ᏪᏌ

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, ᎡᏗt
ᏪᏏ
Collage of Six Cats-02.jpg
ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ Animalia
ᎠᏝᎥᎢ Chordata
ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ Mammalia
ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Carnivora
ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Felidae
ᎾᎿᎨᏒ Felis
ᏗᎦᎪᏗ F. catus (ᏪᏏ)

ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ (ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ, ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎡᎯ ᏪᏌ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎯᎠ subspecies Felis silvestris catus. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ predator ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏔᎯ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎨᏲᏅᎯ (ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ) ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ-ᎤᏱᏙᎸᎩ ᏗᏍᏚᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 3,500 8,000 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ[1], ᏓᎾᏎᎯᎲ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎸ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ.

ᏪᏌ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎳᏚ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏄᏪᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ tailless. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ ("ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ" ᎠᎴ "miaou"), ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, hiss ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏰᏗᏍᎬᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ.[2] ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏂᏐᏈᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ feral ᏪᏌ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ, ᎭᏢᏃ, ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏁᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ feral ᏪᏌ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ.

ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Egyptian mythology, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ mythology, ᎠᎴ Norse mythology. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ revered, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Wales, Hywel Dda (ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ) ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᏗᎧᏃᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏓᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏍᎦ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏪᏌ, ᎠᎴ vilified, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎦᎪ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ, ᎤᏚᏩᎴᎫ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ witches.

ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ closest ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ African ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏪᏌ, Felis silvestris lybica.[3]

ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ Felis catus ᎾᎥᎢ Carolus Linnaeus ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ Systema Naturae 1758. Johann ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ Daniel von Schreber ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏪᏌ Felis silvestris ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1775. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ subspecies ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏪᏌ: ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᎪᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏰᏃ ᎾᏍᏋ F. catus ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ Linnaeus ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎢᎬᏱ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ biologists ᎬᏙᏗ F. silvestris ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ F. catus ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ 2027 (ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ 60, ᎢᎦᏛ 1 ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᎪᏍᎬ, 31 ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 2003 [4]) ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎪᏍᎬ "conserved ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ 17 ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ predated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ", ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏍᎬ F. silvestris ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ F. silvestris catus ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ subspecies. (F. catus ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ.)

Johann ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ Polycarp Erxleben ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ Felis domesticus ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre ᎠᎴ Systema ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ animalis 1777. ᎪᎯ ᏚᏙᎥ, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ variants Felis catus domesticus ᎠᎴ Felis silvestris domesticus, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᎪᏍᎬ.

ᏪᏌ ᏝᎣᏍᏓ

  • ᎢᎦᏓ ᏪᏌ ᏂᏚᏓᎴ ᏓᏂᎧᏃᎢ.

ᏪᏌ ᏯᎾᏓᏍᎦᎳ.

ᎠᏩᏤᎵ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎩᎸᏉᏗ.

ᏪᏌ ᏧᏬᏚ ᏓᎧᏃᎢ.

ᏪᏌ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏁᎭ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏪᏌ ᏧᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᏪᏌ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏓᏂᏂᏓᏗ

  • ᎢᎦᏓ ᎤᏃᏚ ᎨᏐ ᏪᏌ

ᏪᏌ ᎣᏍᏓ ᎦᎾᏢᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏘ ᎨᏐᎢ

ᏓᎪᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ clowder, ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᏪᏌ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ pedigreed ᏪᏌ, ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ. ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ, ᏥᏍᏚ, ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᏙᏯ, ᏌᎶᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎳ). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ Britain, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ catling. ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎠᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ pedigreed ᏪᏌ, purebred ᏪᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᏪᏌ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ pedigreed ᎠᎴ purebred). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏛ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, purebred ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ. pedigreed ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ (ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ; ᏪᏌ registries ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏛ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ mated ᎢᏧᎳ). ᏪᏌ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ longhairs ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ shorthairs ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ-ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᏣᏘ, moggies, ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, mutt-ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᎸ ᏪᏌ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᏧᎦᏴᎵᎨ/purebred ᏪᏌ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ-ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᏣᏘ ᏪᏌ varies ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ, purebreds ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏍᎪᎯ ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ.[5]

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏪᏌ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎩᎵᏏ catt, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏣᎵ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ European ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᎶᎻ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ cattus, Byzantine ᎠᎪᎢ κάττα, ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎦᏁᎳ ᏪᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎷᏏᎥ kotka. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ.[6]

ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᏪᏌ ᎦᎾᏢᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏘ ᎨᏐᎢ.

ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ[edit]

ᏗᎨᎦᎦᏅᏗ[edit]

ᏪᏌ ᎤᏩᏌ ᎠᏓᏅᎦᎵᎠ

ᏪᏌ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ 2.5 ᎠᎴ 7 kg (5.5–16 ᎢᏳᏓᎨᏓ ᏳᏓᎨᏓ); ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎺᏂ ᎬᎵ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ 11.3 kg (25 ᎢᏧᏓᎨᏓ). ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 23 kg (50 ᎢᏧᏓᎨᏓ) ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎡᎵᏉ. ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ (ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1.8 kg - 4.0 lbs) [3] ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ, ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ 14 20 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ 36.[7] ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏪᎵᏒ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ (ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎥᏳᎩ) ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ spayed ᎠᎴ neutered. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ neutered ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏪᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ testicular ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ, spayed ᎠᎨᏴ ᏪᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ovarian ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ mammary ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ.[8] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, feral ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎦᏁᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ. Feral ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ colonies ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ; ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎰᏩ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ 19-ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ-ᎠᎦᏴᎵ feral ᎠᎨᏴ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ feral ᏪᏌ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ "ᎤᏙᏪᎸ" ᎦᎪ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎪ ᏭᎷᏨᎩ 26 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏁᎶᎲᏍᎩ. ᎦᏣᏄᎳ sprinters, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 50 km/h (ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 30 mph) ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏐᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏐᏴ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 2 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ (ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 7 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏅᎩ-ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ Ꮎ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ collarbone[4]. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ.

