ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ

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ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ.
ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏂᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Onondaga limestone ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᏯᎾᏌ, ᎢᏤ York. (3.8 cm ᎠᏯᏖᎾ)

ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ (ᎠᎴ flintstone) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ, ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ cryptocrystalline silicate ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, categorized ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ. ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ-ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ, ᏌᎪᏂᎨ, ᎬᎿᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎶᏂᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏭᏂᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎯᎠᎴ masses ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏅᏯ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯᎠᎴ limestone.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎩᎳ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏓᏂᎸᏨ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ chemical ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏅᏯ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ diagenesis. ᏌᏊ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᏤᎵ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ kalil cavities ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎤᏔᎴᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ crustaceans ᎠᎴ molluscs ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ silicified. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ.

ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Europe, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ toolmaking ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎷᏨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Belgium (Obourg, ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ Spiennes), ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏑᎳᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ Sennonian ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ Rügen, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᏂᏌᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ England ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Jurassic ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ Kraków-ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Poland. ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ mining ᎨᏒᎢ attested ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ Palaeolithic, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ Neolithic (Michelsberg ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, Funnelbeaker ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ).

ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏂᎯ eroded atsinuqowisgv ᎯᎠ nearby ᎦᏙᎯ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, ᏂᎦᏛᎢ Arkona, Rügen
  • ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏃᏢᏂᎥᎥᏍᎬ ᏅᏯ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏯ lyudetiyvda, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏍᏡᏴ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏌᎨᎢ, ᎪᏍᏓᏯ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ (ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ) ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ hammerstone ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ).
  • ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᎸ onto ᎪᏛᏙᏗ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ. ᎪᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎠᎬᏂᎲ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎦᎴᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ woodcraft ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ campers ᎦᎪ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᎭ 'ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ' ugatohvsv. ᎬᏂᎲᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎨᏒ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᎸ-ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎦᎵᏣᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ). ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ, ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ miniaturized ᎠᎴ integrated ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ practise.
  • ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᏯᏩᏍᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏯᏩᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ England, ᎭᏢᏃ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏢᏃ woodcraft ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏖᏃ ᎤᎭ ᎥᏝ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ.
  • ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏥᏍᏝᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ flintlock firearm. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ flintlock ᎠᏓᏱᎸ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1842, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ flintlock ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ muzzleloader ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ.
  • ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ 13th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi iyuwakodi ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎢᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏅᏯ ᏓᏐᏴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ England. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ England ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏐᏴ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ, predating ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏛᏓᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎪᏍᏚᎤᏁᎬ ᎦᏃᎾ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏓᏓᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬ Anglia.
  • ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ media ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᏗᏍᏙᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏙᏍᏗ ᎦᎶᏂᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ-ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ colour, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ-ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᏂᏅᏯ ᎤᎭ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ chromophoric oxides ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᏗᏲᎯᏎᏗ adatolasdisgi ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ colouring contaminants.
  • ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ England ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ; ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎧᏅᏩᏅᎯ, ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ impurites ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏩᏂᏐᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ, calcined ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏳ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎠᏯ.e. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏍᏙᏍᎩᏱ ᎣᏌᏂ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ filler ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏩᎵ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎾᏊ, ᎬᎨᏫᏍᏗ, ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ siliceous fillers ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]