ᏩᏚᎵᏏ

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?ᏩᏚᎵᏏ
Osmia ribifloris
Scientific classification
ᎴᎬᎾᎻ: gantlaiia
ᏆᎢᎳᎻ: Arthropoda
ᏗᎦᎪᏗ: ᏨᏍᎪᏱa
ᎣᎸᏙ: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Apoidea
Series: Apiformes ( = Anthophila)
Families

Andrenidae
Apidae
Colletidae
Halictidae
Megachilidae
Melittidae
Stenotritidae

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᏓᏓᏂᏟᏍᎬ pollen

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ (ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ superfamily Apoidea) ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎯᎸᏒ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎧᎾᏥᏍᏕᏥᎠᎴ ᏙᏒᏓᎵ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 20,000 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ Antarctica. ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ pollen, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ nutrients. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ pollen ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ.

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏂᎯ Ꮎ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ. ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎤᎭ antennae ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏦᎦᏚ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵᏚ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎨᏴ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎪᏯᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏌᏊ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎪᏯᏛ Ꮎ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ tvga.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ (Trigona minima) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2.1 mm (5/64") ᎦᏅᎯᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ Megachile ᏨᏍᎩᏃ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 39 mm (1.5"). ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Halictidae, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᎠᎷ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎷᏨ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎾᏥᏍᏕᏥ.

Pollination[edit]

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ pollinating ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎪᏘ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ pollinatorᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ecosystems Ꮎ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ digakohidi. ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ pollen, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ iyuwakodi. ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ pollination, ᎠᎴ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᎪᏂᏲᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ pollen ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ pollinators. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᏌᏊ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ pollination, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ electrostatic ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ pollen. ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ foraging ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎯᎠ pollen ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ scopa, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ventral ᎤᏍᏉᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ specialized pollen ᏔᎷᏣᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ gantlai ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ opportunistic foragers, ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ pollen ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ digakohidi, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᎴ oligolectic, ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ pollen ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎦᎪᏘ. ᎤᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ digakohidi ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ pollen, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ oligolectic ᏩᏚᎵᏏ. ᏌᏊ ᎤᏍᏗ subgroup stingless ᏩᏚᎵᏏ(ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎦᏅᎾᏩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ") ᎨᏒᎢ specialized ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ Ꮎ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. Pollen ᎠᎴ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ "ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ", ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ soupy, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎾᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ (ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏒᏙᏂ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ("ᎦᏁᎸ"), ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ sealed ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎥᏝ interact ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ (iyahdvnelidasdi ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ").

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ pollinators ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ pollination ᎤᎲᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏫᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ beekeepers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ. Monoculture ᎠᎴ pollinator ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ kanquotsegi ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ gantlai ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ concentrated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ pollination ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ kanquotsegi cultured ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ pollination ᎤᏚᎳᏗ. ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ, ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ wildlife. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏙᏌes, ᏥᏈᏏ ᏩᏐᎳ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ.

ᎠᎾᏓᏩᏘᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏍᎪᏯᎠᎴ ᎤᏥᏍᏆᏙᏏᏰᏛ ᎧᎿᏁᏍᎩᎠᏗᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎬᎨᏫᏍᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ. InsecticideᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎬ digakohidi ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ contaminating ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ. gantlai ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏠᏗ 2000 ᏧᏪᏥ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ buildup, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏎ ᎠᏠᏗ 1000 1500 ᏧᏪᏥ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ foraging ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ casualties.

ᎯᎠ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏓᏊ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ bumblebees ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏍᎪᎯ itsuwakodi ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ pollinators ᎾᎿ cucurbits, ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ gantlai ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢᎨᏙᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎬ, bumblebee ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ pollinators ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ.

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ[edit]

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏙᏒᏓᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ specialized ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎧᎾᏥᏍᏕᏥ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ lyudetiyvda ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ lyudetiyvda ᎪᎯᏳᏙ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ 140 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ[1].

ᎢᏳᏃ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᏌᏊ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎧᎾᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᎠᎴ proto-angiosperm, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ gigantopterid, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ environent ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ predators, ᏩᏎᎸᎯ environmental ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏁᎲ, ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ specialized symbiosis, ᎯᎠ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᏯ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᎭ propogate ᎯᎠ genes ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ digakohidi ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᏙᎯ digakohidi ᎢᏳᏊ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ specialization ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ-ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ atsinuqowisgv ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ.

Eusocial ᎠᎴ semisocial ᏩᏚᎵᏏ[edit]

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ eusocial colonies, ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ gantlai, bumblebee, ᎠᎴ stingless ᏩᏚᎵᏏ. ᎣᎵᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ itsuwakodi ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ cohabiting ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎾᏓᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ semisocial.

ᎢᏳᏃ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ eusocial. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏥ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ" ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎠᎴ "ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ". ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎵᏌᏛ behavioral ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎯᎠ iyahdvnelidasdi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ "ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ eusocial" (ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Ꭺ ᎧᎾᏥᏍᏕᏥ), ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ morphologically ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ iyahdvnelidasdi ᎨᏒᎢ "ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ eusocial".

