ᏧᎾᎦ

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ᎤᏅᎪᎳᏛ ᏧᎾᎦ (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Biwa ᏧᎾᎦ (Oncorhynchus masou subsp)

ᏧᎾᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ freshwater ᎠᏣᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏣᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, Salmonidae.

ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ subfamily Salmoninae. ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏦᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ genera ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ: Salmo, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ Atlantic ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ; Oncorhynchus, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ; ᎠᎴ Salvelinus, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎠᎴ charr. ᎠᏣᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ:

ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ, ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ anadromous ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ Asia ᎠᎴ Europe. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ Australia ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ Zealand ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ ᎤᎿᎸ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ displacing ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎦᏚᏏ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ.

ᏧᎾᎦ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᎢ (ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏛ) ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᎯ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎴ morphologically ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ Ꮭ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎡᏆ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ichthyologists.

ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᏯᏍᏗᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ, ᎯᎠ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ (ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ) ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏧᎾᎦ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ colourations Ꮎ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏂ, ᎩᎳ genetic ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, Salvelinus fontinalis.

ᎥᏓᎵ ᏧᎾᎦ (Salvelinus namaycush), ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏕᏯᏍᏗᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎥᏓᎵ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏅᎪᎳᏛ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ 7 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎥᏓᎵ ᏧᎾᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 30 kg (66 ᎢᏧᏓᎨᏓ).

ᎤᏅᎪᎳᏛ ᏧᎾᎦ Oncorhynchus mykiss

ᏧᎾᎦ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ aquatic invertebrate, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂtᎥᎦ, mayflies, caddisflies, stoneflies, ᎠᎴ dragonflies. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ zooplankton ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ digotsaledg ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᏧᎾᎦ (ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 30 cm) ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ. ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏑᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᎸᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ recreationally. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ, ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎦᎶᎨᏒᎠᎴ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ fished ᎠᎹᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏚᏢᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ overfishing. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏗᏆᎴᏴᏍᏙᏗ, ᏛᎦ ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. Farmed ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ.

ᏧᎾᎦ Ꮎ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ dramatically ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ camouflage, ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᏧᎾᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏆᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ "ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ" ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎥᏓᎵ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏣᎵ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ, ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ.

ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ (Oncorhynchus aguabonita)

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ ᎤᎭ 14 ᎤᏬᎳᏨ subspecies (ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎯ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ), ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Lahontan ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi, Bonneville ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ Oncorhynchus clarki utah, Colorado ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ, Yellowstone ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  • ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, Robert J. Behnke, ᏚᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ R. Tomelleri, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 2002: 359 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ, ISBN 0-7432-2220-2.

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]