ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ

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ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ (1861–1865) ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ sectional ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ("ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ") ᎠᎴ 11 ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ secession ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Jefferson Davis. ᎯᎠ "ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ", ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎡᏆᎭᎻ Lincoln ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏜ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ slavery, rejected ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ secession. ᏓᎾᎵᎲ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ 12 ᎫᏬᏂ, 1861 ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ attacked ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏐᏴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏗᏐᏴ Sumter.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ asserted ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅ naval ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1862 ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ, ᎦᎢᎭ battles ᎤᎴᏅᎲ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Antietam ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 1862, Lincoln ᎤᏤᎵ Emancipation Proclamation ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ freeing ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ goal — ᏌᏊ bitterly ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏭᏗᎨ ᎠᏍ. Emancipation ensured Ꮎ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ intervene ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ Confederates. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ, Robert E. Lee ᎤᏩᏓᏆᎴᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ Confederate victories ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ commanders, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎥ, Stonewall Jackson, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Chancellorsville ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 1863. Ꮅ ᎤᏤᎵ invasion ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ repulsed ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Gettysburg ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 1863; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏎᎦᏨᎯ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ ᎦᏐᎯ ᏩᏥᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ captured ᎠᏤ Orleans ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1862, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ulysses ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏓᏥᏂᏴᎡᎸᎩ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎾᎥᎢ capturing Vicksburg ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 1863, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ splitting ᎯᎠ Confederacy.

ᎾᎥᎢ 1864 ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ advantages ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ, manpower, ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎬᏗ, ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ overwhelming ᎯᎠ Confederacy. ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎦᎢᎭ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ battles ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎨᏱ 1864. Ꮅ ᎤᏓᏠᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ tactical ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ strategically, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ casualties ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ trenches ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ, Richmond, ᏩᏥᏂ. ᎾᎯᏳ ᏯᏛᎿ William T. Sherman captured Atlanta ᎠᎴ marched ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, destroying ᎠᏯᏖᎾ swath ᏣᏥᏱ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1865 ᎯᎠ Confederacy collapsed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮅ surrendered ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵ restoration ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ contentious postwar ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Reconstruction. ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 970,000 casualties (3% ᎯᎠ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ), ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 620,000 ᎠᏯᏫᏍᎩ deaths — ᏔᎵ-thirds ᎾᎥᎢ ᎥᏳᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᏗ lingering ᏗᏓᎴᏅᎢᏍᏗ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ restoration ᎠᎴ strengthening ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ slavery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ.

Contents

ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ[edit]

ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏚᏓᏡᎬ: Origins ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ, Timeline ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ

ᎯᎠ origins ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏠᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ complex Constitutional ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ involving ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ slavery, slavery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ territories, ᎧᏃᎮᎭ' ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ, modernization, ᎠᎴ competing nationalisms ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏴᏢ-ᎤᎦᎾᏭ sectionalism.

ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏲᎱᏎᎲ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᏳᎳ controlled ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ crisis ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1850s. Sectional disagreements ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ morality slavery, ᎯᎠ scope ᎤᏂᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏖᏗ [1]ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏂᏚᏍᏛ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ vs. ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ plantation ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ voters confront ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ, causing ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ collapse (ᎯᎠ Whigs ᎠᎴ ᎣᎾᏛ Nothings), ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏗᎶᏗ (ᎤᏂᏴᏜ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1854, Constitutional ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1860). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1860 ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ remaining ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎯᎠ Democratic ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᏍᏡᏴ ᎾᎿ sectional lines.

Slavery ᎠᎴ Anti-Slavery[edit]

Focus ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ slavery ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ cyclical. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1900 1955, historians ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ anti-slavery agitation ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ constitutional, ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ cultural ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ.[2] ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1960s historians ᎤᎭ ᎠᏏᏇ emphasized slavery ᎠᎴ antislavery ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮝ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ, ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ, constitutional ᎠᎴ ideological dimensions.[3]

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Southerners ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ, ᎯᎠ preservation slavery ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ imperative. ᎢᎦᏛ southerners ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎬᏙᏗ Robert E. Lee ᎦᎪ (echoing Jefferson) ᏄᏪᏒᎩ, "slavery ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ." [4] ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎢᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏄᏪᎾᎲᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᏧᏁᏉᏨ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ.

Northerners resisted slavery ᎠᏥᏄ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ideological, ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. Slavery ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ ᎤᏴᏜ ᎠᎴ democratic ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ; ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Lincoln, Seward, Chase ᎠᎴ Greeley warned Ꮎ oligarchy ᎤᏪᎾᎢ planters, ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ", dominated ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ, ᎠᎴ corrupted ᎠᎴ controlled ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ.

ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ 1850 ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏤ, ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎳᏘᏓ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ bitterly resented ᎾᎥᎢ anti-slavery ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ mechanism ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᎳᏘᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. Northerners — ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎥᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ abolitionist ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ "ᎯᎠ Liberator" ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ novels ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ influential ᎡᏚᏥ Tom ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ — ᎤᎴᏅᎲ objecting ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ legally ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎤᎳᏘᏓ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ disagreement.

ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎦᏔᏩᏙᏅᏩᏙᏗ-ᏎᎷᏱ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ 1854 overthrew ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ 1820 Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ outlawed slavery ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ territories ᎤᏴᏢ ᏨᎫᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ anti-slavery ᎤᏴᏜ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. [5]

ᎯᎠ Dred Scott ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ 1857 ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᏅᎢᏍᏗ. ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ Roger Taney ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ Ꮎ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ "ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᎦᏛ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ",[6] ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ territories. Lincoln warned Ꮎ "ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ Dred Scott ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ"[7] ᏰᎵᏇ threaten ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ slavery.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ correlation ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ plantations ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ secession. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ concentration plantations ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ secede. ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏩᏥᏂ, ᎦᏯᎴᏂ, ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏖᎾᏏ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ plantations ᎠᎴ rejected secession until ᎯᎠ ᏗᏐᏴ Sumter crisis ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ. ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ plantations ᏙᎢ ᎠᎴ sided ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. [8]

ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ[edit]

Until 1860 ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎢᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ successfully ᎤᏱᏙᎸᎩ interregional crises. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ crises ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ slavery, ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ debates ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ-fifths ᏌᏇ ᏄᏓᏡᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Constitutional Convention 1787. ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ solved ᎯᎠ crisis ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᏨᎫᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1819-21, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᏅᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏐᎦᎴᏂ ᎤᏤᎵ nullification ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1833, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏅᏓᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1845, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ slavery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ acquired ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1850.[9]

ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1854, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎵᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎦᏔᏩᏙᏅᏩᏙᏗ-ᏎᎷᏱ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ. ᎯᎠ Whig ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ disappeared, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎤᏴᏜ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏚᎴᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎾᎿᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ sectional ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ commitment ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ slavery. ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏂᎦᏔᏩᏙᏅᏩᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ, ᎯᎠ Dred Scott ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ 1857, John ᏬᏗᎨ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏲᏎᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1859 ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏡᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Democratic ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1860 polarized ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ Lincoln ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1860 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ trigger ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ secession. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ secession crisis, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏯᎸᎩ ᏌᏊ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ "Crittenden ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ," ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ.