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ eusocial ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ eusocial ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Halictidae, ᎠᎴ "ᎠᎵᎠᎷ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ". Colonies ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏔᎳᏚ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏏᏴᏫ-ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ tropics, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ mated ᎠᎨᏴ (ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ, ᎠᎴ "gynes") ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ (ᎤᏯᏅᎲ diapause). ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ lyadvnehi ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏥᏙᎲ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ ᏂᏕᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ eusocial ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ allodapine ᏩᏚᎵᏏ (ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᏗᏁᏍᎨᏍᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ) ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ eusocial colonies, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ; ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ", ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ iyahdvnelidasdi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ gantlai ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ bumblebees.

ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ eusocial ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ colonies, ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏓᎵ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ. gantlai ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 40,000 ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᏫᎪᏍᏓᏴ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ.

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎠᎭᏂ ᎤᏍᏗ halictid ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ pollen, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ bumblebee ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏥ.

Bumblebees[edit]

Main article: Bumblebee

Bumblebee(Bombus terrestris, B. pratorum, ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ.) ᎠᎴ eusocial ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ eusocial Vespidae ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏍᏆᏚᎵ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎠᏓᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎣᏤᎵ (ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ gantlai ᎠᎴ stingless ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ). Bumblebee colonies ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 50 200 ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏫᎪᏍᏓᏴ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎪᎨᏱ. ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ, ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ (ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-exisiting), ᎠᎴ colonies ᎠᎴ ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ. ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ, bumblebee ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎪᎳ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ gantlai ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ beekeeper, presumably ᎤᏪᏨᏴ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ gantlai. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎳ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ.

Stingless ᏩᏚᎵᏏ[edit]

Main article: Stingless bee

Stingless ᏩᏚᎵᏏᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ eusocial. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ colonies.

gantlai[edit]

Main article: Honeybee

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ gantlai ᎤᎭ arguably ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ. ᎯᎠ European gantlai, Apis mellifera ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅᎢ ᎠᎭᏂ..

ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᎴ communal ᏩᏚᎵᏏ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏁᏍᎨᏍᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ (Xylocopa virginica), ᎦᎪᏘ leafcutter ᏩᏚᎵᏏ (Megachile rotundata), ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᏞᏌᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ (Osmia lignaria) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ hornfaced ᏩᏚᎵᏏ (Osmia cornifrons) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ utvhisdi. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏤᎵ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ acarine ᎠᎴ Varroa ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ, ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏳᎩ. (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎯᎠ gantlai.)

ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ pollinators, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ pollen ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᏯᎸᏗ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ pollen ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ kanquotsegi cultured ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ pollination.

ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ oligolege, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎦᎪᏘ (ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ gantlai ᎠᎴ bumblebees ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ generalists). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᏰᎵᏇ pollinate ᎦᎪᏘ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ digakohidi ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ pollinator ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏲᎱᏍᎬ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ.

ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ, ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏲᎵ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᎯᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ. ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ (ᎯᎠ closest ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ) ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏧᏪᏥ Ꮎ ᏫᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ. ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᏗᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ kanquotsegi ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ stingless ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ ᎠᏓᏨᏯᏍᎩ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ, preferring ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎾᎿ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ; ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "communal", ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎾᏍᏋ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎵ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ.

Cleptoparasitic ᏩᏚᎵᏏ[edit]

Cleptoparasitic ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ" ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ Ꮎ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ apid subfamily Nomadinae. ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ pollen-ᏓᏓᏂᏟᏍᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ (ᎯᎠ scopa) ᎠᎴ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ. ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ pollen-ᏓᏓᏂᏟᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᎸ provisioned ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᏲᎵ hatches, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ pollen ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ (ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ cleptoparasite ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏳᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ) ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎯᎠ cleptoparasite ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏪᏥ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎠᎴ replacing ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ cleptoparasitic ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ , ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ (ᎠᏯ.e., ᎯᎠ subgenus Psithyrus, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ bumble ᏩᏚᎵᏏ Ꮎ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ subgenus Bombus); ᎪᎯ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ecological ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ". ᎠᏂᏐᎢ parasitize ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Townsendiella, nomadine apid, ᏌᏊ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ cleptoparasite ᎯᎠ melittid ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Hesperapis, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ halictid ᏩᏚᎵᏏ.

ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ[edit]

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ (ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ).

ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Merops apiaster, ᏥᏍᏆ. ᏐᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ predatorᎠᎴ kingbird, ᎱᎱ, ᎠᎴ dragonflies.

YellowjacketᎠᎴ ᏍᏆᏚᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ encountered ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᎯᎸᏒ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ mischaracterized ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏩᏚᎵᏏ".

ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏨᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᏚᏂᏴ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᏓᏨᏯᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ, ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-agressive ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᏩᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ "ᏧᏍᏈᏯ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ" ᏄᏍᏛ ᏨᏓᏓnusdv tsvdadakenedi ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ, ᎠᏍᏓᏯ-ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]