ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ

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ᎠᏓᎸᏉᏙᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ (1535-40), ᎾᎥᎢ Florentine ᎢᎦᏛ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ Agnolo Bronzino

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 25th ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᏅ ᏥᏌ. ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Julian ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ, ᎤᎾᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 7 ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᏗᏎᏗ. ᎢᏧᎳ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᎤᏕᏘᏯ ᏥᏌ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎩᎵᏏ Christemasse ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎩᎵᏏ Cristes mæsse.[1] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᏥᏌ' ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ". ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ shortened Xmas ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎶᎻ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ "X" ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ Χ (ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ), ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ (Χριστός).

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏓᏩᏛᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ Ꮝ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎳ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎳ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎳ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ influenced ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ Yule ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎪᎳ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏧᎾᎵᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏁᎳ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ[2] (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ, ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ Nicholas, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᎤᏯᏨᏒ). ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ, ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ Australian ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ motifs disseminated ᎾᎥᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, television, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ media.

== ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ == .!.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Ꮭ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎦᏔᎭ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏥᏌ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎾᎿ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 25th. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ (ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 25th), ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ solstice.

ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 220, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ Tertullian ᎤᏁᏨᎩ Ꮎ ᏥᏌ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 25, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ 29. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 25 ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᏎᏍᏗᏱ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎫᏬᏂ 3rd, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ 33 (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ).[3] (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎫᎵᎠᏂ ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ. ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏅᏙ ᏗᏎᏗ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ.)

ᎾᎥᎢ 240, ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 25, ᎢᎦᏓᏊ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ equinox. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏫ, ᎠᎴ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ.[4] ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ Jewish ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Ꮎ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ "ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ," ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎤᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ.[5][6]

ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ, ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 25 ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ December solstice ᎤᏍᎩᏱ solstice, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ bruma. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎿᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᎿᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, ᎠᏯ.e. Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ solstice ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ. (ᎯᎠ Julian ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ solstice ᎦᎶᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 24. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 45 BC. ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ slippage, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎯᎠ astronomical solstice ᎤᎭ ᎤᏓᏅᏒ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏊ ᎦᎶᏍᎦ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 21st ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 22nd).

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ꮎ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 25 ᎨᏒᎢ ᏥᏌ' ᎤᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ Sextus Julius Africanus ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Chronographiai (ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ 221), ᎢᎬᏱ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 245, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ Origen denounced ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᏥᏌ "ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ pharaoh." ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏓᎴᏁ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ, ᎤᎾᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ, Origen ᎤᏔᏲᎸᎩ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 274, ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Aurelian designated ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 25 ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Invictus (ᎯᎠ "ᎦᏙᎬ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ"). Aurelian ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ solstice ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ Mithras, ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ Persian ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ. Mithras ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ identified ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Invictus, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ Syrian ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ.

Mural ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᏥᏌ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏂᏐᏗ ᎶᎹ, ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 4th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.

Mithras ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᎪ sprang ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏰᎳᏍᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ Mithratic ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎨᏒᎩ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Ꮎ Mithras' ᎤᏕᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᏙᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ. ᎤᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎩ dedicated Mithras ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏔᎦᎳᏱ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ. ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ promoted Mithraism ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ Commodus. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ emphasized ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎶᎻ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ utugi uwasv ᎨᎳᏗᏓᏍᏗ. Mithraism collapsed ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ Constantine ᎠᏯ ᎤᏎᏒᎲᎩ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ (312), ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏫᎪᏍᏓᏴ Ꮝ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Constantine ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᎠᏓᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ, ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᏛᎵᎩᏯᎢ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ argued Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏣᏂ 1:14), ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ Antioch ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏕᏅ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᎪᏍᎬ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎹᎦ 1:9-11). ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏜᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ Ꮎ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦᏛ.[7] ᎺᎵ, ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ, ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ theotokos, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ-ᎠᏱᏙᎯ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Rome ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 336. ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 25 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 350.[7]

ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎪᎳ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ[edit]