ᏗᎦᎴᏂ[edit]

ᏦᏍᎪᎯ-ᏔᎵ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏇᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏂ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ directional ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ; [9] ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᎴᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ Ꮝ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏥᏃᏍᏛ ᎦᎴᏂ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ upward. ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎩᏟ, ᎫᏢᏗ-eared ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ. (ᎦᏁᎳ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ.) ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᎭᎿᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ, ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏠᏗ Ꮝ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎦᏐᎯ, ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏌᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ. ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ.

ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ[edit]

ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ "ᏪᏌ ᏞᎦ ᎦᎸᏗ"

ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎸᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ. ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎦᎸᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ 12–16 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ, ᎬᏙᏗ 13–14 ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᎸᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 20 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 24-ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏪᏌ ᏞᎦ ᎦᎸᏗ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎦᎵᎭ (ᎠᏨᏍᏛ) ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏴᎸᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ – ᎩᎶ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎦᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ "ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏪᏌ ᏞᎦ ᎦᎸᏗ".

ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ, ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ hyperactivity ᎠᎴ playfulness ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ, dubbed ᎯᎠ "ᏒᎯᏰᏱ crazies", "ᏒᏃᏱ crazies" ᎠᎴ "ᎤᎿᎸᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ" ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ. [10] [11]

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴ socialization. ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨᏍᏗ haired ᏪᏌ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ skinnier ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ 38 ᎠᎴ 39 °C (101 ᎠᎴ 102.2 °F).[12] ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ (hyperthermic) ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ 39.5 °C (103 °F) ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ hypothermic ᎢᏳᏃ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 37.5 °C (100 °F). ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ, ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎤᎭ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 36.8 °C (98.2 °F). ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 140 220 ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᏍᎦᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏰᎵ 150 ᎠᎴ 180 bpm, ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ.

ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ[edit]

ᏪᏌ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ, ᎠᎴ digitigrade: ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎢᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᎳ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏅᏍᎨᏂ. ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎢᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎪᏪᎶᏗ; Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᏱ (ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ) ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏯᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏓᏛᎩᏍᎬ forepaw, minimizing ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏔᏏᏅᏱ. ᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᏱ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎤᏐᏅ terrain.

ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, ᏪᏌ ᎠᎢᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎾᎿ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗᎭ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ. ᏪᏌ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎠᎢᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎨᎻᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎨᎻᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᎪᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏁᎳ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ felidae, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ retractable ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ, ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ sheathed ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏄᏛᎿ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ forefeet ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏯᏍᏔ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ. ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎾᎿ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏩᏱ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏫᎵ. ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ, ᏥᎵᎱ, "ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ", ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎦᏚᎢ (bedspreads, ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᏯᏖᏃ ᏗᏰᏍᏛᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.). ᎯᎠ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏖᏃ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ 4 ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ 5 ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᏱ. ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎶᏄᎮᏍᎩ gene ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏞᏴᏍᏙᏗ polydactyly, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ 6 ᎠᎴ 7 ᎧᎾᏌᏛ. ᎯᎠ 5th ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏂᎯᏯᏍᏓ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᏕᎦᏰᏌᏛ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ 6th ᎦᏰᏌᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᏱ, ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏜᏗᏍᏗ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ carpal ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏱ ᎡᏆ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᎢᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ anti-skidding ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎡᏙᎠ, ᎯᎠ 5th ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᏓᎾᏓᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ-ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ.

ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎶᏍᎬ[edit]

ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏡᎬ - ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏗᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏡᎬ

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ settling ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ. ᎦᎾᏝᎢ behaviorists ᎤᎭ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ Ꮝ "ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ" ᎠᎴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏯᏦᎲᏍᏗ activities ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ.[13] ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᎫᏍᏓᎢ. ᏴᏫ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏬᏢᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ "ceiling cat" ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎪᎯ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ "ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ." ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ perches ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ, ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ "ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ syndrome," ᎭᏢᏃ ᎬᎨᏫᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎦᎶᏍᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ.[14]

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ, ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ Ꮝ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᏘᏴᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ. [15] ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ "ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ." ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗ (multi-ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ) ᎦᎶᏍᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏪᏌ ᎦᎶᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ (5 10 ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ. ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏁᏍᎩ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᏪᏌ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Ꮝ hindlegs ᎠᎴ relies ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᎷᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᎪᎾᏛᏙᏗ.[16]

ᎣᏓᏅᏛ[edit]

ᎠᏍᏚᏗ-ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ

ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ Ꮭ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ (e.g., ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ Snellen ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ) ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎩᏌᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ, ᎯᏁᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ receptors ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ tapetum lucidum ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏪᏌ.

ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎦᎫᏘ. ᏪᏌ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎤᎭ tapetum lucidum Ꮎ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏨᏓᏓnusdv tsvdadakenedi ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏐᏅ ᎠᏓᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᏓᏍᏚᎲᏍᎦ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏯᏙᎵ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ, ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᏠᎨᏏ. ᎯᎠ tapetum ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏭᏍᏗᎬᎢ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏪᏌ' ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎬ ᏣᎦᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ tapetum.

ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎢ 200°, ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ 180° ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ (ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ) narrower ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ predators, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ, ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᏛᏂ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎬ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ. ᏠᎨᏏ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ placement ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ fovea ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎪᏍᏓᏯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ. ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏘᏉ differentiate ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ appreciable ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ.

ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ-ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏪᏌ.

ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏦᎢᏁ eyelid, ᎯᎠ nictitating ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᎨᎢ ᎫᏢᏗ Ꮎ ᏓᏍᏚᎲᏍᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ eyelid ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎢᎠ. ᎪᎯ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏓᏍᏚᎲᏍᎦ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏢᎩ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏍᎩ, ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᏪᏌ ᎪᎯ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᏪᏌ chronically ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ eyelid, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ veterinary ᎦᎾᎦᏘ.

ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ. ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Siamese ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏪᏌ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏔᎵ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᎵᎡᎾ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏁᎬ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎲᎢ ᏌᏊ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᏐᎢ-ᎠᏑᏫᏒ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ-ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ" ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏧᎵᎡᎾ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ.[17] ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ pigmentation ᎠᎵᏌᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ pigmentation ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎢᎦᏪᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ.

ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ-ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 64 kHz, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ 1.6 ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ 1 ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎩᏟ.[18] ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏍᎨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ, ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ; ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎴᏂ ᎫᏢᏗ (pinnae) ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏏᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ pinpoint ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ. ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᎫᎪᏗᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ (7.5 cm) ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏌᏊ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ (ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ) ᎤᏣᏘᎾ - ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ localizing ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.

ᏪᏌ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ Ꮝ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ

ᎦᏩᏒᎬ[edit]

ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏂᎦᏚ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ'. ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ-ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏴᏐᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎿᏛᎦ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎨᏯᏙᎲᏍᏗ. ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏦᏔ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ vomeronasal, ᎠᎴ Jacobson ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏪᏌ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ, ᎠᏥᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏪᏌ ᏧᎵᏆᏙᏏᏰᏛ Ꮝ ᎤᎵᏴᏑᎸ, ᎡᎳᏗᎨ Ꮝ ᎠᏂᎭᏳᎨᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ Ꮝ ᎦᏅᎪ ᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ vomeronasal. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ, "ᎤᏐᏅ ᎠᏓᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ", ᎠᎴ "flehming". ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎯᎠ Flehmen ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎩᏟ, ᎠᏂᏐᏈᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᏪᏌ.

ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏜᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ haired ᏪᏌ

ᏪᏌ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᎭ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏔᎳᏚ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏅᎩ ᏚᏓᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏣᎾᎦᎳ,[citation needed] ᎦᏲᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎦᏆᎵ, ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎭᏳᎨᏂ. ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ "ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏜᏗᏍᏗ", ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ eyebrows. ᎯᎠ Sphynx (ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏗᏄᏪᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ) ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎧᎵ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ, ᏍᏆᎳᎢ, ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ.

ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ (ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ vibrissae) ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ. ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ, enabling ᏪᏌ ᎣᎾᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎥᎪᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏔᎵ ᏚᏓᏅ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏔᎵ ᏚᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ rely ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ ᏛᏍᏓᏅᏅᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ Ꮝ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ.

ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎢᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.

ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏔᎳᏍᎪᎯ-ᏅᎩ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ, ᏔᎵᏚ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ Ꮝ ᎦᏴᏐᎵ (ᎢᎦᏛ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ). ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ deeper ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ. ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏓᎾᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏆᏗᏍᎬ, ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏪᏌ extraordinarily ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ, ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ vibrissae, ᏚᏙᎥ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᏚ ᎦᎸᏈᏍᏗ sensitivity ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ swirls ᎠᎴ eddies ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ, ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ. ᏪᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ, ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎥᎪᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏒᏂᎲᎢ ᎠᏂ. ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏓᏍᎧᎷᏥ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ Ꮎ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏂᎨ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ - ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ, ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ.

ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏕᏯᏙᏗ ᏪᏌ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ tries ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎠᏒᏂᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ Ꮝ ᎤᏅᏥᏓ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ.

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᏅᎦᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ ᎤᏂᏥ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ.

ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᏎᏍᏗ reinforced ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎾᎿ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ: ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ, ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎭᏳᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ.[19]

ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ 8 ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 8 2005 ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ Geographic, ᏪᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ sugary ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ receptor gene. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏤᎵ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ unclear ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ.

ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ[edit]

ᏪᏌ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ

ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ predators. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᎭᎷᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ vertebrate ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏢᏓᏥ ᎾᎥᎢ pouncing; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏩᎯᏗ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ ᎠᏓᏍᎧᎷᏥ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎩᏟ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏅᏙᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏂᏆᏖᎾ ᎠᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ—many ᎡᏆ ᏪᏌᏫᎵ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 100. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅᎯ, ᎡᏆ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ nutritional ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ. ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏍᏚ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ.

ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎨᎶᎸᎯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᏥᏍᏕᏥ, ᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎡᏙᎠ ᏯᏛᎿ trophies ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ. ᎯᎠ motivation ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎢᏴ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏙ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ utugi gvdi ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᎯᎤᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᎢᎦᏛ theories ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᎤᏂᎩᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎡᎵᏉ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎠᏓᏁᎲᎢ Ꮝ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᏁᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ 'ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᎭ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ' ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏲᎯᎲ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ.[citation needed]

ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ feral ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ. ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏪᏌ ᏓᏍᏆᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ municipalities ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ ᎤᎭ enacted ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᎧᏃᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏓᏃᏢᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ localities, ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏪᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎭᎸᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Ꮝ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎭᎸᏂ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ unwanted ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ "ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ" ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ stealthier ᏗᎯ.[citation needed]

ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭᎶᎨᏍᎬᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎩᏟ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏅᏙᎬ

ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ specialized ᏕᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᎠᎴ digestive ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᏯ. ᎯᎠ premolar ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏂᎯ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎯᎠ carnassial ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎰᎵ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᏯ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎳᏍᏙᏯᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎩᏟ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏅᎪ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏍᏓᏯ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎠᎴ papillae, ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ripping ᎤᏇᏓᎵ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ papillae ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᏁᎩ-ᎠᏰᎵ ᏑᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ keratin ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ. ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏌᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ digestive ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ. ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏐᏆᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏌᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎭᏫᏯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, berries, ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᏂ, ᏪᏌ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎭᏫᏯ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏪᏌ, ᎤᎭ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ [20], ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᏯ dominated ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ berries. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ, ᏪᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ unsupplemented ᎣᏩᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ synthesize ᎯᎸᏍᎩ nutrients ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᏁᏙᎲᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᏂᎬᎾᏗᏍᎪ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ taurine, vitamin (ᏪᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᏢᏗ-vitamin Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ vitamin ᏗᏙᎳᎩ) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏛ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙᎲᏅ taurine ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ, causing ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ (ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ) ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ retinal ᎠᏲᎶᎬ (CRD). ᏩᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ taurine ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ lactose ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ. Lactose-ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎭᏫᏯ. ᎪᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ, ᎦᎪ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎨᎶᎸᎯ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ-supplemented ᎣᏩᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ (ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ supplementation ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ). ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎴᏴᏛ-ᏚᏙᎥ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎵᏊ ᎠᎴ supplemented ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᏯ byproducts ᎠᎴ ᎪᎢ ᎠᎴ vitamins.

ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ, ᏧᎦᎶᎦ, ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ houseplants ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎨᏒᎢ upsetting ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ.

ᎢᎦᏛ houseplants ᎠᎴ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏪᏌ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏌ ᏕᎴᎯᏌᏅ ᎤᎾᏥ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ-ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏧᏓᎵ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏪᏌ. Philodendron ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏪᏌ. ᏪᏌ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎭ ᎧᎵ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ.[21]

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏓᎤᏂᎨᏍᏗ.[22] ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏲᏛᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎤᏩᏱ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ sensed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ Vomeronasal ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ). ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏁᏉᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎠᏏᏇ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏗᎦᏙᎯᏗ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ.

ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏃᏍᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᏅᎡᏁᎲ. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ vomeronasal, ᎠᎴ Jacobson', ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎣᎩᏌᏛ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏔᎴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎪᎵᏰᏛ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏏᏇ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎪᎾ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎪᎯ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏓᎪᏂᏲᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᎾ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᎲᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ hepatic lipidosis, ᎤᏪᎳ dysfunction ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ pathological ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎣᏲᎢᏏᎬ. ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ, ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ "ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ" ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏔᎦ, ᎦᏚ, ᎠᎦᎸᏥ fries, pizza, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ, ᏔᎹᏟ ᎤᎦᎹ, ᎭᏫᏯ ᎤᎧᏲᏒ, carrot ᎦᏁᎲ, ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ, ᏓᏬᎵ,ᎠᎴ carnitas burritos, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ exotica ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏎᎷ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ ᎠᎴ diced cantaloupe ᎠᎴ cantaloupe ᎦᏁᎦ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ "ᏴᏫ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ" ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ; ᏬᏗᎨᎧᎵᏤᏥ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎲᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ theobromine (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ theobromine ᎠᏲᎶᎬ), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏬᏗᎨᎧᎵᏤᏥ. Paracetamol, ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ-ᎯᎠ-ᏗᏎᎯᎯ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Tylenol, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏪᏌ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ enzymes ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎩᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎲᏲᎵᏍᏗ.[23] ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏥᎳᏫᏎᎸ ᏛᏓᏓᏂᎸᎬ ᎠᏓᏂᏴᏙᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ veterinary ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. [24]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ overweight. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ, ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ diabetes, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ neutered ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ (ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ.

ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ pica. Pica ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ, ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎲᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ surgical ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ingested (ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎵᏲ). ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Siamese, Burmese ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ.

ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏪᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ dangling ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎠᏎᏒᏓ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ depicted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎨᎦᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎤᏩᏂ ᎠᏍᏘ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᏥ', ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ', ᎦᏂᏓᏛ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ingested, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ cat’s ᎤᏍᏉᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ, causing ᎠᏓᏂᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ. ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᏛᏓᏓᏂᎸᎬ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ laser ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᏂᎯ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ laser ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᏗᎦᏦᎵ ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏧᏙᎳᏣᏅ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ, ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ.[citation needed]

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎠᏓᎳᏍᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ Ꮭ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ — ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎥᏳᎩ (e.g., ᏪᏌ ᏗᏜᎪᏍᏗ ᎥᏳᎩ, ᎠᎴ, ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ, ᎠᏓᏬᏍᎬ) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏪᏌ ᎠᏓᏍᎧᎷᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏜᎪᏍᏗ. ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ scratches ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ. ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ targeted ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ecosystem ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ contributed ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ– ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎯᎠ Stephens ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᏔᎵᏔᎹ.

ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ

ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ, ᎠᏓᎾᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ pappilae ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ allergic ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ allergic ᏪᏌ—ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ ᎤᏗᎴᎲᏍᎩ, asthma ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎬᏍᎦᏍᏓᎩ —ᏄᎵᏍᏛ acclimate ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ comfortably ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ allergy ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ.[citation needed] ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏪᏌ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏪᏌ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏓᏂᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ. Longhair ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏞᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ shorthairs. Hairballs ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᎠᎴ remedies Ꮎ ᏩᎾᎢ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏔᏬᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᏔᏯ ᎦᏄᎪᏅᏙᏗ. ᏪᏌ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᎾ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎿᏛᎦ urinating.

ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ (ᎠᏂ Ꮣ). ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏚᏅᎦᎸᎲ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ (ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᎿᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ; ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ cleaner ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏪᏌ. [25]) litterbox ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ-ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. Litterboxes ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏓᎳᏍᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ toxoplasmosis ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᏔᎷᎵ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎠᎴ immuno-ᎠᏚᏯᏍᏩᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ. ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ litterbox ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎩᎶ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏲᎵ-ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ.

ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ-ᎠᎨᏲᏅᎯ ᏪᏌ

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᎨᏲᏅᎯ, eliminating ᎯᎠ litterbox ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᏓᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ. ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ incremental ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ elevating ᎯᎠ litterbox ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, adapter, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎪᏫᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ. [26]

ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏜᎪᏍᏗ ᎨᏛᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᏅᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ.[27] ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ feral colonies, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏗᏜᎪᏍᏗ ᎨᏛᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏓᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᏴᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ (ie, ᏛᏰᎶᎲ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᏛᏰᎶᎲ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ quick ᎯᎠ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ.

Declawing[edit]

Main article: Onychectomy

Declawing ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ onychectomy, ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ anesthesia, Ꮎ ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏚᏕᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏎᏍᏗ (ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ) ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ forepaws (ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᏱ). ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ, ᎠᎴ declawed ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ-ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎤᏩᏱ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ).

ᏴᏫ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᎭ ᏪᏌ declawed ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ damaging ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᏅᏗ. ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ, ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ declawed. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ' ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᏋ declawed.

ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎯᎸᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙᎲᏅ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ:

  1. Deprives ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ predators ᎾᎥᎢ ᏥᎵᎱ ᏕᏡᎬ;
  2. ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ Ꮝ ᏗᏓᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ ᎤᏇᏓᎸ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ;
  3. ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ Ꮝ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎤᏘᏴᎯ ᎾᎿ ᏌᎨᎢ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏐᏴ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎶᏍᎦ;
  4. ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏓᏍᎧᎷᏥ.
ᏪᏌ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ

ᎪᎯ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Finland, ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, the Netherlands ᎠᎴ Switzerland, declawing ᎨᏒᎢ forbidden ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ.[28] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ European ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ forbidden ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ European ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ "ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ [such] ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎠᎯᎸᏍᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ veterinary ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ (ᎯᎠ) ᎦᏂᏝᎢ". [29] ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ imported ᏪᏌ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ declawed ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ euthanized. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2003, ᏭᏕᎵᎬ Hollywood, ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ Ꭴ.. ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏓ declawing ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ groomers practicing ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ.

ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ declawing ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏍᏗᏳᎵ, vinyl ᏴᎩ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ affixed ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ nontoxic ᏗᎧᏅᏬᏗ, ᎠᏂᏁᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏚᎦᏔᏬᎸ Ꮝ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ (ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏅᎩ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ). ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᏙᎢ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ capped ᏴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ.

ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ declawed, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ (ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵᏊ) ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ neutered/spayed/declawed (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ), ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏑᏰᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎣᏂ ᏑᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ declawed ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ 5-6 ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ declawed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ (ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2-3 ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎬᎢ). ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᏲᎵᎨ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏣᎴᏛ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ phalanges ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᏩᏂᎨ ᏨᏕᎨᏫ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎪᎳ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎡᎯᏍᏗ.

ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏪᏌ, ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎥᏝ ᏳᏓᎷᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ. ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ, ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏁᏍᏓᎸ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎦᏂᏐᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏳy ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ. ᎠᏗᎧᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ concentrated, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ pounce. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ Africa ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ.

ᏪᏌ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᎵᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏓᎭᎵ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ. ᏪᏌ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎿᏛᎦ. ᏴᏫ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᏓᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 44.5 °C (112 °F), ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ't ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎪᏪᎵᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᎠ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 52 °C (126 °F).

ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Norwegian ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎺᏂ ᎬᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᏗᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏐᎢ ᏪᏌ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ ᎤᏴᏢ (eg, ᎤᎬᎭᏛ, ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏥ) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏗᏒᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ 39 °C (102 °F) ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏪᏌ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎠᏂᎧᏅᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ; ᏌᏊ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Turkish ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎹ [5]. Abyssinian ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏪᏌ.

ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᏅᎩ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ nursed

ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ seasonally polyestrous, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎣᏂ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 4 7 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᏣᏘ; ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎣᏂ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏩᏙᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏏᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏙᎵ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎦᏟᏐᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏐᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᏤᎵ vagina. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ovulation ᎠᎴᏅᏗ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ impregnated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᎤᏗᏗᏢᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ superfecund; Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎤᏂᏙᏓ.

ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏪᏌ ᏗᏂᎰᎵ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᏌᏊ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᏪᏌ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 63-65 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏦᎢ ᎯᏍᎩ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ. ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᎠᎴ weaned ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ sexual ᎤᏩᎾᏐᎲᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ 4-10 ᎢᏯᏅᏓ (ᎠᎨᏴ) ᎠᎴ 5-7 ᎢᏯᏅᏓ (ᎠᏍᎦᏯ).

ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 10 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᏥ. ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ surgically sterilized (spayed ᎠᎴ neutered) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 6-8 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ unwanted ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏲᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ-ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ (ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏗᎧᏓ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ yowling (ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎨᏴ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ neutered ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏕᎶᏆᎥ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏢᏲᎵᎲᎾ.

Blue-eyed cats with white fur have a higher incidence of genetic deafness. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ closest ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ 38 ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 200 heritable ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ identified, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ. ᏗᎪᏍᎩ metabolic ᎧᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ identified underlying ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎥᏳᎩ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ gene ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ identified. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ phenotype. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ.

ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ, ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ (ᏂᎦᏂᏓᏛᎾ ᏪᏌ) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏕᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ alleles ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ polygenes.

ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ Genome ᎠᏎᎸᎯ, sponsored ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎠᏗ Genomic ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Ꭴ.. ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ Frederick ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Frederick, ᎺᎵᏂ, focuses ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎥᏳᎩ, ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎥᏳᎩ, genome ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Felidae, ᎠᎴ ᏗᏘᏲᎯᎯ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ.

ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ mutualistic ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᎲᏍᎬ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ' ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏓᏓᎾᏅ outweighed ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏫᎧᏁᏉᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᏧᏩᎦᏔᏅᏍ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ. ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᏟ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ rodents, ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ, ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ. ᏪᏌ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ rodents ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ mouser.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ "ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎾᏝᎢ ᏪᏌ" ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏁᎵᏍᎬ intractability ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ. ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ colonies, ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ "ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ" ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ; ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ, ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏂᏙᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎩᏟ ᎤᏤᎵ [[odor|] ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎩᏟ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ; ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᏧᎴᏫᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ upwind, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ [[odor|] ᎠᏱᎴᎦ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ stationed downwind. ᎪᎯ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ cooperative ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏧᎾᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ. Ꮭ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᎾᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏙᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ interacting ᎬᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ problematic; ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎠᎴ labeled ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᏍᏗᏳᎵ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᏰᎵᏊ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᏓᏓᏂᎸᏣᏘ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᎢᏍᏗ.

ᏴᏫ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏪᏌ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏪᏌ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏪᏌ ᏗᏚᎳᏙ ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮝ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ ᎠᎴ snuggling ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏂᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ. ᏐᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ; ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᎾᏓᏛᏁᎲ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ Ꮎ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ "ᎠᏯ'm ᎤᏲᏏ." ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎵᏰᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᎢᏍᏗ (ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗᏱ), facial ᎢᏳᏂᏪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏙᎵ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎿᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ (e.g., ᎥᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᏥᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏓᎾᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᏗᏲᎯᏍᏗ ). ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏪᏌ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ "ᎬᏩᏓᎵᏓᏍᏗ" ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ; ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ.

Allergies ᏪᏌ ᎤᏔᎳᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᏴᏫ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᏪᏌ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ, ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ allergies. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏪᏌ allergies ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ allergy ᏅᏬᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏬᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏪᏌ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏑᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏒ ᎠᎾᏓᏬᏍᎬᎢ ᏫᎵ ᎪᏣᎴᏍᏗᏱ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 90% ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏔᎳᏬᏍᎬ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎾᏞᎬ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏄᏪᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ allergies, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ allergic ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎩᏟ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ[citation needed].

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ feral ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ-ᎡᏙᎲᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ. ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ nighttime ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ (termed ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ) ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ "ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ" ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ. ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ TNR (ᏌᏛᏗ, ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎥᎦᎷᏨ) ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ feral ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ; ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏪᏌ deterrent ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏴᎯᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏛ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᏔᎳᏚ ᏴᎩ-feral ᏪᏌ. ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ rodents Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏍᏚ, rodents, ᏥᏍᏆ, ᏗᎦᎭᎵ, ᏩᎶᏏ, ᎠᏣᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ, ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎠᎴ maimed, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩ ᎠᏂ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᎠᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᏩᏒᏗᏱ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ 'ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ' (ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏑᏰᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏛᏓ) ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏔᎾ (ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎴ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎾᏅᏁᎲ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ).

ᏪᏌ ᏂᎬᎢ Ꮝ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏌ

ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ colonies, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᏢᏓᏥ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ bengal, ocicat ᎠᎴ manx ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏓ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏪᏌ ᏗᏂᏂᏴ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ (sexually ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ territories, ᎠᎴ neutered ᏪᏌ ᎤᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ), ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ "ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ" ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏪᏌ ᏩᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ. ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏧᏂᏴᎯ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏂᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎾᎪᎵᎬᎾ ᏪᏌ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᏌᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ Ꮎ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᏴᎵᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᏓᎾᎵᎲ ᏪᏌ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏐᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ. ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎠᏓᏏᏛᏂᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ forepaws ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᎧᎷᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ; ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎯᎠ loser ᏓᏍᏆᎶᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎦᏲᎵ scratches ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏛ, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ. ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ, ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎯᎠ scratches ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᎧᎷᏥ; ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎢᏳᏃ untreated. Sexually ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏫᎵ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᏗᎫᎪᏘᏌᏅ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᏚᎾᎧᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎬᏂ ᎤᏁᎸᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏴᏐᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ; ᎠᎨᏴ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ neutered ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ (ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ) territories ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.

Feral ᏪᏌ[edit]

Feral ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ predator ᎭᏩᏱ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ seabirds ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ Wedge-tailed Shearwater. [2] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ 56 ᏪᏌ scats, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ 44 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, 40 ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ endemic species.[30]

Feral ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ feral colonies ᎬᏙᏗ communal nurseries, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ resource availability. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏲᏒᎩ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ colonies, ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ lifespan ᏯᏛᎿ feral ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨᏍᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ housecat, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏓᎳᏚ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ. ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᎵᎢᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ, ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ; ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ descended ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏪᏌ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎾᎨ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᎡᏍᎦᏗᏢ, ᎢᎦᏛ feral ᏪᏌ colonies ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, e.g., ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ Romanum ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎶᎻ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ, feral ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏅᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏤᎵ ᎤᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ, ᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᎵᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ i ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ, ᏩᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎣᏓᎼᏈᎵ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ Ꮎ ᏌᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ unadoptable feral ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, spay ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏂ, immunize ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ feline ᎥᏳᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏣᏑᎦ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ. ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ feral colonies, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏙᎲ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏍᏓᏯ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏚᏕᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏌᏊ ᎦᎴᏂ ᎤᏙᏪᎸ ᎯᎠ feral ᏥᏄᏍᏗ spayed/neutered ᎠᎴ inoculated, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ trapped ᎠᏏᏇ. ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ lifespan ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏓᎪᏅᏙᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ spayed ᎠᎴ neutered, Ꮭ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᏪᏒ ᎠᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ feral ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ ᎠᏗᏍᎦᎶᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎦᏁᎸ feral ᏪᏌ colonies ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ.

