ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒᎢ

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ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ Ꮝ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᎤᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᎬ, ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 7, 1941 (ᎭᏩᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎤᎾᏙᏓᏉᏅᎯ, ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 8 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏣᏩᏂ). ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎣᏩᎱ, ᎭᏩᏱ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ aimed ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎴ United States Marine Corps ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ 12 ᏴᏩᏁᎬ warship, ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ 188 ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ 2,403 ᏴᏩᏁᎬ servicemen ᎠᎴ 68 ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏦᎢ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ undamaged, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎪᎢ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᏒᏙᏂ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ, ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏓᏗᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ "ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ" ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ "ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ" ᎠᎴ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ "ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ" ᎠᎴ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ "ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ."

ᎣᎾᏗᏢ[edit]

Main article: Empire of Japan

ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ Meiji ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏰᎵ embarked ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ, ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎦ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏫᎧᏁᏉᎬ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ executing ᎪᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏰᎵ embarked ᎾᎿ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ-ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏓᎿᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1894 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏔᎢᏩᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᏲᏂᎢ-ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏓᎿᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ Russia ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1904 ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Korean ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ WWI, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ awarded ᎠᏰᎵ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏓᏥ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ colonies ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏅ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1931, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ imposed "ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᎮᎯ" ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Manchuria ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Manchukuo.

ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1910 ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ 1930s ᎯᎠ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ militarized, ᎤᎲᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ (ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1937, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎡᏆ-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Manchuria ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᏒᎳᏗᏝ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Netherlands ᎦᎪ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏧᏁᏉᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎧᎥᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ responded ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 1939, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ upped ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ terminating ᎯᎠ 1911 ᎠᎹᏰᏟ/ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ; ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᏅᎡᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎲᏓ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ embargoes. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ Ꮝ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ Anti-Comintern ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏥ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏆᏗᏍᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏯ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ, ᎠᎴ declaring ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏧᏁᏉᏨ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1940, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎩ ᏦᎢᏁ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏥ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎠᎴ Fascist ᏲᎶ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎾᎿᎢ embargoes ᎾᎿ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏐᎵᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎯᎠ Panama ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ worsen, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1941 ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ Indochina. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳᏛᎯ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎪᎢ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ.[1] ᎪᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ resource, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ 80% ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ.[2]

ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ climaxed ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎦᎸ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 26, 1941, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ Hideki Tojo ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏗ – ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Ꮝ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏚᏫᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᏁᎸᎣᏙᏗ. ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏓᏲᎱᏎᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ-ᎤᏓᏠᏒᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᎫᏍᏓᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ("ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎤᎧᏛ") ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ perceived ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ Ꮝ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ posed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᎪ controlled ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ, ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Hirohito ᏚᏭᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏑᏰᏒ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ embargoes ᎠᎴ uncooperation ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ |ᎾᏥ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, Fascist ᏲᎶ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ. [3]

ᎾᎿ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 4, 1941, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᏔᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᏁᏙᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᏚᎾᏠᏒ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏚᏭᎪᏔᏅ Ꮎ:

ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎣᏩᏒ-defence ᎠᎴ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᏫᎵ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ ... [ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ] ... ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Netherlands ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ. ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ... ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎦᎬᏗ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏚᎾᏠᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᏚᏂᏃᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Netherlands.

ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ[edit]

ᎯᎠ Japanese ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏥᏍᎪᏯ Cunningham ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ (ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Taranto), ᎭᏢᏃ 20 ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ-ᎠᏗᏅᏓ ᏥᏳ (Fairey Swordfish) launched ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ Alexandria ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ Italian ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Italian ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ Naples. ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Isoroku Yamamoto dispatched ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᏲᎶ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏛ Ꮎ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ-ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ Cunningham ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ-ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ" -— ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎯᎠ Dutch ᎧᎸᎬ Indies, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏂ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᎵᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ Cunningham ᎤᏤᎵ boffins ᎠᏰᎲ ᏄᎵᎶᎲᏍᎬᎾ.

ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ Yarnell ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1932 ᎤᏫᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ-ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏩᏱ. Yarnell, ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ, ᎤᏂᎩᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎤᏕᎵᎬ ᎢᏗᏢ Oahu ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏐᏅ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎴ launched 'ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ' ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᎤᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᎬ, 7 ᎧᎦᎵ 1932. ᏗᏄᎪᏗᏍᎩ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ Ꮎ Yarnell ᎤᏤᎵ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ 'ᎤᏲᏨᎯ' ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ, ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 24 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ (ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ) ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ battleship ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ stationed ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ dismissed Yarnell ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ impractical ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᏯᎹᎼᏙ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1941, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᏰᎵ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ ᎠᏑᎳᎪᎢᏍᏗ), ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎡᎵᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ) ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᎤᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬᎢ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ) ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎪᎯᎤᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ.

Zuikaku
ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ steamed ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ undetected ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎢᏳᏊ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎢᎬᏱᏊ ᎦᏰᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ-ᎠᏯᏖᎾ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨ-ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ coordinated ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ. ᏯᎹᎼᏙ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ Ꮎ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᏁᏉᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ tohi adedi ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎠᏢᏔᎲᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ. ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎯᏴ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 1941, ᎠᎴ, ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ factional infighting, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ worthwhile. ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ depended ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ torpedoes, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏃᎴ-launched. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ dredged ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ 1941, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ tested ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᏤᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎪᎭᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ 95 ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ inflicted ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ technicians ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ-ᎤᏴᏢ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᏂᎦ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎾᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎾᎿ 14 ᎠᎴ 15 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏛ (356 ᎠᎴ 381 mm) ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎦᎶᏇ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ armored ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ battleships ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏬᎭᏒᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 10,000 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ (3,000 m), ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ.

ᎾᎿ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 26, 1941, ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏑᏓᎵ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏓᎴᏁ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Chuichi Nagumo ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ Hitokappu ᎥᏓᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Kuril ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏛ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏩᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎭᏩᏱ.

Nakajima B5N2 "Kate".

ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ: Akagi, Hiryu, ᎧᎦ, Shokaku, Soryu, ᎠᎴ Zuikaku. ᏔᎵ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ battleship, ᏔᎵ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᏌᏊ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, 9 ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ 3 ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏓᏘᏅᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎲ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ 423 ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Mitsubishi ᏗᎦᎪᏗ 0 "ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᏜ" ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ, Nakajima ᏗᎦᎪᏗ 97 "Kate" ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ bomber, ᎠᎴ Aichi ᏗᎦᎪᏗ 99 "Val" ᏗᎵᎬᏯᏍᏗ bomber. ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎲ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ. ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ 8 tankerᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ refueling. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ Expeditionary ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ 20 ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎯᏍᎩ ᏔᎵ-ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Ko-hyoteki-ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ midget ᎤᏒᏙᏂ; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Ꮎ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎳᏘᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.

ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ[edit]

ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ asgahah aninela E. Kimmel, ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ-ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ-ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ.
Battleship ᎤᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ.

ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂ, ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ Ꮎ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎭᏩᏱ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎾᏙᎷᏩᏛᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎭᏩᏱ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏓᏓᏰᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ. ᎠᎴ, ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᏂᎦᎥ Marshall ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ-ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎭᏩᏱ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ. ᎠᏰᎲ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ resisted ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ: anti-ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ manned, ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ locked ᎡᎳᏗ, anti-ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ implemented (Ꮭ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ), ᎠᏥᎡᏗᏱ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏛᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏃᎯᎸᏒ, ᎠᏯᏩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ, ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ OP-20-G ᏌᏊᎭ, intercepted ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏓᏓᏅᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎠᏫᏛᏓ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ tactical ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ. ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎪᎯ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᏙᏓᎳᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ confusing, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏓᏓᏅᏓᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ) ᎯᎸᏍᎩ, ᎢᏯᎨᎵᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏴ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ). ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 1941. ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎢᏤ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᏴᏎᎬ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ.

ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏂᎦᎥ Walter C. ᏍᏆᎳᎢ, ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎨᏛᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ.

ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏓᏰᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ-ᎠᎹ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ launches ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ, ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᏌᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎭᏩᏱ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ ᎤᏓᎵᎮᎵᏤᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ posed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏤ ᏚᎾᏙᎷᏩᏛᎲ. ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩ Ꮎ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ (e.g., ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎠᎹ), ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ. ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᏍᏆᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ, ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏛᎢ (ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ) ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ eligwa igai coverage, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Ꮝ ᎢᎦᎢ anti-ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᏗᎦᎶᏇ ᎨᏒᎩ stowed, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏙᏗ locked ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ armories. ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ upsetting ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᎢ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎶᏇ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ (ᎠᏯ.e., ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ).

ᏓᎵᏆᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ[edit]

ᏣᏩᏂᏏ bombers ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᎵᏆᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ 30 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ. ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᏤᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ, DC, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎦᏄᏎᏓ, ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Kichisaburo Nomura, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎩ Saburo Kurusu, ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎪ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ) ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ Indochina ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎦᏅᎯᏓ multi-ᎢᎦᏛ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏤᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tokyo (encoded ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎨᏍᏗ cryptographic ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ), ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎾᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎦ ᏩᎯᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ Cordell ᎤᏁᎦᎸ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎾᎾᎢ 1 ᏒᎯᏱᎢᏗᏢ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ (ie, ᎣᏍᏛ ᏦᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏎᎸ ᎢᏳᎢ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ). ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ decryption ᎠᎴ typing ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᏗᏤᎢ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ ᏩᎯᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎢᎦᏛ, ᏓᎵᏆᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ ("ᎠᎬᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎢᎬᏯᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ nvwato hiyadv ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ ... ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎯᎠ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ-ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ nvwato hiyadv ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎭ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ"), ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏩᏅᎯ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎦᎸ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏰᎲ decrypted ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᏤᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ , ᎠᎴ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ typed ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ decrypt ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ decryption ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮝ ᏗᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ prompted Gen. George Marshall ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎭᏩᏱ Ꮎ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᏩᏅᎯ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏙᎯ, Gen. Walter ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎦᎷᏨ ᏂᎦᎥ Marshall ᎤᎶᏐᏅ decryption ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᏢᏔᏅᎯ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎩᎸᎥᏍᎬ), ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ Ꮝ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ Ꮝ "ᎤᏚᎳᏗ" ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ Ꮝ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ.

ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎪᏪᎸ, ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎪᏢᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎾᏛᎦᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ. Ꮎ ᏔᎵ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ ᏩᏅᎯ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎦᏄᏎᏓ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tokyo ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 10 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎤᎾᏙᏓᏉᏅᎯ ᏒᎯᏰᏱᏗᏢ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ[edit]

ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏓᎴᏁ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Chuichi Nagumo, ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ fired ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ casualties ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ USS ᎠᏥᎦᏘᏯ attacked ᎠᎴ sank midget ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎾᎾᎢ 06:37 ᎭᏩᏱ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᏩᎪᏘᎶᏛ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏛᎢ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᏍᎩ Ko-hyoteki ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ midget ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ. ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎠᏜ ᎠᏦᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ, ᏐᏁᎳ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ survivor, Kazuo Sakamaki, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ captured, ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎱᏥ ᏓᏄᏩ captured ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ. ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ photographic ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1999 ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ ᏌᏊ midget ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ fired ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ USS ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᏚᏂᏲᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ.[4]

ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ approached ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ radar ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ detected ᎠᏂ 136 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (218 km) ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ Opana ᎪᏍᏓᏱ radar ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ detected ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᏁᎵᏒ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎷᎯᏍᏗ 6 ᎠᎹᏰᏟ B-17 bombers ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ "ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ" ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏓᏓᏅᏓᏁᎸ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ approached ᎦᏙᎯ; ᏌᏊ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ, radioed ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ tohi adedi ᎾᎿ. ᏐᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏙᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ processed, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏘᏴ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗᏱ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ forewarnings ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ interpreted ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ achieved ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏈᎵᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᏰᎲ 10 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎾᎿ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏰᎲ attacked ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ 07:53 7 ᎥᏍᎩᏱ ᎭᏩᏱ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ 03:23 ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 8 ᏣᏩᏂ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ attacked ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ 353 ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ ᏭᎷᏨᎩ Oahu. ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ bombers ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ 183 ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ, ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ (ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ) ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ battleships ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᎵᎬᏯᏍᏗ bombers attacked ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏗᎳᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ Oahu, ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ Hickam ᏠᎨᏏ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏠᎨᏏ, ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ 170 ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ attacked ᏗᏦᏔᏍᏙᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, ᎠᏜ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎦᏛ P-36 ᏔᏬᏗ ᎠᎴ P-40 WarhawkᎾ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᎲ 25 ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ Anti-aircraft warfare ᎠᏥᎸ.

ᎤᏲᏨᎯ midget ᎤᏒᏙᏂ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ awoke ᎯᎠ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ exploding ᎠᎴ cries "ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ" ᎠᎴ "ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ, ᎢᏧᎳ're ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ bombed." ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ locked ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, undispersed ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ. ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Isaac C. Kidd, ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏘᏂᏙᎯ Franklin ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ Valkenburgh, ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎯᎠ USS ᎡᏩᏐᎾ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏩᏅᏨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏒᏢᎢ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ, ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ, ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ-ᎤᏴᏢ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ ᎦᎶᏇ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ. ᎢᏧᎳ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ awarded ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ. ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Joe Taussig ᎤᎩᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏥᏳ, ᎯᎠ USS ᏁᏩᏓ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ onboard, ᏂᎦᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎦᎪᏃ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. Ꮎ ᏥᏳ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏅᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ Ꮝ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᏗᏓᏘᏂᏙᎯ Mervyn Bennion, ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ, ᏙᎯᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏦᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ USS ᏖᎾᏏ, ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ. ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ adatudi ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎯᎠ USS Tautog, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ attacker downed. ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ Doris "Dorie" ᏗᏍᏙᏍᎩ, African-ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏦᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ, ᎦᎪ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ anti-ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎦᎶᏇ, ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮭ ᎠᎨᏲᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ, ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏌᏊ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ hitting ᎤᏤᎵ ᏥᏳ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ awarded ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ, 14 ᎠᏜ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ awarded ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ. ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏁᏤᎸ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.

ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ exploding ᎾᎾᎯ USS ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ.

ᏐᏁᎳᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ. 2,403 ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ (ᎦᎪᏃ 68 ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ anti-ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎦᎶᏍᎬ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Honolulu), ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ 1,178 ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅᎯ. ᏁᎳᏚ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᏍᎩ battleships[5].

ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ fatalities—1,102 men—were ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ 40 cm ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎦᎶᏇ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ, ᎤᏬᎭᏒᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ bomber, smashed ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Ꮝ ᏔᎵ armored ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ detonated ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎦᎶᏇ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎦᎸ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ Ꮎ ᎢᎦ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎪᏃ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ.

ᎯᎠ USS ᏁᏩᏓ ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒᎯ ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ. ᎦᏳᎳ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ, ᏁᏩᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ targeted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ bombers ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏒ underway. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 250 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ (113 kg) ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ beached.

ᎯᎠ USS ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏔᎵ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ torpedoes. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᏲᎷᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏒᎯ ᏗᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ. ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎪᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎡᏍᎦ ᎢᏴ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ. ᎯᎠ disarmed ᏳᏔ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ holed ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ torpedoes. ᎯᎠ USS ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ torpedoes, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏉᎩᏁ ᎦᏣᎦᎸᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎯᎠ USS ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏅᎩ torpedoes, ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᏔᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᏠᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏨᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ USS Maryland ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏔᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ 40 cm ᎤᏯᏍᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ concentrated ᎾᎿ battleships (ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎡᏙᎠ), ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ Helena ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ torpedoed, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ minelayer USS ᎣᎩᎳᎳ. ᏔᎵ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ penetrated ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ. ᎯᎠ ᎬᎫᏍᎬ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎱᎩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎴᏴᏒ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ Raleigh ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ holed. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ USS ᎭᎾᎷᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ USS Cassin ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ USS Downes, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ USS ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ, ᎪᏢᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ beached. ᎯᎠ seaplane ᏩᎾᎢ USS Curtiss ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ.

ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ 188 ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ 155 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ parked wingtip wingtip ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏙᎬ ᎤᏢᏲᎸᎯ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ. ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏚᏂᎳᏦᏛ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᏜ. ᎤᎾᎵᎢᏴ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ. ᎯᏍᎩᏍᎪᎯ-ᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ airmen ᎠᎴ ᏐᏁᎳ submariners ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ 441 ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ (350 ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ), 29 ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ (ᏐᏁᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎠᎴ 20 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ) ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ 74 ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ flak ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 20 ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ Ꮎ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ salvaged.

Nagumo ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ ᎤᏎᏒᎲᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏔᎵ ᏗᎬᎾᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎯᎠ USS ᎡᏩᏐᎾ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎤᏬᎭᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Tadashi Kusumi.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏍᏆᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎦᏂᎳᏛᎢ Nagumo ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᏧᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎪᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎦᏚᏏ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ usable ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎭᏩᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎪᎢ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ battleships. Nagumo ᏚᏭᎪᏔᏅ forgo ᏦᎢᏁ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎤᏎᏒᎲᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ:

  • Anti-ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ-ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ alerted. ᏦᎢᏁ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᏙᎢ ᎡᏍᎦ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏔᎵ ᏗᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ prepped ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ Nagumo ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ Nagumo.
  • ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏜ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ organizing ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎦᏂᎳᏛᎢ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗᏉ.
ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ, ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ (ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ). ᏚᏂᏃᏗ 1941.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ logistical ᏅᏏᎾᏒ. ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ risked ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ unacceptably ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ.
  • ᎯᎠ timing ᏦᎢᏁ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ Ꮎ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ. ᏒᏃᏱ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1941, ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏂᎥᏇ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᏯ techniques ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ: ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ.
  • ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᏌᏊ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᏏ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎳᏘᏒ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎭᏩᏱ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎭᏩᏱ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏁᏙᎲᎾ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ", ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏈᎵᎢ, ᎯᎠ Dutch ᎧᎸᎬ Indies, Malaya, ᎠᎴ Burma, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏪᎵᏒ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎫᏢᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ Nagumo ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏛ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏧᎾᏁᎶᏗᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ predicted Ꮎ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏔᎵ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, Nagumo ᎠᏎ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᎠᏍᏗ Ꮭ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ.

ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎾᎿ 7 ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 1941[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᏯ-26 sank ᎯᎠ Cynthia Olson, ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎡᎵᏒᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ San Francisco ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ 35 ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ.[6]

ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏐᎢ, ᎤᏍᏗ-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ, 1942, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ K-1, ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ, ᏔᎵ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ H8K ᎦᏃᎯᎸᏒ-ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏳ, ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ Wotje ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Marshall ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ, ᎨᏒᎩ tasked ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᏃᏢᎯᏏᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ "ᏍᎪᎯ-ᏍᎪᎯ" ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ refueling en-ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎤᏍᏔᎳᎾᎵ, 500 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (800 km) ᎤᏴᏢ-ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ hampered ᎯᎠ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏬᎭᏒᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ.

ᎯᏍᎩ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ: ᎠᏯ-9 ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ; ᎠᏯ-19, ᎠᏯ-15 ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯ-26 refuel ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎯᎸᏒ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏯ-23 ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯ-23 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ.

ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏯᎸᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏔᎳᎾᎵ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ precluded ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ.

ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏥᏍᏚ[edit]

ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ[edit]

ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Franklin D. Roosevelt ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.

ᏐᏁᎳᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ (ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 8, 1941 ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ), ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ invaded ᎩᎵᏏ Malaya. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ Territories Hong Kong ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏈᎵᎢ, ᎠᏰᏨ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ Thailand ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ HMS ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ Wales ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ.[7]

ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 8, 1941, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ Jeannette Rankin ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎠᏓᏑᏰᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ outraged ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᎵᏆᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ, ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏕᎰᎯᏍᏗ. Roosevelt ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᎢᎦ " ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᏅᎡᏁᎲ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏫᏢ ᏓᏂᎳᏫᎥ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ. ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎬ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ Ꮝ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎤᎧᏛ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎬᏗ uniyatolv ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ. ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏓᏅ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᎯᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ 1941, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᏑᏒᎯᏓ, ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ awakened ᎯᎠ "ᎦᎵᎲᎢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏂᎬᎢ", ᎾᎪᎲᎾ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᏧᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ. ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ mobilized, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎴ Atlantic ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ.

ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ sparked ᏧᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᎾᎵᎢ residing ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ internment ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ. ᏐᎢ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᏓᎧᏁᎶᎰᎮᏎᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ (ᎧᏂᎩᏛ) ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ DeWitt, ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ, ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏘᏉ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᏞᏴᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎦᎵ 1942, Roosevelt ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ 9066, ᎠᏂᏁᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗᏚᏓᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏂᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ internment.

ᎾᏥ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎠᎴ Fascist ᏲᎶ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 11th, ᏅᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. Hitler ᎠᎴ Mussolini ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮭ ᎠᏓᏚᏓᎸᏁᏗ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏔᎵ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ-ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ European ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ leadership ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ lyudetiyvda ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 1937. ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1941, ᎯᎠ Nazis ᎤᏕᎶᏆᎥ ᎯᎠ Ꭴ.ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ 1943; ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏅᎪᎳᏛ ᎯᏍᎩ" ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ Roosevelt ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏤ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ Chicago ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ. Hitler ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏭᎪᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᎪᎳᏛ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ Roosevelt ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏛᎢ-ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ focused ᎾᎿ European ᏂᏚᎾᏛᏁᎵᏙᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ contributed. Hitler ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ underestimated ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ adatolasdodi adatolasdv, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏔᎵ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ Barbarossa ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. ᎤᏠᏱ, ᎯᎠ Nazis ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ collaboration ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Eurasia. ᎾᎪᎲᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ enraged ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ European theatre ᏓᏄᏩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ theatre ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ; ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ Americans—ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ them—undermined cooperative ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎩᎵᏏ ᏚᏂᏴᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎸᎬ. ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ Soviet ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎥᏝ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ' ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ.

USS Utah ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ.

ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Roosevelt ᎠᏑᏰᏛ investigating ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ, ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ Owen Roberts ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏱᏓᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ asgahah aninela E. Kimmel, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏂᎦᎥ Walter ᏍᏆᎳᎢ (ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏩᏱ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ), ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎫᎢᏍᏗ 'ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ' ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Roberts ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ. ᎪᎯ evaluation ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ. ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 25, 1999, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᏚᏑᏰᏒ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏩᎾᎢ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎫᏮᎶᏗᏍᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ, ᎦᏁᎳ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎭᏩᏱ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ tactical ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ exceeded ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎩ ᏚᏅᏒ Ꮝ planners. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏚᏦᏔᏩᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Italian ᎤᏤᎵ Taranto ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1940 ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ devastating ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ inflicted, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ neutralising ᎯᎠ Italian ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ. ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ Ꮝ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏈᎵᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏊ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱᏊ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ-ᏭᏕᎵᏓ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ Indian ᎠᎺᏉᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ WWII, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ Attacks on United States territory in North America during ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎳᎵ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏈᎵᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᏨ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ.)

ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎾᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᏯᎹᎼᏙ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏓᎾᏛᎾ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ botched timing ᎯᎠ ᏓᎵᏆᎵᏍᎬ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ, "ᎠᏯ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ awakened ᎦᎵᎲᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ" . ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ uttered ᎾᎥᎢ ᏯᎹᎼᏙ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, Ꮎ "ᎠᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ … ᎤᎶᏐᏅ Ꮎ, ᎠᏯ ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ."[8]

File:JapanPropaganda.jpg
ᏣᏩᏂᏏ propaganda caricature map from around 1941, depicting a U.S blockade of ᏣᏩᏂ from the ᎠᏂᏈᎵᎢ (then a ᎠᎹᏰᏟ possession)

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ anti-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ Ꮎ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒ, ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ dismayed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏤᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏊ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ Ꮎ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ admired, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏧᎾᎵᎪᎯ. ᎡᏍᎦᏗᏢ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ territories ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ accepted ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1945. [9]

ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ leadership ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1942, Saburo Kurusu, ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎦᏄᏎᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏍᏓᏩᏛᏒ ᎯᎠ "ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ inevitability ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ."[10] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᎤᏤᎵ longstanding ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Kurusu, ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ San Francisco ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ' racist ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ culminated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏥᎡᏗᏱ" ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎢ ᎠᏓᏓᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ. ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎦᎸ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏕᎰᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ "pushed" ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ European ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ "ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ" ᎠᏂ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Ꮭ ᎢᏳᏩᏂᏌᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ [11]. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎩᎵᏏ-ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᏤᎢ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ (Asahi Shimbun), ᏚᏍᏆᎸᏔᏅ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏚᏓᏅᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 2000s Ꮎ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏂᏓᏳᏨᏓ Kurusu ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ.[12] ᏓᏂᎲᏍᎬ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ servicemen ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.[13]

ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᎵᏍᎦᎾᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ perceived inevitability ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ tactical ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏔᏅᎯ flawed ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ columnist ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ:

ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ tactic, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᏚᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎩᏔᏯ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏓᏢᏔᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏚᎸᏛᎢ ᎤᏪᎿᎢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ. Ꮎ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ flawed, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ.[14]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1991, ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1941 ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏄᏪᎵᏒ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎾᎾᎢ 1 ᏒᎯᏱᎢᏗᏢ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, 25 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏎᎸ ᎢᏳᎢ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏩᏎᎯᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ "14-ᎢᎦᏛ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ", ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᎾᎵᏃᎮᎸ, ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎦᏄᏎᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ apologized ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᏣᏩᏂ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ Hideki Tojo ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ Ꮎ

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎤᎭ succeeded ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ achieving ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ.

ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ[edit]

ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ NAS Kaneohe.
ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ.

ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᏅᏨᎩ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ perceived ᏩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ victories. ᎩᎳ ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎪᎯ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ devastating ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏦᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ battleships ᎡᏩᏐᎾ, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ battleship Utah (ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ); ᎡᏍᎦᏗᏢ, ᎤᏣᏘ usable ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ salvaged ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ. ᎦᎨᏛ casualties ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎡᏩᏐᎾ'ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ exploding ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ capsizing. ᏅᎩ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ battleships ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ, ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏁᏩᏓ. ᎠᏕᎳᏧᏢᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏩᏥᏂ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ-ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, enabling ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ battleships ᎨᏒᎩ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ refitted, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ outdated ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ anti-ᎦᏚᎢ 5" ᏗᎦᎶᏇ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ turreted DP ᏗᎦᎶᏇ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ Cassin ᎠᎴ Downes ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏢᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ salvaged ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏤ ᎤᏁᎦᎸ ᎤᎦᏔ, ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Shaw ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ.

ᎯᎠ 22 ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏌᏊ survived ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2006, ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏲᎷᎭ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ Taney.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ, ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏯᎹᎼᏙ, ᎦᎪ ᏄᎵᎶᎲᏍᎬᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎠᏰᎲ predicted Ꮎ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎡᏆ. ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ stationed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎡᏙᎠ: ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏂᎷᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᏨ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, Lexington ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ Saratoga ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ San Diego ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ Puget ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ Shipyard. ᏓᏂᎲᏍᎬ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ battleships ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ regarded—in ᎢᏧᎳ Navies ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎿ worldwide—as ᎤᎪᏗᏳ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ.