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ outgrew ᎯᎠ Christological ᏗᏓᎴᏅᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎠᎨᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ. ᏡᏡ," ᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ Egyptian ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 6 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ, ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Ꮝ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ Charlemagne ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ crowned ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ, 800.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏐᎢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏌ ᏕᎴᎯᏌᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏅ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ viewed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᎳ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ. ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ societies ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎳ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎪᎳ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ. ᎪᎯ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 17th ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏔᏅ Saturn, ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ recalled ᎯᎠ "ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ" ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Saturn ruled. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ (ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 17-23). ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎪᎳ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ. ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎯᏛᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ feasted. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ anaditsgv, ᏓᏂᏆᏂᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ "ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ," ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ Catallus.[8] ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᏲᎶ ᎤᏤᎵ Saturnalian ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ (ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ). ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ 12th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏭᏚᏓᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎠᏏᏇ ᎯᎠ "ᏔᎵᏚ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ" (ᎠᏯ.e. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ).[7]

ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎢᎦᏛ Christianize, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ Jul (Yule), ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᏔᎵᏚ-ᎢᎦ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎪᎳ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ. ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏴᏓᏆᎶᏍᎬ, ᏯᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ "Yule ᏕᎪᏪᎸ." ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Mitwinternacht (ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-ᎪᎳ ᏒᏃᏱ). ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏔᎵᏚ Rauhnächte (ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏚᎵᏏᏂᏒ).[9]

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ Ꮎ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᎪᏘᎶᏛ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ "ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ." ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Richard ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ England hosted ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1377 ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏔᎳᏍᎪᎯ-ᏧᏁᎳ oxen ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎠᏫ ᎤᏃᏕᎾ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ "Yule ᏏᏆ ᏧᎧᏅᏍᏕᎾ" ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ. ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ dancers ᎦᎪ ᏚᏃᎩᏒ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏂ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ dancers Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᎲᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎳᏍᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎩᏒ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎾᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ (ᎠᏛᏓᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ Yule).[7] "ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ" – ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, promiscuity, ᏓᏂᏆᏂᏲᎯᎲ -- ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ England, ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏤ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.[7]

ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ[edit]

ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Thomas Nast ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ |ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ, ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏑᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏒ, 1863.

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ" ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ "ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᏗᎦᏅᏌᏗ". ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ responded ᎾᎥᎢ promoting ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ oriented ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ triumphed ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Charles ᎠᏯ England, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ banned (1647). ᎤᏬᏢᏗ-ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏧᎵᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ controlled ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᎦᏘᎴᎬ, ᎦᎪ decorated ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎦᎨᎠᏓᏛᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ shouted royalist ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ.[10] ᎯᎠ ᎡᎵᏏ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ (1660) ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏙᎢ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ (ᎠᎴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ).

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1820s, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏰᎲ eased ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎣᏓᏅᏖᏗᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏲᎱᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ Tudor ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ (1843) ᎾᎥᎢ Charles Dickens ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ reinventing ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ emphasizing ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, ᎠᎦᎵᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ communal ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ hedonistic ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ).[11] ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ "ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏡᎬ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1835 ᎠᎴ ᎾᏓᏛᏁ ᎯᎠ ᏛᏓᏓᏂᎸᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.[12] ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏓᏥ-ᎤᏕᏅ ᎠᏍᎦᎭ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ Albert enthusiastically promoted ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏕᏡᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏩᎲᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏡᎬ 1848 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ publicized ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1843 ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1860s.[12] ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ, ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎦᎷᏨ, ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1851.

ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎦᏂᎳᏕᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏑᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ Tryal ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ (1686) ᎾᎥᎢ Josiah ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏤ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ outlawed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Boston, ᎺᏌᏧᏎᏗ (1659-81). ᏩᏥᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏯᎩ, ᎾᎯᏳ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᏄᏚᏓᎸᎾ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᏅᏨᎩ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ "ᎩᎵᏏ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ". ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ revived ᎾᎥᎢ Washington Irving ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏥ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ homecomings ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1870.

ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ Nicholas, ᎠᎴ Sinterklaas, ᎦᎪ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎯᎠ Dutch ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 6. Dutch ᎦᏁᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏯᎩ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ. Irving ᎪᏪᎵᎠ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ Nicholas "ᎠᎩᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏕᏡᎬ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏂᏲᎯᎭ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ."[13] ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ " ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ Nicholas" (1822) ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ Clarke Moore, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ Santa ᎠᏱᎵᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎤᎾᏌᏁᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ distributing ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏥ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ cartoonist Thomas Nast (1840-1902), ᎦᎪ ᎤᏎᏒᎲ ᎢᏤ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1863. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1880s, Nast ᎤᏤᎵ Santa ᎠᏰᎲ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ standardized ᎾᎥᎢ advertisers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1920s.[14] ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ,[12] ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ Victorian ᎩᎵᏏᏲ remade ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ Ꮎ Santa.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏯ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏓᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ (1914). ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎠᎦᎵᏯ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᎾᎵᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ afterward. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ soccer ᏗᏁᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎤᏤᎵ 133rd ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎤᎭ bested [[Britain|ᎩᎵᏏᏲ] ᎤᏤᎵ Seaforth Highlanders 3-2.

ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎪᎳ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ[edit]

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ outgrew ᎯᎠ Christological ᏗᏓᎴᏅᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎠᎨᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ. ᏡᏡ," ᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ Egyptian ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 6 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ, ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Ꮝ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ Charlemagne ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ crowned ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ, 800.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏐᎢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏌ ᏕᎴᎯᏌᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏅ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ viewed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᎳ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ. ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ societies ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎳ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎪᎳ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ. ᎪᎯ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 17th ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏔᏅ Saturn, ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ recalled ᎯᎠ "ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ" ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Saturn ruled. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ (ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 17-23). ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎪᎳ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ. ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎯᏛᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ feasted. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ anaditsgv, ᏓᏂᏆᏂᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ "ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ," ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ Catallus.[8] ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᏲᎶ ᎤᏤᎵ Saturnalian ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ (ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ). ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ 12th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏭᏚᏓᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎠᏏᏇ ᎯᎠ "ᏔᎵᏚ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ" (ᎠᏯ.e. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ).[7]

ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎢᎦᏛ Christianize, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ Jul (Yule), ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᏔᎵᏚ-ᎢᎦ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎪᎳ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ. ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏴᏓᏆᎶᏍᎬ, ᏯᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ "Yule ᏕᎪᏪᎸ." ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Mitwinternacht (ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-ᎪᎳ ᏒᏃᏱ). ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏔᎵᏚ Rauhnächte (ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏚᎵᏏᏂᏒ).[9]

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ Ꮎ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᎪᏘᎶᏛ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ "ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ." ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Richard ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ England hosted ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1377 ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏔᎳᏍᎪᎯ-ᏧᏁᎳ oxen ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎠᏫ ᎤᏃᏕᎾ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ "Yule ᏏᏆ ᏧᎧᏅᏍᏕᎾ" ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ. ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ dancers ᎦᎪ ᏚᏃᎩᏒ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏂ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ dancers Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᎲᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎳᏍᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎩᏒ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎾᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ (ᎠᏛᏓᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ Yule).[7] "ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ" – ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, promiscuity, ᏓᏂᏆᏂᏲᎯᎲ -- ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ England, ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏤ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.[7]

ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ[edit]

ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Thomas Nast ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ |ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ, ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏑᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏒ, 1863.

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ" ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ "ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᏗᎦᏅᏌᏗ". ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ responded ᎾᎥᎢ promoting ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ oriented ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ triumphed ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Charles ᎠᏯ England, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ banned (1647). ᎤᏬᏢᏗ-ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏧᎵᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ controlled ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᎦᏘᎴᎬ, ᎦᎪ decorated ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎦᎨᎠᏓᏛᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ shouted royalist ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ.[10] ᎯᎠ ᎡᎵᏏ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ (1660) ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏙᎢ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ (ᎠᎴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ).