Environmental ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ cats’ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ.

  • ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏗᎭ: ᎯᎠ environmental ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ feral ᏪᏌ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ/ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏓᏅᏘᏴ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᎶᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏂᏃᏝᎩ ᎨᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏪᏌ predation ᎾᎿ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᏚᏲᏒᎩ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎦᏂ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᎦᎪ ᏰᎵᏇ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏪᏌ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂ ᏧᎾᎵᎢ, ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ecological ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ/ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ecologies. ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᏃᏝᎩ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎭᏢᏃ housecats ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ-ᎢᎩᏛ ᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. Environmental ᎤᏂᏃᏝᎩ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ minimal ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ. ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ, ecological ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎠᎴ universities ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏁᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏪᏌ. ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎤᏂᏃᏝᎩ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ predators ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎥᏳᎩ. ᏩᏯ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ housecats ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Southwestern ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. FELV (ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎥᏳᎩ), FIV (ᎦᏂᏝᎢ immunodeficiency ᎥᏳᎩ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ, ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ. ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏪᏌ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᎣᎩᏌᏛ ᏓᏰᏏ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ.
  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎥᏝ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎯᏁᎩ Ꮎ damaging ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ automatically ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ predators. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ centuries, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎧᎵᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ predator. ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᏪᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ overpopulate.

Overpopulation[edit]

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᏅᏘᏴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, 3-4 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᎠᎴ euthanized ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ. Spaying ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ overpopulation ᎡᎳᏗ. [6] ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᏅᏘᏴ societies, SPCA ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎦᏂᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ spay ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎣᏩᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ.

Varieties ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ[edit]

ᏪᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᏪᏌ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ: ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏪᏌ registries ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ 35 ᎠᎴ 70 ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏪᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ, ᎤᎲᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏄᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᏪᏌ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏲᏅ ᎯᎠ closest ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᎵᎶᎯ" ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ selective ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ). ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ populated ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ identified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏣᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ longhair ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ shorthair, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ, ᎬᏙᏗ-purebred ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ moggies (derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ "Maggie", ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Margaret, reputed ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏩᎦ ᎠᎴ calves ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎡᎵᏏᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ housecats ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Victorian ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ).[31] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎬᏙᏗ-purebred ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᎸ ᏪᏌ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ.

ᏪᏌ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ properties ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏪᏌ.

ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᎿᎥ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᏯᏙᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ:

ᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᏪᏌ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎴ:

ᏪᏌ.
ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, Tuxedo ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ 
ᎪᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ varies ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ tuxedo ᏪᏌ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎦᏁᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏱ/ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᎾ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Turkish ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ), ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏑᏫᏒ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ (ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ (ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ). ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏐᎢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ jellicle ᏪᏌ. ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ (ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎤᏁᎬ) ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎬᎿᎨ, ᎩᎦᎨ, ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᏓᎴᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ tortoiseshell (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ).
Maltese ᏪᏌ 
ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ (ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ) ᏪᏌ.
ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ.
ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏪᏌ 
Striped, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ "blotched" ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ (ᎠᎴ "ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ") ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ butterflies ᎠᎴ bullseyes. ᎯᎠ "ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ" ᎠᎴ "striped" ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ (ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏗ). ᎪᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ" ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎫᎫ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ "ticked" ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Abyssinian ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏪᏌ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, blotched tabbies ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ NW Europe, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ.
ᎪᎯ tortoiseshell ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎬᎿᎨ-ᏬᏗᎨ-ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ.
Tortoiseshell ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏣᏛᎤᏥᎸ
ᎪᎯ ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Calimanco ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏢᏓᏥ ᏪᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᎢ "tortie". ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏍᎬ, tortoiseshell ᏪᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ patched ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ (ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ) ᎠᎴ ᎬᎿᎨ (ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ) ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ. ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ "tortoiseshell ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎬ" ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎿᎨ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎤᏅᏣᏛᎤᏥᎸ". ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏅᏣᏛᎤᏥᎸ ᎠᎴ tortoiseshell (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎦᎨ), ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎦᏛ tortoiseshells ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏣᏛᎤᏥᎸ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏍᏜᎥ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ mottling ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ). ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᏣᏛᎤᏥᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏪᏌ". ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ-ke (ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᏦᎢ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ"), ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ Dutch ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ lapjeskat (ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "patches ᏪᏌ"). ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏎ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏦᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ: ᎩᎦᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ; ᎤᏁᎬ; ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏬᏗᎨ, ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏗᏄᏍᎩ Barbara ᎠᎦᎸᏥ, ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ Fanciers ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ [32]. ᎢᏧᎳ tortoiseshell ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏣᏛᎤᏥᎸ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏎᏍᏗ X ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ inactivation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎨᏴ(ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᎨᏴ mammals, ᎤᎭ ᏔᎵ X ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ tortoiseshells Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ; ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᏪᏌ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ overall ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ginger (ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ) ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ (ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 3:1 ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ sired ᎾᎥᎢ ginger ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ tortoiseshell ᎠᎴ ginger. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ "Tortoiseshell and Tricolour Cats" ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏪᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ.[33]
Colorpoint
ᎯᎠ colorpoint ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ Siamese ᏪᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ. colorpoint ᏪᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏛ, ᏗᎦᎴᏂ, ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏁᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎯᎠ colorpoint ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏐᎠᏍᏙ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ (ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ), ᏬᏗᎨᎧᎵᏤᏥ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ (ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᏬᏗᎨ), ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ (ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ), ᎠᎴ tortie ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ Ꮎ colorpoint ᏪᏌ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᎧᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏂᏚᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ-ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ.