Historians ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ James G. Randall ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1930s argued Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎯᎠ breakdown ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ hardened Constitutional ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏙᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ increasingly hostile sectional rhetoric ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ, ᎯᎠ Crittenden ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ rejected ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏂᏴᏜ. ᏌᏊ ᏰᎵᏊ "ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ" ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏙᎯ secession ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1860—ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ abolitionists—ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ rejected ᎾᎥᎢ James Buchanan ᎤᏤᎵ conservative Democrats ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏜ leadership.

deeper ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏓᎪᎾᏛ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ Ꮎ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ conspiracies ᎨᏒᎩ afoot Ꮎ threatened ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1850s ᏔᎵ loomed ᎤᎪᏗᏗ threatening: ᎯᎠ sectional antislavery ᎤᏴᏜ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ (ᎯᎠ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎤᏂᏴᏜ) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ aristocratic slaveholding ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. [10]

Abolitionism ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ[edit]

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1830s, ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎳᏊ ᎢᏴ ᎧᏁᎩ abolitionist ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᏚᎴᏅ, ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏤ ᎡᎵᏏᎯ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᏂᎬᎿᎨᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, ᎠᎴ Lucretia Mott. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᏳᎳ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ slavery ᎤᏐᏅᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1840s ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ abolitionists ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ Ꮎ owning ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏂ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ abolished. ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ bitterly resented ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.[11]

ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ Abolitionism Motivates Southerners[edit]

Historians ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎤᏍᎦᏅᏨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎰᎯᏍᏗ [12] ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᎯᎠ southerner ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ angered ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ abolitionist attacks. ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1830s ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ widespread ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ideological ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ "peculiar ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ.[13] ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1850s ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᎳᏫᏎᎸ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ tinge abolitionism ᎨᏒᎩ expelled ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ abolitionist ᎪᏪᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ banned ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᎯᎠ secessionists rejected ᎯᎠ denials ᎤᏂᏴᏜ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ abolitionists, ᎠᎴ ᏭᏎᎸ John ᏬᏗᎨ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1859 ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ uprising ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ Ꮎ multiple ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ conspiracies ᎨᏒᎩ afoot ᎠᏥᏍᏝᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᎢᎭ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ rebellions. Ꮭ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏬᏗᎨ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ conspiracy ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ historians.[14]

ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ' ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ. Southerners argued Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏅ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮭ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏫᏛᏓ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏤ territories. ᎧᏃᎮᎭ' ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏂᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ cited ᎯᎠ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ jurisdiction ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎳᏘᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ. Anti-slavery ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ reversed stances ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ.

ᏐᎦᎴᏂ ᎤᏤᎵ "ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Secession" ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ legalistic ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ' ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ slavery, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ' ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ, claiming Ꮎ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ weren't fulfilling ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏓᏚᏓᎸᏁᎸ. [15]

ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ-ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ slavery-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ systems ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ, interdependent ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏗᎳᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ Atlantic ᎠᎴ ᎠᏤ ᎡᎵᏏᎯ regions ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ. Tariffs ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ — ᎤᎶᏐᏅ 1847 tariffs ᎨᏒᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎯᎠ Midwest, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎯᎠ Appalachians, ᎠᏰᎲ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ Ꮎ exported Ꮝ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ regions ᎠᎴ ᏳᎳᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ subsistence ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, depended ᎾᏍᎩ ᎡᏆ-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᏗ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ, ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎤᏥᎸ ᎠᎴ (ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏫᎬᏍᏗ) ᏦᎳ, ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ. (ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ component ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏄᏪᎾᎲᎢ, comprising ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ.) ᎢᎦᏛ Ꮝ ᎤᏥᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᏤ ᎡᎵᏏᎯ ᎠᎾᏬ ᏗᏍᏙᏍᎩ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏭᏅᎩ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ. ᎯᎠ dominance ᎪᎯ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ "ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏥᎸ." ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ, brokerage, ᎫᏓᎸᏙ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ mediation ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ centered ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏯᎩ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ.

ᎡᏆᎭᎻ Lincoln
16th ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ (1861–1865)

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ contrasting ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏧᏁᏉᏨ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ sectional agendas Ꮎ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, competed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ. ᎤᎩᏓᎵᏱ politicians, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, pushed ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ protective ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ foster ᎯᎠ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. Southerners, ᏗᎧᏁᎸ ᏩᏗ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ, ᎤᏯᎸᎩ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ-ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏙᏗ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ federally funded "ᎭᏫᏂ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸ" (ᏕᎦᏅᏅ, canals, ports ᎠᎴ waterways), ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮭ unanimity ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ depended ᎾᏍᎩ exports; ᎢᎬᏱ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏅᏃᎯ managers ᎠᏚᎸᏓ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ tariffs ᎾᎿ imported ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ; ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ Democrats ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ infrastructure, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ Whigs ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ significance ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ exaggerated: ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ compete ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ complementary. ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ depended ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ prosperity. ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏥᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏭᏔᏅ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ fostering ᎯᎠ secessionist ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᎩᎵᏏ prosperity depended ᎾᎿ ᎤᏥᎸ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒᎢ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ (ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ) ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᏥᎸ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᎭ ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎤᏁᏉᎢᏍᏗ independence. ᎪᎯ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ delusion ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ influential ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1860-61 ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ debates.

ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ vs. Pro slavery ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ[edit]

Historian Eric Foner (1970) ᎤᎭ argued Ꮎ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ-ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ideology dominated ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏢᏉᏙatlvquodod ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ emphasized ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ attacked ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏯ-ᎠᏂᎾᏕᎬ ᎠᎴ commercially-minded. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ-owning ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎤᏅᏌ argued, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ education, cultural refinement, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ participation. ᎤᏅᏌ depicted slavery ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Christianizing Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ "rescued" ᎠᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ "paganism" ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ.

Slavery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Territories[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ crisis Ꮎ culminated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ secession stemmed ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏗᏒᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ slavery ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏤ territories. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏨᎫᎵ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ 1820, ᎪᎯ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏄᏘᏴᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ, ᎾᎥᎢ adding ᎺᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏨᎫᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ prohibited slavery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ ᎠᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ 36°30'N lat. (ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏨᎫᎵ). ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏤ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂ ᏓᏄᏩ (1846–1848), ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, reopened ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ—ᎾᏊ focused ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Wilmot Proviso, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ banned slavery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ territories annexed ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ. ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎥᏝ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ, ᎯᎠ Proviso aroused ᎤᎭᎿᎸ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. Northerners argued Ꮎ slavery ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛᎾ ᎠᏓᎪᏅᏙᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ migrants ᎯᎠ territories; slaveholders ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮭ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ discriminate ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎥᎢ preventing ᎠᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎾᎿᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏗᏒᏍᏗ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎦᏔᏩᏙᏅᏩᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎦᏔᏩᏙᏅᏩᏙᏗ-ᏎᎷᏱ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ 1854. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ repealed ᎯᎠ prohibition ᎾᎿ slavery ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏨᎫᎵ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᏍᏓᏁᏗ slavery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ settlers, ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ sovereignty." ᏓᎾᎵᎲ erupted ᎠᏰᎵ pro slavery "ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ruffians" ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ neighboring ᏨᎫᎵ ᎠᎴ antislavery immigrants ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ John ᏬᏗᎨ, ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏐᎢ abolitionists). ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅᎯ. Tensions ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎾᏊ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ.

ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏜ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ secession ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ triggered ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎤᏴᏜ ᎡᏆᎭᎻ Lincoln ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ regional ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎤᎾᏰᏒᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏚᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ slavery ᎠᎴ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ extinction. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Southerners ᏁᎵᏒ Ꮎ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ Lincoln ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏲᎯᏍᏗ slavery, ᏞᎠᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎤᏂᎷᏨᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎢᏳᏩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏞᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏘᏴᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Electoral ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ facing ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᎵᏒ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ increasingly ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎤᏴᏢ.

ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ Modernization[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ broader ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ modernizing ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᏂᏳ threatening ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ. Historian James McPherson (1983 p 283) ᏕᎪᏏᏏ:

When secessionists protested in 1861 that they were acting to preserve traditional rights and values, they were correct. They fought to preserve their constitutional liberties against the perceived Northern threat to overthrow them. The South's concept of republicanism had not changed in three-quarters of a century; the North's had.... The ascension to power of the Republican Party, with its ideology of competitive, egalitarian free-labor capitalism, was a signal to the South that the Northern majority had turned irrevocably towards this frightening, revolutionary future. –James McPherson,"Antebellum Southern Exceptionalism: A New Look at an Old Question," Civil War History 29 (Sept. 1983)

ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎤᏂᏯuniyatolv ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ[edit]

Secession ᎪᎳ[edit]

ᎤᏓᎷᎸ Lincoln ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ secession ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎾᎿ 9 ᎧᎦᎵ 1861. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ forts ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ properties ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ boundaries, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ resistance ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Buchanan, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 3, 1861. Buchanan asserted, "ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ secede, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏯ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂ." ᏌᏊ ᏅᎩᏁ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ — ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ garrison ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏅᏓᎩ — ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ surrendered ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ commanding ᏂᎦᎥ David E. Twiggs, ᎦᎪ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ Confederacy. ᎾᎥᎢ seceding, ᎯᎠ rebel ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ territories Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏗᏒᏍᏗ, ᎠᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏓᏚᏓᎸᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎤᎳᏘᏓ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎯᎠ Confederacy, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏚᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎠᎴ amendments ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ.

ᎯᎠ Confederacy[edit]

ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎤᏥᎸ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ seceded ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᎦᎵ 1861, ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎦᎴᏂ, ᎻᏏᏏᏈ, ᏧᎦᎾᏮ, ᎠᎳᏆᎹ, ᏣᏥᏱ, ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᏅᏓᎩ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ (4 ᎧᎦᎵ 1861), ᎬᏙᏗ Jefferson Davis ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, ᎠᎴ governmental structure ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ modeled ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎫᏬᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 1861 ᏅᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ seceded ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ Confederacy: ᏩᏥᏂ, ᏲᏁᎬ, ᏔᎾᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏯᎴᏂ.


ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ 23 ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ: ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ, ᎧᏁᏓᎦᏗ, ᏕᎳᏪᎢ, ᎢᎵᏃᏱ, ᎢᏂᏗᏰᎾ, ᎠᏯᏩ, ᏧᏂᎦᏔᏩᏙᏅᏩᏙᏗ, ᎬᏅᏓᎩ, ᎺᏂ, Maryland, ᎺᏌᏧᏎᏗ, ᎻᏏᎦᏂ, ᎻᏂᏐᏓ, ᏨᎫᎵ, ᎠᏤ ᎭᎻᏒ, ᎠᏤ ᏨᏏ, ᏄᏯᎩ, ᎣᎭᏲ, ᎤᏩᎦᏂ, ᎤᎩᏓᎵᏱ, ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎦᏚᏛᎢ, ᏣᏩᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᏍᎧᏂᏏᏂ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᏁᏩᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᏔᎾᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ.

ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ secession/affiliation ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1861. Click ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ.
ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ affiliation ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1864. Click ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ territories ᎧᎶᏩᏓ, ᏓᎧᏓ, ᏎᎷᏱ, ᏁᏩᏓ, ᏍᏆᏂᏤᏍᏛᎢ, ᏳᏔ, ᎠᎴ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ-ᏚᏂᏴᏒ ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ-Ꭿ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ Confederacy, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎢᎭ civil ᏓᏄᏩ.

ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ[edit]

ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ: ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ (Civil ᏓᏄᏩ)

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ comprised ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎵᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ), ᎠᎴ ᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ northernmost ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ (ᎺᎵᏂ, ᏕᎳᏪᎢ, ᏨᎫᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏅᏓᎩ). ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ Lincoln ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, militia units Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ drilling ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎤᏩᏅᏨ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᎠᎴ Baltimore. ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳᎰᏒᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ, Lincoln ᎠᏰᎲ ᏓᏥᏂᏴᎡᎸᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎺᎵᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ Columbia.

ᎺᎵᏂ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ pro-Confederate ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏒᎧᎵ ᎦᎪ tolerated anti-ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ rioting ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Baltimore ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ bridges. Lincoln responded ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏄᏬ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎤᏓᏅᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ arrested ᎯᎠ pro-Confederates.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏨᎫᎵ, ᏧᏓᎩᏴᎲ convention ᎾᎿ secession ᏚᏑᏰᏒ decisively ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ pro-Confederate ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Claiborne F. Jackson ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏥᏄ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ militia, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ attacked ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ Nathaniel Lyon, ᎦᎪ chased ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎯᎠ southwestern ᎤᏅᏏᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ: ᏨᎫᎵ secession). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ resulting vacuum ᎯᎠ convention ᎾᎿ secession reconvened ᎠᎴ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Unionist provisional ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏨᎫᎵ.

ᎪᎾᏓ ᎩᎦᎭᎢ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ secede; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏳᏩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ neutral. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ invasion ᎾᎥᎢ Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ, ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ sympathizers ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ secession convention, inaugurated Confederate ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Confederacy. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ Columbus, ᎬᏅᏓᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Confederate ᏂᎦᎥ Leonidas Polk ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 1861 ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎾᏓ ᎩᎦᎭᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ Confederacy, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ reaffirmed Ꮝ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ expelled ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ.

Residents ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏗᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ secession ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᎸᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1863 ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ. ᎤᏠᏱ secessions ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏔᎾᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ suppressed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Confederacy. Jefferson Davis arrested ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 3,000 ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏥᎳᏫᏎᎸ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎠᏂ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏥᎵᏱᏙᎲ.[16]

Overview[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᏕᎬᎿᏅᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏗᏐᏴ Sumter

Lincoln ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ presidential ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ 1860 triggered ᏐᎦᎴᏂ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ secession ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᎦᎵ 1861, ᏑᏓᎵ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏠᏱ declarations. ᎾᎿ ᎧᎦᎵ 7, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ provisional ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎨᏰᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ Montgomery, ᎠᎳᏆᎹ. Pre-ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᎦᎵ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬᎢ 1861 ᏚᎾᏠᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏄᎸ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ resolving ᎯᎠ crisis. ᎯᎠ remaining ᏧᏁᎳ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ rejected pleas ᎠᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Confederacy. Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᏓᏥᏂᏴᎡᎸᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ forts ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ boundaries (ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᏐᏴ Sumter); ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Buchanan protested ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ Ꮭ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ resupply ᏗᏐᏴ Sumter ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ, ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ preparations. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, governors ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎺᏌᏧᏎᏗ, ᏄᏯᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎩᏓᎵᏱ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎤᏂᏩᏍᎬ weapons ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ militia units ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅ ᎠᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ.