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1820s, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏰᎲ eased ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎣᏓᏅᏖᏗᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏲᎱᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ Tudor ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ (1843) ᎾᎥᎢ Charles Dickens ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ reinventing ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ emphasizing ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, ᎠᎦᎵᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ communal ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ hedonistic ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ).[11] ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ "ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏡᎬ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1835 ᎠᎴ ᎾᏓᏛᏁ ᎯᎠ ᏛᏓᏓᏂᎸᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.[12] ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏓᏥ-ᎤᏕᏅ ᎠᏍᎦᎭ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ Albert enthusiastically promoted ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏕᏡᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏩᎲᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏡᎬ 1848 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ publicized ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1843 ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1860s.[12] ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ, ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎦᎷᏨ, ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1851.

ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎦᏂᎳᏕᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏑᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ Tryal ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ (1686) ᎾᎥᎢ Josiah ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏤ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ outlawed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Boston, ᎺᏌᏧᏎᏗ (1659-81). ᏩᏥᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏯᎩ, ᎾᎯᏳ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᏄᏚᏓᎸᎾ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᏅᏨᎩ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ "ᎩᎵᏏ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ". ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ revived ᎾᎥᎢ Washington Irving ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏥ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ homecomings ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1870.

ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ Nicholas, ᎠᎴ Sinterklaas, ᎦᎪ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎯᎠ Dutch ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 6. Dutch ᎦᏁᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏯᎩ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ. Irving ᎪᏪᎵᎠ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ Nicholas "ᎠᎩᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏕᏡᎬ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏂᏲᎯᎭ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ."[13] ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ " ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ Nicholas" (1822) ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ Clarke Moore, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ Santa ᎠᏱᎵᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎤᎾᏌᏁᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ distributing ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏥ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ cartoonist Thomas Nast (1840-1902), ᎦᎪ ᎤᏎᏒᎲ ᎢᏤ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1863. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1880s, Nast ᎤᏤᎵ Santa ᎠᏰᎲ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ standardized ᎾᎥᎢ advertisers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1920s.[14] ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ,[12] ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ Victorian ᎩᎵᏏᏲ remade ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ Ꮎ Santa.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏯ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏓᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ (1914). ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎠᎦᎵᏯ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᎾᎵᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ afterward. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ soccer ᏗᏁᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎤᏤᎵ 133rd ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎤᎭ bested [[Britain|ᎩᎵᏏᏲ] ᎤᏤᎵ Seaforth Highlanders 3-2.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ[edit]

Main article: Nativity of Jesus

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏓ ᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏓ Matthew ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏓ ᎹᎦ, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎮᏓ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎹᎦ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ, ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎷᎦ, ᎺᎵ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏓᏪᎯ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏲᎵ. ᎺᎵ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏓᏪᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏍᏗ Ꮎ "ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏎᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ." ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏍᎦᎭ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Nazareth ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 150 kilometres (90 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ) ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ, Bethlehem, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎨᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏒᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Augustus. ᎥᏩᏘᏍᎬ Ꮭ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏕᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎺᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏕᏅ ᏥᏌ. ᎠᏂᏓᏪᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎡᎪᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ "ᏗᏤᎢ ᎤᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ." ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ, "ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎦᎪᏃ ᎤᏤᎵ favor ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ." ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏓᎳᏚᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏥᏌ .[15]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎹᏚ, Biblical magi ᎤᎷᏨ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᎷᏏᎳᎻ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏛᏙᏗ, "ᎭᏢᏃ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ? ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏌᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏃᏈᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ." (ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ Numbers 24:17.) ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ translated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᎦᏔᎾᎯ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ." ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏗᎵᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ Babylon ᎦᎪ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᏕᏂᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᏂᎵ. ᏕᏂᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏁᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᏍᎩᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ (ᏕᏂᎵ 9:24-27), ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎪ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ Jewish ᏴᏫ.

ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᏂᏃᎮᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏦᎢ: Balthassar, Melchior, ᎠᎴ Caspar. Balthassar ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎪᎢ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ Babylonian ᏚᏙᎥ Belshazzar. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᏂᎵ. Melchior ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Aramaic. Caspar ᎨᏒᎢ Latinized ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ Gondophares, Parthian (ᎠᏯ.e. Persian) ᏚᏙᎥ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ prophecies Ꮎ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎿᏛᎦ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ (ᎢᏎᎢᏯ 60:3, Psalms 72:11).

ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ, ᎠᏁᎶᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏕᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ advisors ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏕᏅ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ Bethlehem, ᎾᎿ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ David, ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎹᎢᎧ 5:2-4. "ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏂᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏴ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᏯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ," ᎤᏓᎶᏄᎮᏌᏘ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ Bethlehem, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏃᏈᏏ Ꮎ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏂ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏥᏌ. ᏥᏌ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎷᎦ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ (paidion), ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏲᎵ (brephos). ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎡᏙᎠ ᏥᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ. (ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎢᏎᎢᏯ 60:1-7, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᎷᏏᎳᎻ.)[16] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᎩᏘᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ, ᎦᎪ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎪᏩᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ. ᏫᏄᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎬ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ. ᎠᏂᏓᏪᎯ ᎤᏂᏃᎮᏗ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ ᎠᎳᏘᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Egypt. ᎾᎯᏳ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ Bethlehem ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ 2 ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Nazareth (ᎹᏚ 2:1-23).

ᎠᏓᎸᏉᏙᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ (1439-43), mural ᎾᎥᎢ Florentine ᏕᎬᏔᏛ Fra Angelico.

ᏐᎢ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 25 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 7. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Julian ᏅᏙᏗᏎᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ determining ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ.

ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ dubbed ᎯᎠ "ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ Saviour ᏥᏌ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ." Armenian ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎤᎾᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 6.[17]

ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏓᏍᏆᎶᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏔᎵᏚ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏚ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ, ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᎿ ᏔᎳᏚᏏᏁ ᏒᏃᏱ, ᎯᎠ ᏒᎯᏰ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, [[Swedish ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ (julefrid) ᏔᎳᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎣᏌᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᎩᎡᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ. ᎾᎿ Knut ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ, ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ (ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 13), Swedish ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎤᎾᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏡᎬ (julgransplundring).

Scrooge ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏣᏍᎩᎵ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎡᏙᎠ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᏝᏄᏏ. ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Charles Dickens ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ (1843).

ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎾᏓᎾᏁᏏᏙᎲ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎢᎦ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Philippines, ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏧᎴᏫᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ "-ber ᎢᏯᏅᏓ" (ᏚᎵᏍᏗ, ᏚᏂᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.).

ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ Ꮎ ᎤᎾᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 25 ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᎢᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Netherlands, ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, Scandinavia, Lithuania ᎠᎴ Poland, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵᏁ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎦᏯᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎤᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᎬ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎡᏗᏱ ᎢᎦ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Finland, Ireland, ᏲᎶ, ᎶᎹᏂᏯ, Austria, ᎠᎴ Catalonia (Spain), ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ Stephen ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Quebec, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 26th ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Lendemain ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Noël ("ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ").

ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏡᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎯᎠ Yule ᏕᎪᏪᎸ, ᎩᎦᎨᎠᏓᏛᏍᎩ, ᎤᏓᎳ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ carryover ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎪᎳ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ Yule.

ᏲᏂᎢ banned ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1917 ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ 1992. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏱᎰᏩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᏔᎯ, ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ fundamentalists, ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ. ᎪᎯ clashes ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎪᎳ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ, ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎣᏰ(Ꮈ)Ꮢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎤᏭᏯᏔᏅ-coated ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᎾ ᏓᏂᏒᎾᏛᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ ᎤᏤᎵ Bondi ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ. ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎯᏍᎩ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ bada ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ("ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦ"), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᎾᏁᏏᏙᎲ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ Korea, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ.

ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ bringers ᏗᏓᏁᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏓᏁᏗ-ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ-ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ mythical ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏂᏲᎯᎭ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ Nicholas, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Myra ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏅᎩᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ Lycia, ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ ᎠᏲᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ Egypt ᎠᎴ Palestine ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Myra. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ Diocletian ᎠᎴ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ Constantine. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ Nicaea, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏁᏙᎲᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 6th ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 345 ᎠᎴ 352. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1087, ᎬᏩᎵᏲᏥᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᎾᏂ ᎤᏃᏍᎩᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ Myra ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ Bari ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᎶ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᏍᏗ San Nicola ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Bari. ᎪᎢᎭ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏏᎵ ᎦᏚ ᎨᏥᏁᎸ di . Nicola, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ.[18]

ᎯᎠ Dutch ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ Nicholas, ᎠᎴ Sinterklaas, ᎦᎪ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏒᎯᏰ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᎦ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 6. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ renamed ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ ᏗᏰᎳᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎵᏏ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏴᏫ ᎦᎷᎦ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎤᎾᏌᏁᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏦᏔ ᏗᎦᎵᏦᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎦᎴᎬ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ, ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ behavior ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ.


ᏌᏊ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎢ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ. ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, Santa ᏄᏪᎵᏒ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎢ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ behavior. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏓᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎠᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎠᎳᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎢ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᏅᏛᎾ ᎠᏌᏍᏛ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᏥᏃᏍᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ Santa, Père Noël, ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ, ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Santa ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ accompanied ᎾᎥᎢ Knecht Ruprecht, ᎠᎴ ᎬᎿᎨ Peter. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ, elves ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏙᏗ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ. Claus. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᎾᏁᏏᏙᎲ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ ᎤᎭ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏛᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏏᏩ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Santa ᎧᎵᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᎧᎵᏎᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎦᏛᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏓᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Santa ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎧᎵᎢ ᎠᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏏᏩ ᏗᎳᏑᎶ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Santa ᎧᎵᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ Nicholas ᎧᎵᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 5th, ᎯᎠ ᏒᎯᏰ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ. ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᎵᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᏲᎯᏎᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ.

Timing ᏗᏓᏁᏗ[edit]

ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏡᎬ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ Netherlands, ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ Nicholas ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏩᏗᏱ ᏗᎳᏑᎶ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏦᎳᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 5th, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎧᎵᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Hungary ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ (Hungarian: Mikulás) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᎪᎳ (Hungarian: Télapó) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ accompanied ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Krampusz. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 24th, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏡᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Hungary, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ (ᎠᏲᎵ) ᏥᏌ (Hungarian: Jézuska), ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Spain, ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ magi ᎾᎿ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ (ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 6). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Poland, ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ (ᎦᎶᏂᏗ: Święty Mikołaj) ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ: ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 5th (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 6th) ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ, ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 24th, (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎦ). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Finland, Joulupukki ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏓᎾᏠᏍᎬ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 24th. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏂᎢ, ᎤᏚᏚ ᎤᏯᏨᏒ ᎠᏂᏲᎯᎭ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏤ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏒᎯᏰ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏒᏃᏱ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Scotland, ᎠᏓᏁᎭ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎾᎿ Hogmanay, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏤ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏒᎯᏰ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏁᎳ - ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1967 - ᎤᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ exchanging ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ "ᏔᎵᏚ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ", ᎤᎾᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎢᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ. ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏥᎡᏗᏱ ᎢᎦ.

ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Finland ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1939 ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎡᏆ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ Turku, Finland ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ Finnish ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ television.

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏡᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Danish ᎣᏪᏅᏒ, 2004.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ Jumala ompi linnamme (ᎠᏁᏢᏔᏅᎯ ᏡᏡ Luther ᎤᏤᎵ Ein` feste Burg ist unser Gott) ᎠᎴ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏅᏩᏙ ᎯᏯᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ.

ᏓᏂᏥᎳᏓᏗᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᏗᏲᏛᎯ Ꭺ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ motifs ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ. ᏧᏣᏔᏊ motifs ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏕᏡᎬ, ᎩᎦᎨᎠᏓᏛᏍᎩ, poinsettia, ᎤᏓᎳ, ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, ᎠᏥᎸᏓᏙᏗ, ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᎠᏂᏓᏪᎯ, carolers, nutcrackers, ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ, ᏗᏓᎾᏏᏁᎩ, ᎠᎱᎵ, ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎦᎾᏕᎩ ᎠᏂᏧᏣ, ᎦᎵᏣᏗ, ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏡᎬ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ, ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ ᏗᎦᎵᏦᏗ, candies, ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, ᎤᏴᏢ, snowmen, ᎠᎴ penguins.