ᎠᏰᎸ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ[edit]

ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ Siamese ᎦᏟᏐᏗ.

ᏪᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ, ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏔᎵ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ:

ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ 
ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏪᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ elongated ᎦᎸᏙᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ, almond-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ, ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎦᏴᏐᎵ, ᎡᏆ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ (ᎯᎠ Siamese ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ shorthair ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯ).
Cobby 
ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏪᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ, ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ, roundish ᏗᎦᏙᎵ, ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎦᏴᏐᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ. ᎯᎠ Persian ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ cobby ᏪᏌ.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ[edit]

ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Egypt. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Egypt, ᎯᎠ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, Bast, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏪᏌ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎨᏴ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ Ra, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎨᏴ Amun. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎩ Ptah ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᏥ ᎯᎠ ᏢᏓᏥ-ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ Mihos. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ centered ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ Bubastis ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Nile ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᏗᏓᏂᏐᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ mummified ᏪᏌ. Bast ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᎦᏙᎵ Ra," ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ' ᎠᏞᎢᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ depicted ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᏪᏌ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏚᏂᏴᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎦᎾᏎᏘ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ sistrum.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ speculated Ꮎ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ (ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ DNA ᎠᎦᏛᏗ) ᏪᏌ ᎦᏁᎳ ᎾᎿ Kenya ᎤᏤᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Lamu ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Egypt. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ: ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, archeologically ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ 1000 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ Lamu ᎠᎴ Egypt, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ.

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Norse ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎸ, Gleipnir (ᎯᎠ ᎣᏌᏂ ᎠᏇᎷᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᏍᎬ Fenrir) ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ crafted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ, ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏐᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏪᏌ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎢᏒᎢ.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ-ᎥᎦᏔᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏂᏐᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ Ꮎ ᏪᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ perceived ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎾᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎦᎶᏍᎦ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎲᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ.

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  1. "Speaking of Animals." (ᎦᎶᏂ 15, 2005)
  2. Meows Mean More To Cat Lovers. Channel3000.com. Accessed 14 ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 2006.
  3. Vella, Carolyn; et. al. (2002). Robinson's Genetics for Cat Breeders and Veterinarians, 4th ed.. Oxford: Butterworh-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-4069-3.
  4. Template:Citation/core
  5. ASPCA ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏪᏌ ᎾᎥᎢ James R. Richards, DVM
  6. Oxford ᎩᎵᏏ ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ .v. ᏪᏌ
  7. Feline Statistics. ᏥᏟᏌ August 15, 2005.
  8. Spay and Neuter Your Pet Cats. ᏥᏟᏌ August 8, 2005.
  9. At Home : Care / Health : Understanding Cats. ᏥᏟᏌ August 15, 2005.
  10. ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎦᎾᎦᏘ (9 ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 2002). "ᎬᎸᏉᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ᏧᎳ". ᎯᎠ Washington ᎨᏛᎢ, p. C10.
  11. * ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ Romhany, Paul (1 ᎦᎶᏂ 1999). Pawmistry: ᎯᎳᎪ ᎥᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᏂᎯ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏩᏱ. ᏍᎪᎯ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ (Berkeley, California), p. 10. ISBN 1-58008-111-8
  12. Normal Values For Dog and Cat Temperature, Blood Tests, Urine and other information in ThePetCenter.com. ᏥᏟᏌ August 8, 2005.
  13. Why Do Cats Like High Places?. Drs. Foster & Smith, Inc.. Dr. Holly Nash, DVM, MS.
  14. Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department. "High-Rise Syndrome: Cats Injured Due to Falls". Drs. Foster & Smith, Inc..
  15. Falling Cats. ᏥᏟᏌ October 24, 2005.
  16. HOW DOES A CAT ALWAYS LAND ON ITS FEET ?
  17. White Cats, Eye Colours and Deafness. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-09-05.
  18. Strain, G.M., How Well Do Dogs and Other Animals Hear?
  19. [1]
  20. PLoS Genetics: Pseudogenization of a Sweet-Receptor Gene Accounts for Cats' Indifference toward Sugar. ᏥᏟᏌ August 8, 2005.
  21. plants harmful to cats
  22. Translation for catnip: Banks, William H. Plants of the Cherokee. Gatlinburg, TN, 2004: 95.
  23. Template:Citation/core
  24. Template:Citation/core
  25. Suspected bentonite toxicosis in a cat from ingestion of clay cat litter. ᏥᏟᏌ September 10, 2005.
  26. Cat toilet-training. ᏥᏟᏌ August 8, 2005.
  27. Scratching or clawing in the house. ᏥᏟᏌ August 14, 2005.
  28. Swiss Federal Act on Animal Protection, 1978, Section 8: Prohibited Practices, §22(g). ᏥᏟᏌ August 22, 2005.
  29. European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals, Chapter II - Principles for the keeping of pet animals, Article 10(1). ᏥᏟᏌ August 22, 2005.
  30. "Mammals." Introduced Species in Hawaii
  31. "Moggie" definition question and answer Worldwidewords.org. URL Accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 14, 2006.
  32. Torties, Calicos and Tricolor Cats | url=http://www.fanciers.com/cat-faqs/tricolors.shtml%7C accessdate=October 24 | accessyear=2005 }}
  33. White Cats, Eye Colours and Deafness | url=http://www.messybeast.com/whitecat.htm | accessdate=August 8 | accessyear=2005 }}

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ
ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