ᎾᎿ 4 ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 1861, ᎡᏆᎭᎻ Lincoln ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ sworn ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ inaugural ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ argued Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᏓᏡᎬ Confederation ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏰᎵᏒ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ binding ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ secession "legally void". ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮭ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ invade ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ possession ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏖᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ restoration ᎯᎠ ᏗᏚᎳᏙ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ delegations ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᎠᎴ offered ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ properties ᎠᎴ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ. Lincoln rejected ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ Confederate ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ legitimate ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ tantamount ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ sovereign ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ.

ᏗᏐᏴ Sumter ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎦᎴᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ remaining ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ-ᎠᏰᎲᎩ forts ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Confederacy, ᎠᎴ Lincoln ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏕᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Confederate ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Jefferson Davis, Confederates ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded ᎯᎠ ᏗᏐᏴ ᎬᏙᏗ artillery ᎾᎿ ᎫᏬᏂ 12, forcing Ꮝ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ. Northerners reacted ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓᏘ, ᎠᎴ rallied ᎣᏂᏗᏢ Lincoln, ᎦᎪ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ recapture ᎯᎠ forts ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ rebellion ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏘᏉ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏅ, Lincoln ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 74,000 volunteers ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 90 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ.

ᏅᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ (ᏖᎾᏏ, ᏲᏩᏁᎬ, ᎦᏯᎴᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᏩᏥᏂ) ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ repeatedly rejected Confederate overtures, ᎾᏊ ᎤᏓᏱᎸ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎾᎥ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ, ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ secession, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ Confederacy. ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏓᏅᏒ Richmond, ᏩᏥᏂ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ vulnerable ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ.

Anaconda ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ, 1861[edit]

1861 cartoon of Scott's "Anaconda Plan"

Winfield Scott, ᎯᎠ commanding ᏂᎦᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, devised ᎯᎠ Anaconda ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ports ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ strangle ᎯᎠ rebel ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ; ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎤᏪᏴ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏗᏍᏡᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ. Lincoln ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ overruled Scott ᎤᏤᎵ warnings ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ Richmond.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᏕᎬᎿᏅᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Naval Battles ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ, ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 1861 Lincoln proclaimed ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ports, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ - ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ moderately successful - ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏓᏓᏅᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ–ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏓᏓᏅᏓᏁᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎦᏲᎵ naval battles ᎨᏒᎩ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏥᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ. ᎩᎵᏏ investors ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ "ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ runners" Ꮎ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ (ᎠᎴ civilian luxuries) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Cuba ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Bahamas ᎠᎴ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᏄ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏥᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏦᎳ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ runners, ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ cargo ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏱᎸᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ sailors. ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ crews ᎨᏒᎩ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ. ᎯᎠ "ironclad" CSS ᏩᏥᏂ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏤᎯ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ voyage sank ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᏥᏳ USS Cumberland ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᏴᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ "ᎠᏥᎵᏱᏙᎲ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ." ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎢᎦ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ Hampton ᏕᎦᏅᏅ (ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎯᎠ ironclads ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ USS Monitor ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ CSS ᏩᏥᏂ") ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 1862, ᎠᎵᏍᏆᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ironclad ᎠᎾᏓᏠᏍᎬ. ᏐᎢ naval battles ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ Ꮭ. 10, Memphis, Drewry ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎾᏰᏍᏙᏗ, ᏲᏩᏁᎬ ᎨᏛᎢ, ᎠᎴ Mobile ᎥᏓᎵ.

ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ 1861–1863[edit]

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ resistance ᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ Manassas, ᏩᏥᏂ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 1861, ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ halted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏩᎦᏧᎧᏅᏍᏕᎾ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ Manassas, whereupon ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᎦᏐᎯ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ, D.C., ᎾᎥᎢ Confederate ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ Generals Joseph E. Johnston ᎠᎴ P.G.T. Beauregard. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Ꮎ Confederate ᏂᎦᎥ Thomas Jackson ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ "Stonewall" ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏅᏯ ᎠᏐᏴ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. Alarmed ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ Crittenden-Johnson ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᎿ 25 ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 25 Ꮎ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ slavery.

ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏂᎦᎥ George B. McClellan ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Potomac ᎾᎿ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 26th (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏍᏆᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎥ-ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ-ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ subsequently ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎸᎲ Ꮎ ᎨᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1862.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ urging ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Lincoln ᎠᎴᏅᏗ offensive operations, McClellan attacked ᏩᏥᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ 1862 ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏥᏂ Peninsula ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ York ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ James ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎧᎸᎬ Richmond. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ McClellan ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏭᎷᏨᎩ ᎯᎠ gates Richmond ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Peninsula ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ, Joseph E. Johnston halted ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ Pines, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Robert E. Lee defeated ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ Battles ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ. McClellan ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ stripped ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ reinforce John Pope ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏩᏥᏂ. Pope ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏥᏠᏒ spectacularly ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏩᎦᏧᎧᏅᏍᏕᎾ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᏂ.

Confederate ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏯ ᎠᏐᏴ Marye ᎤᏤᎵ Heights, Fredericksburg, ᏩᏥᏂ, ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Chancellorsville, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 1863.

Emboldened ᎾᎥᎢ ᏔᎵᏁ ᏩᎦᏧᎧᏅᏍᏕᎾ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎪᏢᏅᎯ Ꮝ ᎢᎬᏱ invasion ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏂᎦᎥ Ꮅ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ 45,000 ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Potomac ᎤᏪᏴ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎺᎵᏂ ᎾᎿ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 5th. Lincoln ᎾᎯᏳᎢ restored Pope ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ McClellan. McClellan ᎠᎴ Ꮅ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Antietam ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Sharpsburg, ᎺᎵᏂ, ᎾᎿ 17 ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 11862, ᎯᎠ bloodiest ᏏᏴᏫ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ. Lee ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, ᎥᏓᏗᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᏂ, ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ McClellan ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ. Antietam ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ halted Lee ᎤᏤᎵ invasion ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎠᏓᏜᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Lincoln ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ Emancipation Proclamation.

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ cautious McClellan ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ Antietam, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside. Burnside ᎠᎩᎵᏲᏨ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ-ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Fredericksburg ᎾᎿ 13 ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 1862, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏔᎵᏚ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅᎯ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ, Burnside ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Maj. Gen. Joseph "ᏓᎾᎵᎲ Joe" Hooker. Hooker, too, ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ Lee ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ; despite outnumbering ᎯᎠ Confederates ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏔᎵ ᏌᏊ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ humiliated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Chancellorsville ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 1863. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Maj. Gen. George G. Meade ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ Lee ᎤᏤᎵ ᏔᎵᏁ invasion ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᎭᎷᏱ. Meade defeated Lee ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Gettysburg (1 ᎫᏰᏉᏂ—3 ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 1863), ᎯᎠ bloodiest ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ sometimes ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ. Lee ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᏨ 28,000 casualties (versus Meade ᎤᏤᎵ 23,000). Lincoln ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎭᎿᎸ Ꮎ Meade ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ intercept Lee ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ, ᏚᏭᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏱ 1864 ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏤ leadership.

ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ balloons, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Aerial ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ.

ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ 1861–1863[edit]

ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ successes ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ crucially ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏱᎵᏒᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏨᎫᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Pea ᏣᎴᎩ. Leonidas Polk ᎤᏤᎵ invasion ᎬᏅᏓᎩ enraged ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎦᎪ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ neutrality ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏒ Ꮎ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ Confederacy.

ᏓᎫᎾᏪᎳᎯ, ᏔᎾᏏ, ᎤᏅᏨᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1862. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎤᏬᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ Ꮭ. 10 ᎠᎴ ᎠᏤ Madrid, ᏨᎫᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Memphis, ᏔᎾᏏ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ captured ᎢᏤ Orleans, ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 1862, allowing ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ fortress ᎦᏚᎲᎢ Vicksburg, ᎻᏏᏏᏈ, ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏔᏅᎯ unchallenged ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏪᏴ.

Braxton Bragg ᎤᏤᎵ ᏔᎵᏁ Confederate invasion ᎪᎾᏓ ᎩᎦᎭᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ repulsed ᎾᎥᎢ Don Carlos Buell ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎢᎭ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Perryville, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ narrowly defeated ᎾᎥᎢ William S. Rosecrans ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎠᏂᏅᏯ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎾᏏ.

ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ Confederate ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏥᎧᎹᎩ. Bragg, reinforced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ corps James Longstreet (ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Lee ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ), defeated Rosecrans, despite ᎯᎠ heroic defensive ᎦᏙᎬ George Henry Thomas. Rosecrans retreated ᏣᏔᏄᎦ, ᏔᎾᏏ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ Bragg ᎾᎯᏳᎢ besieged.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ strategist ᎠᎴ tactician ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, ᎦᎪ ᎤᏓᏠᏒ victories ᎾᎾᎢ: Forts Henry ᎠᎴ Donelson, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᏓᏥᏂᏴᎡᎸᎩ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎾᏏ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ Cumberland Rivers; Shiloh; ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Vicksburg, cementing ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ marched ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ Rosecrans ᎠᎴ defeated Bragg ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Chattanooga, ᏖᎾᏏ, ᎠᏱᎵᏒ Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᏄ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏖᎾᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ Atlanta ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ Confederacy.

Trans-ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ 1861–1865[edit]

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ geographically isolated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ battles ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎤᏪᏴ. Confederate incursions ᎾᎾᎯ Arizona ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ repulsed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1862. Guerilla ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏨᎫᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ (ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ) ᎾᎾᎯ battleground. ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎤᏪᏴ ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ. ᏅᏓᎩ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Confederate ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ Vicksburg ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1863 ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎤᏪᏴ.

ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ 1864–1865[edit]

Jefferson Davis, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ

ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ 1864, Lincoln ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ commander ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ headquarters ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Potomac, ᎠᎴ ᏩᏗᏱ Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ Lincoln ᎠᎴ Sherman, Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ.[17] ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ devised coordinated ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ Confederacy ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ multiple ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ: ᏂᎦᎥ Meade ᎠᎴ Benjamin ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ Lee ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Richmond; ᏂᎦᎥ Franz Sigel (ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ Philip Sheridan) ᎨᏒᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Shenandoah ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ; ᏂᎦᎥ Sherman ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ Atlanta ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ; Generals George Crook ᎠᎴ William W. Averell ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏅᏃᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ lines ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ; ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥ Nathaniel ᎠᏕ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ Mobile, ᎠᎳᏆᎹ.

ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ maneuver ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ Lee ᎠᎴ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ battles ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ Ꮎ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᏴᏎᎬ ("ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ [[Overland Campaign|Overland ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ]") ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ. ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ battles attrition ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Wilderness, Spotsylvania ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ Harbor ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎨᏛ losses, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ Lee ᎤᏤᎵ Confederates ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎠᏏᏇ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᏇ. ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ outflank Lee ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ, ᎦᎪ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ trapped ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Bermuda ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ. ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ tenacious ᎠᎴ, despite astonishing losses (ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 66,000 casualties ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ), ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ pressing Lee ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎦᏐᎯ Richmond. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ pinned ᎡᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Siege Petersburg, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏚᎾᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ trench ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ.

ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ commander, ᏂᎦᎥ Philip Sheridan, aggressive ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ Campaigns 1864. Sheridan ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Jubal ᎢᎬᏱ, ᎠᎴ defeated ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ battles, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ decisive ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏥᎾ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ. Sheridan ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᏱᎸᏓ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ tactics Sherman ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᏥᏱ.

ᎾᎯᏳ ᏯᏛᎿ, Sherman marched ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Chattanooga Atlanta, defeating Confederate Generals Joseph E. Johnston ᎠᎴ John B. Hood. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ Atlanta, ᎾᎿ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 2, 1864, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ significant ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ re-ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ Lincoln ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ. ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ Atlanta, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ, Sherman ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ marched ᎬᏙᏗ unknown ᏭᎦᏛᎢ, ᎠᏂᏝᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 20% ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᏥᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ "ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ". ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏭᎷᏨᎩ ᎯᎠ Atlantic ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ Savannah ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 1864. Sherman ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ; ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ Ꮭ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ battles ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Sherman ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏐᎦᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏯᎴᏂ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏥᏂ lines ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Lee ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ.

Lee ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, thinned ᎾᎥᎢ desertion, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏊ ᎤᏣᏘ smaller ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ'. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏠᏒ decisive ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎯᏍᎩ Forks ᎾᎿ ᎫᏬᏂ 1, forcing Lee evacuate Petersburg ᎠᎴ Richmond. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Richmond surrendered ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ 5th ᎺᏌᏧᏎᏗ Cavalry. ᎯᎠ remaining Confederate units ᎤᎵᏘᏒ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ Sayler ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ, Lee surrendered ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎾᎿ 9 ᎫᏬᏂ 1865, ᎾᎾᎢ Appomattox ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ untraditional gesture ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎣᏰ(Ꮈ)Ꮢ folding ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎦᏐᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏢᏉᏙatlvquodod ᎠᎴ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ, Lee ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏪᎵᏒ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ sabre ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ-legendary ᏐᏈᎵ, Traveller. Johnston surrendered ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ Sherman ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Durham, ᎦᏯᎴᏂ. ᏂᎦᏛ Confederate ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ surrendered ᎾᎥᎢ ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 1865.

Slavery ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ[edit]

Lincoln initially ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ preservation ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ emancipation. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮭ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᏓᏓᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ slaveholders ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᏰᎲ radicalizing ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏙᏗ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Emancipation Proclamation, ᏚᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 1862 ᎠᎴ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏅᎩ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, Lincoln ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ abolition ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ—Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ rebels ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ.

ᎯᎠ Emancipation Proclamation ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Confederate ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ "ᎾᎯᏳᎢ, thenceforth, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎪᎯᏓᏊ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ," ᎠᎴ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ areas ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ re-ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ 1 ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 1863. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ unclear ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ Lincoln ᎠᏰᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ. ᏄᏓᎴ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Emancipation Proclamation ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎯᎠ intervention European ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ perception ᎢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ, Lincoln ᎠᎲᏓ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ intervention ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ European ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ Confederacy.