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ decorated ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ. ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ decorated ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎩᎦᎨᎠᏓᏛᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᎳ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ, ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ adatolasdisgi ᏫᎬᏍᏗ ᏳᎳᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᏬᏚ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ illuminated ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ, snowmen, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ.

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎯᎠ poinsettia ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᏐᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎩᎦᎨᎠᏓᏛᏍᎩ, ᎤᏓᎳ, ᎩᎦᎨ amaryllis, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᎵᏰᏍᏗ.

Municipalities ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᏓᏂᏥᎳᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏛᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎳᏅᏛ ᏓᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᏓᏂᏥᎳᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᏓᎳᏑᎸ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᏁᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ endorsing ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1984, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ruled Ꮎ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ-ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏒ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏌᏊ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏓᏂᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅᎯ.[19]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏓᏂᏥᎳᏓᏗᏍᎬ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏡᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ Saudi ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᏧᎾᎵᏃᎮᏗ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎤᎭ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᎳᏍᎩᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ retelling ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ. ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎿᏛᎦ ᏫᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏂᏴ fundraising ᎠᏱᎴᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ charities.

ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ, ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᏓᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ preceded ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᎵᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏁᎳ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᎵᎮᎵᏤᏘ" ᎠᎴ "ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ", ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ senders ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏕᏘᏱᏍᎬ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ .

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ, ᏧᎾᎵᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, ᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᏨ losses, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ agilyoasdi ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᎪᎯ ᎧᏁᏉᎠ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᎵᏃᏕᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏦᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏫᎪᏍᏓᏴ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎭᎷᏱ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ involving ᎠᎹ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏫᏍᎩ, ᎤᏗᏔᎲ ᎠᏱᎵᏒ-ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ fatalities ᎧᏁᏉᎩ.

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ media[edit]

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎾᏟᎶᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ media[edit]

"ᎾᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏏᏇ" (1907) ᎾᎥᎢ Carl Larsson, ᎠᏂᏈᎵᎢ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ fictional ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ-ᎢᎦ ᏱᏁᎯ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ-ᎠᏒᏂᎲᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ.

ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎴ Tchaikovsky' ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ Nutcracker ᎠᎴ Charles Dickens ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ. ᎯᎠ Nutcracker ᎤᏂᏃᎮᏗ nutcracker Ꮎ ᎦᎷᎦ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎠᎨᏳᏣ' ᎠᏍᎩᏘᏍᏗ. Charles Dickens' ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᎨᏳᎾᎯ ᎤᎨᏳᎾᎯ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ Scrooge. Scrooge ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ, ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏍᎩᎾ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ, ᎡᏙᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ, ᎦᎪ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏓᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Dickens'. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ H. C. Andersen' ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᎨᏳᏣ, ᎤᏓᏍᏓᏲᎯᏎᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎨᏳᏣ ᎠᏂᎩᎠ ᏂᏚᎳᏑᎸᎾ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏥ-ᎫᏝᎢ ᏕᎦᎳᏅᏛ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ, ᎠᏁᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ matches, ᎠᎴ peeking ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎣᏏ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏓᏁᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏓᏁᏁᎤᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏗᏔᎲ. ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Anglophone ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏓᎾᏠᏍᎬ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1881, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏈᎵᎢ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ Ny Illustrerad Tidning ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ Viktor Rydberg ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ Tomten featuring ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Nyström ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏈᎵᎢ mythical ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ tomte, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᎵᎢᏴ ᎤᏁᎬ-ᎠᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ TV ᎤᏤᎵᏛ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1980s, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ video ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᎴ resold ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ. ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᎠ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ. Ꮝ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ, George Bailey, ᎨᏒᎢ businessman ᎦᎪ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏍᎩᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏒᎯᏰ, ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏂᏓᏪᎯ ᎠᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏚᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ committing ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏕᎵᏛ ᎬᏗ ᎠᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏣᎵ ᏬᏗᎨ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ Charlie ᏬᏗᎨ tries ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏁᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ deeper ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᏢᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ (1983) ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

ᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᏙᏄᏛᎿ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎥᎥ, ᏩᏥᏂ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎭᏄᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ.

ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ television ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᏧᎾᎵᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᎬᏩᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ. ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏧᎴᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏯᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Handel ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ. ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᎭᎷᏴᎯ ᎤᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Nutcracker ᎦᏂᏓᏛ, ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Tchaikovsky ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ Johann Sebastian Bach ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ (BWV 248). Television ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ programming, ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ.

ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ[edit]

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ. ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ dramatically ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏗ, ᏓᏂᏥᎳᏓᏗᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᎾᏓᎾᏁᏏᏙᎲ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎾᏊ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎬᎿᎨ ᏧᎾᎩᎶᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ, ᏓᏓᎾᏅ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ inventories.

ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᎾᏅ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ (ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ) ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ 2004 ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎡᏆ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᎦ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ anti-consumerists, ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ commercialization ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ dominated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ. ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᏂ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Christmastime ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏐᏅ ᎠᏓᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᏘᏲᎯᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎪᎳ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ existed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏆᏏᎵᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᎾᏁᏏᏙᎲ ᎦᏁᎸ

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ economists ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, Ꮎ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ deadweight ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ microeconomic ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ-ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎯ ᎤᏂᏩᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎫᏴᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎪᏪᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2001 ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ $4 ᎯᏍᎩ deadweight ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᏩᏒ.[20][21] ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ complicating ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ, ᎪᎯ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎤᏲᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ microeconomic ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎠᏓᏁᎶᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ. ᎪᎯ ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᎨᏱ. ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ-ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ. ᎣᏪᏅᏒ video ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏬᎯᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ.

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

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  2. Cowen and Noble (1996), 48
  3. Odenwald, ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. Sten, "Can you date the crucifixion of Jesus Christ using astronomy?", 1997.
  4. "The Feast of the Annunciation", ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, 1998.
  5. Duchesne, Louis, Les origines du culte chrétien: Etude sur ᏂᏚᏍᏛᎢ liturgie latine ᎾᏛᏁᎸ Charlemagne. ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ, 1889.
  6. Talley, Thomas J., ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ Liturgical ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. Pueblo ᏓᏂᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ, ᏄᏯᎩ, 1986.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 ᎥᎢᏒᎢ, ᏛᎵᎩᏯᎢ, "Medieval Christmas", ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 1986, 36 (12), pp. 31 - 39.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Sempronia, Julilla,"Ancient Voices: Saturnalia, AncientWorlds 2004.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Reichmann, ᎤᏪᏙᎵᏍᏗ, "Christmas".
  10. 10.0 10.1 Durston, Chris, "Lords of Misrule: The Puritan War on Christmas 1642-60", ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 1985, 35 (12) pp. 7 - 14.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Rowell, Geoffrey, "Dickens and the Construction of Christmas", ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 1993, 43 (12), pp. 17 - 24.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ, Douglas, Christ, Online ᎧᏁᏨ ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ, 2001.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Irving, Washington, ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᏯᎩ, 1812.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Mikkelson, Barbara ᎠᎴ David P., "The Claus That Refreshes", Snopes.com, 2006.
  15. (ᎷᎦ 1:5-2:20)
  16. Brueggemann, Walter, "Off by Nine Miles (ᎢᏎᎢᏯ 60:1-7; ᎹᏚ 2:1-12)", ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 19-26, 2001, p. 15.
  17. Tchilingirian, Hratch, "Armenian Christmas: Why Armenians Celebrate Christmas on January 6th?"
  18. "Nicholas of Myra", ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏁᎶᎯ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, 1998.
  19. Lynch vs. Donnelly (1984)
  20. "ᎯᎠ Deadweight ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏓᏂᏍᏓᏲᎯᎲ", ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏅᎬᎪᏙᏗ, ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 1993, 83 (5)
  21. "Is Santa a deadweight loss?" ᎯᎠ Economist ᎤᏍᎩᏱ. 20, 2001

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]