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ Ahura Mazda ("ᎠᎦᏔᎾᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ", ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ); ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏓᎶᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏁᎵᏒ Zarathustra ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ (ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Achaemenid ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ Zoroastrianism) ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ personalized, ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ (ᎠᏥᎸ, ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ, ᎠᎹ...).

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Tennin ᎠᎴ Tenshi ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏤ lyudetiyvda ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ.

ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎩᎵᏏ, ᎯᎠ lyudetiyvda ᎧᏁᏨ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ translated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ" (ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ"), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Hindus ᎯᏁᎩ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ lyudetiyvda ᎨᏒᎢ Ishvara (ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ). ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ translated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᎦᎵᏴᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ weaknesses. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏙᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏩᏒ ᎠᏂ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ't ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ Ishvara ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Abrahamic ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ (ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "devaduta" ᎠᎴ "duta"). ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ Indra, Mitra, Ashvins, ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ Jainism ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ", ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ.

Thelema[edit]

Aleister Crowley ᎠᏁᎶᏔᏅ ᏕᏕᏲᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏂᎦᏥᏙᎲ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ". ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ Thelema, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎩ one’s truest ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ. ᎦᏁᎳ Crowley, ᏴᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎩᏥᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ Augoeides Iamblichus, ᎯᎠ Atman ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Daemon ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ.

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Thelemites, ᎯᎠ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᏗᎵᎪᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ one’s HGA, ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ termed "ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬ." ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ gayatohvsdi ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏫᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Crowley, ᎪᎯ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ:

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎥᏝ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᎨᏫᏒᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎢᏳᏊ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎭ achieved ᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏎ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ, ᎦᎪ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎴ inevitably [be] relied ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ step—crossing ᎯᎠ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᏓᏅ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ. (Magick ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᏗᎦᏌᏬᏍᏗ, Ch.83)

Crowley ᎤᏒᏂᎸ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏥᏙᎲ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ, Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ staked ᎯᎠ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏕᎵᏛ ᎬᏗ ᎠᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎤᏐᏅᎢ.

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᎳᏍᎬᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ[edit]

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ, Ꮎ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎳᏍᎬᏎᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᎢ, ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ, ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ Persian ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ Jalal ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ-ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ Muhammad Rumi ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ Masnavi:

ᎠᏯ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎴᏅ ᎦᎪᏘ,
ᎠᏯ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᏇ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ.
ᎠᏯ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎴᏅ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ.
ᎦᏙᏃ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎠᏯ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏲᎱᏍᎬ?
ᎠᏯ ᎠᏎᎢ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎠᏏᏇ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ
ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎤᎳᏏᏕᎾ!
ᎠᏏᏇ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏯ agilyoasdi ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ,
ᎠᏯ ᎠᏎᎢ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᎶᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ!
ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎠᏴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ
ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ, 'ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏎᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ.'
(ᎠᏁᏢᏔᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Wikisource, Masnavi I Ma'navi, Book III, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ XVII)’’

ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ Emanuel Swedenborg ᎤᎭ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ, Ꮎ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ.

ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ media[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 20th ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ 21st Centuries, ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ viewed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ-ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ-ᏴᏫ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ fallibilty, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ 'ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ-ᎪᎦᏍᎬ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ' ᎦᎪ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Constantine starring Keanu Reeves ᎠᎴ Michael starring ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Travolta.

ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ-ᎪᎦᏍᎬ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ The Chain Smoking Angels residing ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Vietnam ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ Americana ᎠᎴ heartbreak.

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  • Cheyne, James Kelly (ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ.) (1899). ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. Encyclopædia biblica. ᎢᏤ York, Macmillan.
  • ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ, Samuel Rolles (ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ.) (1901) ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Daniel. Cambridge ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ.
  • Hastings, James (ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ.) (1898). ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ. ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎢᏤ York: C. Scribner ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏪᏥ.
  • Oosterzee, Johannes Jacobus ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ. ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ: ᏓᎵᏍᏛ-ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. Trans. ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Watson Watson ᎠᎴ Maurice J. Evans. (1874) ᎢᏤ York, Scribner, Armstrong.
  • ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, George ᎠᏓᏫ (1898) ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏚ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ. London, Hodder ᎠᎴ Stoughton.
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  • Briggs, Constance ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ, 1997. ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏗᏂᎧᏃᏩᏗᏙᎯ : --Z ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ 4,000 Entries. ᎦᏅᏙᎬ. ISBN 0-452-27921-6.
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ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. "Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary." Theosophical University Press. (2006-03-17)
  2. J. Hampton Keathley, III, Th. M.. Angelology The Doctrine of Angels. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-03-17.
  3. Jewish ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. "Zoroastrianism", section "Summary". ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-03-15.
  4. Jewish ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. "The Babylonian Captivity". ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-03-15.
  5. ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. "Zoroastrianism", section 3 "Possible Theological Influence" and section 4, "Angelology and Demonology". ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-03-15.
  6. Lewis Loflin. "Judaism Meets Zoroastrianism". ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-03-15.
  7. Jewish ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. "Zoroastrianism", section "The Kingdoms of Good and Evil". ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-03-15.
  8. New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. XII: Trench - Zwingli, pages 530-531. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-03-15.
  9. James Patrick Holding. "Did Zoroastrianism Influence Christianity?". ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-03-15.

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