ᎯᎠ officially neutral ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ (ᎪᎾᏓ ᎩᎦᎭᎢ, ᏨᎫᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎺᎵᏂ) ᎨᏒᎩ unaffected ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Emancipation Proclamation, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏕᎳᏪᎢ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏰᎲ slavery. ᏂᎦᏛ abolished slavery ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎪᎾᏓ ᎩᎦᎭᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ Emancipation Proclamation technically ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 1863, Ꮝ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ areas ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎠᏓᏚᎸᏁᎸ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ. ᎯᎠ 13th ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅᎯ, ratified 6 ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 1865, ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ abolished slavery ᏂᎬᎾᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ.

ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ Intervention[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Confederate ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Lincoln ᎠᎴ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ William Henry Seward ᏚᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎪᎯ, ᎠᎴ threatened ᏓᏄᏩ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ officially ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. (ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ.) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1861 southerners voluntarily embargoed ᎤᏥᎸ ᏫᏓᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ, ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᎭ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏥᎸ. ᎤᏥᎸ diplomacy ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎠᏰᎲ amply ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏥᎸ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ 1860-62 ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ failures ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ exports ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ Ꮎ "ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏥᎸ", ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ import ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ. [18]

Lincoln ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ Confederacy, ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏐᎢ European ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ, ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ neutrality ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏗᏒᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏕᎠᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ. ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Jefferson Davis ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏔᎵ secretaries ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ (Robert Toombs ᎠᎴ Robert M. T. ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ) ᎬᏙᏗ Judah P. Benjamin ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏱ 1862. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Benjamin ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ dynamic ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Confederacy.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ attempts ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ European ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎨᏒᎩ dispatched ᎾᎿ 25 ᎧᎦᎵ 1861 ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ William Lowndes Yancey, Pierre . Rost, ᎠᎴ Ambrose Dudley Mann. ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ John Russell ᏚᎾᏠᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ Edouard Thouvenel ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ unofficially. ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏓᎫᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ.

Charles Francis Adams ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ adept ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ reluctant boldly challenge ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎩᎵᏏ maritime ᏧᏁᏉᏨ ᎤᏂᏩᏒ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᏓᎨᏓ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏢᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ runners — ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎦᏃᎯᎸᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎦᏓᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎬ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎾᎥᎢ slipping ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ crews ᎨᏒᎩ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ captured ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ. ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎠᏩᏒᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ warships ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ comercial ᏥᏳ builders ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ; ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎳᏆᎹ, ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᎪᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ postwar disputes. ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎠᏓᏅᏒ journalists Henry Hotze ᎠᎴ Edwin De Leon ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ propaganda ᏧᎴᏫᏍᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏤᎢ media ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Paris ᎠᎴ London. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ slavery ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᏓᏥᏚᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ European politicians, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ. ᏓᏄᏩ loomed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1861 ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Trent ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ, involving ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏥᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᏥᏳ ᎤᏔᎾ seize ᏔᎵ Confederate diplomats. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, London ᎠᎴ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ Lincoln ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ diplomats.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1862 ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ mediation — ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ risked ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Antietam ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᏂ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ Emancipation Proclamation ᎤᏗᏗᏢ reinforced ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᏓᏥᏚᎬᎢ supporting ᎯᎠ Confederacy. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ, ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᏝᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎵᏏᎯ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏚᎩ ᏂᎨᎥᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ focused increasingly ᎾᎿ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ. Napoléon III ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ mediation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 1863, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ dismissed ᎾᎥᎢ Seward. Despite ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏪᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Confederacy, ᎦᎸᏥᏱ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ seizure ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ultimately deterred ᎠᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. Confederate ᎠᏂᏍᎪᎳᏗ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ slavery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ London ᎠᎴ Paris.

ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ prevailed (ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ defeated) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

ᏰᎵᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏓᏠᏒ? significant ᏎᏍᏗ scholars ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ insurmountable ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ determination ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ. Confederate ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏘᏲᎯᎭ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ. ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ historian Shelby Foote ᎢᏳᏂᏪᏛ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ succinctly ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ken Burns ᎤᏤᎵ television ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ: "ᎠᏯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ Ꮎ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎦᏐᎯ.... ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ victories, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ Ꮎ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎠᏥᏄ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎦᏐᎯ. ᎠᏯ don't ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏓᏄᏩ."[19]

ᏐᎢ historians, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ Ꮝ independence. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ James McPherson ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ defensive, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ strategic offensive, faced ᎤᎪᏗᏗ manpower ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗᏱ. ᏓᏄᏩ weariness ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ civilians mounted ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ casualties, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ advantages ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ decisive. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎯᎠ inevitability ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ hotly contested ᏄᎾᏛᏅ scholars.

ᎯᎠ goals ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ symmetric. ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ independence ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ invade ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ. ᏅᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ stretches ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ (ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ) ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎨᏒᎩ evenly matched. ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ (ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ) ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᏰᎲ advantages Ꮎ increasingly ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎲ diplomatic ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ.

ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ advantages ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ coastline, ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ Confederate ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, seize Richmond, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ centers. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ occupying ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ, ᎠᏓᏁᏗ lines, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ advantages widely ᎠᏓᏚᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ historians ᎤᎭ contributed ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ success ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ:

File:USA Advantages.png
ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ advantages ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ CSA
  • ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ industrialized ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ aided ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ, munitions ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ graph ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ USA ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ CSA ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎯᎠ advantages widened ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ, ᎠᎴ Confederate ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ shrank ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ weakened.
  • ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ 22 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ 9 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1861; ᎯᎠ disparity ᎤᏛᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ controlled ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ garrisons, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ trans-ᎻᏏᏏᏈ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ Confederacy.
  • ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ controlled ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 80% ᎯᎠ shipyards, steamships, ᎤᏪᏴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏳ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ augmented ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᎢ massive shipbuilding ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ systems ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ coastline.[20]
  • ᎤᎵᎶᎲᏍᎩ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏅᏃᎯ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ allowed ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ. ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ slower ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ augment Ꮝ ᎤᏣᏘ smaller ᎢᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏩᎪᏘᎶᏛ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ.[21]
  • Strategically ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ Richmond ᏗᎧᏁᎸ Lee ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ exposed ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ lines. (ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ Richmond, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏕᎳᎰᏒᎯ, ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ.)[22]
  • ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ accumulated ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ wartime, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ regional infighting ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ streamlined ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ Davis ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎴ productive relationships ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ governors ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ Confederate ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎠᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ regional ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ.[23]
  • ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏴᏜ ᏗᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ roots, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ unpopular. ᎯᎠ Confederacy deliberately ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ.[24]
  • ᎯᎠ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ diplomatic ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ markets. Ꮝ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏥᎸ misperception ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎤᏲᎢ diplomacy, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ refusal ᏥᏳ ᎤᏥᎸ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ.[25]
  • ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ Ꮝ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ overcoming ᎯᎠ unhealthy ᎥᏳᎩ environment Ꮎ sickened (ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ) ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ combat ᏄᏛᏁᎸ.[26]
  • ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎤᏤᎵ tactic engaging ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ battles drained manpower ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ Ꮝ losses.[27]
  • Despite ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ tactical blunders ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ Confederate generals, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Lee ᎤᏤᎵ miscalculations ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Gettysburg ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Antietam, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ—ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮭ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ Confederates ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᏛᏂ ᎯᎠ losses.
  • Lincoln ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ adept ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Davis ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ replacing unsuccessful generals ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ.[28]
  • Lincoln ᎤᏛᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ strategist, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ Davis. ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎥᏝ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ overall ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎥᏝ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ. Davis ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ coordinated ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ threats, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ Vicksburg ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1863 (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ allowed Ꮅ invade ᎤᎩᏓᎵᏱ).[29]
  • ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎢᎦᏛ partisan bands ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏨᎫᎵ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Confederate ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ shrank ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ advantages ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ guerrilla ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏙᏗ infrastructure [30]. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Lee warned, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ devastating ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ.[31]
  • ᎯᎠ Confederacy ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ lacked ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ commitment ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ [32]. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ, Sherman, ᎠᎴ Sheridan emerge; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎯᏳᏃ, ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ wavered, ᎠᎴ Lincoln ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏔᏅ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏓᏲᎱᏎᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ 1864, until victories ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Shenandoah ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᎴ Atlanta ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ.

Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᏕᎬᎿᏅᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ leadership ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ generals ᎾᎿ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏧᏩᎦᏔᏅᏍ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ—ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Ulysses S. Grant ᎠᎴ Robert E. Lee, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏰᎵ 1846 ᎠᎴ 1848. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏓᏍᏆᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ.

ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ commanders ᎠᎴ strategists ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. Johnston, Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, James Longstreet, P.G.T. Beauregard, John Mosby, Braxton Bragg, John ᎤᎭᎸᏂ Hood, James Ewell ᏬᏗᎨ (JEB) Stuart, William Mahone, Judah P. Benjamin, Jubal ᎢᎬᏱ, ᎠᎴ Nathan Bedford Forrest.

ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ commanders ᎠᎴ strategists ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎡᏆᎭᎻ Lincoln, Edwin M. Stanton, Ulysses . ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ, William Tecumseh Sherman, George H. Thomas, George B. McClellan, Henry W. Halleck, Joseph Hooker, Ambrose Burnside, Irvin McDowell, Winfield Scott, Philip Sheridan, George Crook, George Armstrong Custer, George G. Meade, Winfield Hancock, ᎠᎴ Robert Gould Shaw.

ᎤᎶᏐᏅ 1980, scholarly ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Dr. Charles Brackett (ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎦᎾᎦᏘ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏦᏎᏛᎾ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎬᎿᎨᎢ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ James McPherson ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ "ᎯᎠ ᏭᏓᎪᎾᏛ irony ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ Confederate ᎠᎴ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ... interpreted ᎯᎠ heritage 1776 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎿᏗᏢ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. Confederates ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ independence ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ tyrannical ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ; Unionists ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ founders ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ dismemberment ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ."(McPherson 1994 p 24)

Aftermath[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ Monument ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᎦunagatodi ᎣᏓᎸ, ᏔᎾᏏ depicts ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ Confederate ᎠᏯᏫᏍᎩ shaking ᏧᏃᏰᏂ.

ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᎲ ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ conventional Confederate ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮭ significant guerrilla ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏍᏆᏗᏍᎩ Confederate ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎤᎳᏘᏒ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ; Davis ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ captured ᎠᎴ imprisoned ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎠᏥᎵᏱᏙᎲ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ stages, Lincoln ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ assassinated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ plot ᎾᎥᎢ Confederate sympathizers. ᏐᎢ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ targets ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ plot, ᎠᎴ William H. Seward ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ attacked ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ.

ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᏓᎾᎵᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ encompass ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏓᏄᏩ goals: Confederate nationalism ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏟᏌᏃᏅᎯ repudiated, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ slavery ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ eliminated. ᎤᏅᏌ disagreed sharply ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ criteria ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ goals. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ disagreed ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ imposed ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ reintegrated ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ.

Reconstruction, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1877, ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ complex ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ "Civil ᏓᏄᏩ" amendments ᎯᎠ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ (ᎯᎠ XIII, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ abolished slavery, ᎯᎠ XIV, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ protections ᎠᏁᎲᎢ regardless ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ XV, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ abolished racial restrictions ᎾᎿ voting). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1877 ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ intervention ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ "Jim ᎪᎦ" ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ.

Amendments XIV ᎠᎴ XV ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬᎾ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Ku Klux Klan ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ, ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ Confederate "Redeemer" governors ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ resistance until ᎯᎠ Civil ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ.

ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ culture. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ decades ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᏴᏜ "waved ᎯᎠ ᎦᎢᎭ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏄᏬ," ᎠᏲᎯᎲ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ wartime casualties ᏥᏄᏍᏗ electoral tactic. ᏗᏅᏓᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ Reconstruction ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎯᎠ segregated ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Democratic ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ—ᎯᎠ "ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ"—ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎯᎠ Civil ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎯᎠ 1960s ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮝ roots ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ Reconstruction. ᎠᏂᏍᎩᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏙᎢ ᎾᏢᏲᎵᎲᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᎦᏲᎵ debates ᏓᎦᏚᏫᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ legacy ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ memorials ᎠᎴ celebrations Confederate heroes ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ flags. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴ troubling ᏌᏊ: Americans ᎬᏙᏗ Confederate ancestors cherish ᎯᎠ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ bravery ᎠᎴ determination, ᎩᎳ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᎧᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎬᎿᎨᎢ slavery.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. ᎡᏆᎭᎻ Lincoln, ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ Henry L. ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ, & ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᎫᏬᏂ 6. 1859 ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆᎭᎻ Lincoln ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎾᏓᎪᎾᏛᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ Baltimore, MD, ᎫᏬᏂ 18, 1864 vs. Confederate ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏓᎴᏁ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Alexander Stephen ᎤᏤᎵ Cornerstone ᎠᎵᏣᏙᏗ, Savannah, ᏣᏥᏱ, ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 21, 1861
  2. Thomas Pressley, Americans ᎠᏁᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ (1962) 7-22
  3. Woodworth, ed. ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ: Handbook ᎪᏪᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ 1996 ch 11
  4. Andrew Carroll, ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ 1997 ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 105
  5. Eric Foner. ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ: ᎯᎠ Ideology ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏜ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ (1970) ch 2
  6. Dred Scott v. Sandford, ᎠᎹᏰᏟ. ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ, Roger Taney ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ, 1857
  7. ᎢᎬᏱ Lincoln Douglas ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏔᏩ, ᎢᎵᏃᏱ ᎦᎶᏂ 21, 1858
  8. James M. McPherson, ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ tohi adedi 1988 p 242, 255, 282-83. ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 101 (ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 236 (ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ Secession) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ relevant
  9. William E. Gienapp, "ᎯᎠ Crisis ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᏂᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏖᏗ: ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎢᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ." ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Boritt ed. ᎦᏙᏃ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ 79-123
  10. Gienapp, "Crisis ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᏂᏣᏘ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏖᏗ" p. 92
  11. James Brewer Stewart, ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ Warriors: ᎯᎠ Abolitionists ᎠᎴ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Slavery (1976)
  12. Beringer 1986 pp 359-60[1]
  13. David Brion Davis, Inhuman ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ (2006) pp 186-192.
  14. David Brion Davis, Inhuman ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ (2006) p 197, 409; Stanley Harrold, ᎯᎠ Abolitionists ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, 1831-1861 (1995) p. 62
  15. ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᏂᏐᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᎯᎠ Secession ᏐᎦᎴᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ - ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 24, 1860
  16. ᎤᏙᏪᎸ Neely, Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis ᎠᎴ Civil Liberties 1993 p. 10-11
  17. ᎤᏙᏪᎸ E. Neely Jr.; "ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏓᏄᏩ?" Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, Vol. 50, 2004 pp 434+
  18. McPherson, ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ 386
  19. ᎠᏥᎦᏘᏯ 1990 p 272
  20. McPherson 313-16, 392-3
  21. Heidler ᎠᎴ Heidler, 1591-98
  22. Heidler ᎠᎴ Heidler, 1643-47
  23. McPherson 432-44
  24. Eric L. McKitrick, "ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ Confederate ᏓᏄᏩ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ," ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ William Nisbet Chambers ᎠᎴ Walter Dean Burnham, eds. ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ Systems (1965); Beringer 1988 p 93
  25. Heidler ᎠᎴ Heidler, 598-603
  26. Resch 2: 112-14; Heidler ᎠᎴ Heidler, 603-4
  27. Grady McWhiney ᎠᎴ Perry D. Jamieson. ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ: Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ Tactics ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ Heritage (1982)
  28. Weigley
  29. Heidler ᎠᎴ Heidler, 564-72, 1185-90
  30. HzY/is_1_14/ai_78397581 The Confederacy Could Have Won, ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ, Wntr, 2001, ᎾᎥᎢ Dr. John Arquilla
  31. Heidler ᎠᎴ Heidler, 900-902
  32. Beringer et al (1986)

ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ[edit]

  • ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏓᏄᏩ Dept., The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, 1880–1901. 70 ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. Online ᎾᎾᎢ [2]
  • Commager, Henry Steele (ed.). ᎯᎠ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎮᎴᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ Participants. (1950), excerpts ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ
  • Eisenschiml, Otto; Ralph Newman; eds. ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Iliad: ᎯᎠ Epic ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Narrated ᎾᎥᎢ Eyewitnesses ᎠᎴ ᏧᏂᏠᏱ (1947), excerpts ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ
  • Hesseltine, William B. ed.; ᎯᎠ Tragic ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ: ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ Reconstruction (1962), excerpts ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ
  • Woodword, C. Vann, Ed., Mary Chesnut ᎤᏤᎵ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ, Yale University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1981, ISBN 0-300-02979-9 Pulitzer ᎠᏌᏍᏛ

Overviews[edit]

  • Beringer, Richard E., ᎠᎳᏍᏔᎵᏙᎯ Jones, ᎠᎴ Herman Hattaway, ᎦᏙᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ (1986) influential ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ factors; ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ Confederate ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ: Nationalism, ᏓᏄᏩ Aims, ᎠᎴ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ (1988), abridged ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ
  • Catton, Bruce, ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ, ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Heritage, 1960, ISBN 0-8281-0305-4, ᏚᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ narrative
  • Donald, David ed. ᎦᏙᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎤᏓᏠᏒ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ (1977) (ISBN 0-02-031660-7), ᏍᏆᎳᎢ interpretive essays
  • Donald, David et al. ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ Reconstruction (ᎣᏂᏴᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ 2001); 700 ᎤᏆᏓᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ
  • Eicher, David J., ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᎢᏍᏗ ᏒᏃᏱ: ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ, (2001), ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Fellman, Michael et al. ᎪᎯ Terible ᏓᏄᏩ: ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ Aftermath (2003), 400 ᎤᏆᏓᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ
  • Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative (3 ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ), (1974), ISBN 0-394-74913-8. ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ narrative ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᏛ fronts
  • McPherson, James M. ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ tohi adedi: ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ (1988), 900 ᎤᏆᏓᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ; Pulitzer ᎠᏌᏍᏛ
  • Nevins, Allan. Ordeal ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, 8-ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ (1947-1971). ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ, ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ narrative; ᎾᎥᎢ Pulitzer ᎠᏌᏍᏛ winner
    • 1. Fruits Manifest Destiny, 1847-1852; 2. ᎦᎵᏦᏕ Dividing, 1852-1857; 3. Douglas, Buchanan, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ Chaos, 1857-1859; 4. Prologue Civil ᏓᏄᏩ, 1859-1861; 5. ᎯᎠ Improvised ᏓᏄᏩ, 1861-1862; 6. ᏓᏄᏩ Becomes ᎠᏕᏲᎲ, 1862-1863; 7. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ, 1863-1864; 8. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ, 1864-1865
  • Rhodes, James ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ. History of the Civil War, 1861-1865 (1918), Pulitzer ᎠᏌᏍᏛ; ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ 5-ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ
  • ᎠᏥᎦᏘᏯ, Geoffrey C. ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ (Alfred Knopf, 1990), ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ PBS ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᎥᎢ Ken Burns; visual emphasis
  • Weigley, Russell ᏂᏚᏢᏫᏎᎲᎾ. ᎡᏆ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ: ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, 1861-1865 (2004); ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ

ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ bibliographies[edit]

  • Blair, Jayne E. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ: Handbook ᎯᎠ Battles, ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, Navies ᎠᎴ Commanders (2006)
  • Carter, Alice E. ᎠᎴ Richard Jensen. ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ: ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ Sites- 2nd ed. (2003)
  • ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ, Richard N., et al eds. Encyclopedia ᎯᎠ Confederacy (1993) (4 ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ 1 vol abridged ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ) (ISBN 0-13-275991-8)
  • Faust, Patricia L. (ed.) ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᏚᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ Encyclopedia ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ (1986) (ISBN 0-06-181261-7) 2000 ᏍᏆᎳᎢ entries
  • Esposito, Vincent J. West Point Atlas of American Wars (1959), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ online
  • Heidler, David Stephen. Encyclopedia ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ: ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ, ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ (2002), 1600 entries ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2700 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 5 vol ᎠᎴ 1-vol editions
  • Resch, John P. et al., '"Americans ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ: ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, Culture ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Homefront (2005) vol 2: 1816-1900
  • Wagner, Margaret E. Gary W. Gallagher, ᎠᎴ Paul Finkelman, eds. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ (2002)
  • Woodworth, Steven E. ed. ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ: Handbook ᎪᏪᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ (1996) (ISBN 0-313-29019-9), 750 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ historiography ᎠᎴ bibliography

Biographies[edit]

  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ: ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ Commanders, ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0882-7
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ: ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᎯᎠ Confederate Commanders, ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1959, ISBN 0-8071-0823-5

ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ[edit]

  • ᏂᏚᏢᏫᏎᎲᎾ, Joseph Allan ᎠᎴ George . Reaves. ᎥᎪᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎹᎹ: ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ Recruits ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Shiloh (1989)
  • Hess, Earl J. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ: Enduring ᎯᎠ Ordeal Combat (1997)
  • McPherson, James. ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ, 1861-1865 (ᎷᏫᏏᎡᎾ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1994)
  • McPherson, James. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ Comrades: ᎦᏙᏃ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᏚᎾᎵᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Civil ᏓᏄᏩ (1998)
  • Wiley, ᎤᎭᎸᏂ Irvin. ᎯᎠ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ Johnny Reb: ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Confederacy (1962) (ISBN 0-8071-0475-2)
  • Wiley, ᎤᎭᎸᏂ Irvin. ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ Billy Yank: ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ (1952) (ISBN 0-8071-0476-0)

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