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ. ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ Ꮝ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᎯᎠ battleships ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮭ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏗᏱ Ꮝ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ submarines—and ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ. ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎤᏲᏨ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏰᎵ battleships ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᏯᎹᎼᏙ hoarded ᎤᏤᎵ battleships ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎥᏝ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ, ᏗᏲᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎥᏝ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ Ꮎ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ standstill ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ Ꮝ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎢ, immobilizing ᎦᎨᏛ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ. ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ cryptanalytic ᏌᏊᎭ, ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ Hypo.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ[edit]

ᎪᎯ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ-ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏚᏙᎪᏛ ᎤᏎᏒᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎳᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᎭ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ, ᏲᎶ, ᎠᎴ ᏣᏩᏂ, contributing ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏎᎪᎩᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ 1945. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ declaring ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏑᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ Hickam ᎤᏃᎴ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ, ᏙᎢ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ Winston Churchill, ᎾᎿ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ ᎠᏎᏒᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ: "ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏙᎳᏣᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏖᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ, ᎠᏯ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎦᏂᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎸᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᎮᎵᏣᏘ."[15] ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎠᏓᏎᎪᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ, replacing ᎯᎠ battleship ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ, Ꮎ ᎪᎯ breakthrough ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ.

Mythical ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ[edit]

ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ 1812 ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ attacked ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᎭ ᏁᎵᏒ mythical ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᏑᏓᎵᏍᎪᎯ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 11, 2001 ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ: ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ.

Cultural ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ[edit]

Anti-ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ subsidized ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ racial ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎠᎭᏂ Adolf Hitler ᎠᎴ Hideki Tojo ᎯᎠ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ensuing ᏓᏄᏩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, fueled anti-ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏁᎵᏍᎬ. ᎠᏂᏣᏩᏂᏏ, ᎠᎹᏰᏟ-ᎠᏂᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ ᎤᎲᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎳᏩᏎᏗ, ᎾᎪᎯᏳᎲᏍᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ viewed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎲᎢ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ underhanded ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ "ᎤᏕᎰᎯᏍᏗ" ᎠᎴ "sneaky ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ". ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ Japanese-ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎯᏍᎩᏁ ᎤᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏓᏂᏴᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎧᎦᎵ 19, 1942 ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ internment, ᏄᏢᏉᏛᎾ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏅᏍᏙᎯᏍᏗ "ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ", ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ-ᎠᎹᏰᏟ internment ᎠᎴ [[Japanese|ᏣᏩᏂᏏ-Canadian internment.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ depicted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏫᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ-ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970), ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ (2001) ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ.

ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ[edit]

* Awarded ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ.[16]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. Roland H. ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, Jr., Ꮭ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏄᏩ: ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ (Jefferson, ᎦᏯᎴᏂ: McFarland, 1995). ISBN 0-7864-0141-9
  2. Yuichi Arima, The Way to ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ: ᎠᎹᏰᏟ vs ᏣᏩᏂ, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ 118, ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 2003 (accessed ᎫᏬᏂ 10, 2006).
  3. Showa Tenno Ꮭ dokuhaku hachi-jikan (ᎯᎠ Showa ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏁᎳ-ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ) (ᏙᎩᏲ: Bungei-shunju, 1990).
  4. ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Rodgaard ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ., "ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ: Attack from Below," ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 1999 (accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 10, 2005).
  5. Stetson Conn ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, "Chapter 7 - The Attack on ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ" ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ, ᏩᏏᏓᏂ, DC, 2000
  6. Cynthia Olson
  7. Kelley L. Ross, "The ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ Strike Force" (accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 10, 2005).
  8. Isoroku Yamamoto Shigeharu Matsumoto (ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ) ᎠᎴ Fumimaro Kondoye (ᏣᏩᏂᏏ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ), ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏬᎭᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ : ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ Ronald Spector (ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, 1985).
  9. Robert Guillain, ᎠᏯ ᎤᎪᎲᎩ Tokyo ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ: ᎾᎿ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ Hiroshima (J. ᎥᎢᏒᎢ, 1981). ISBN 0-7195-3862-9
  10. Saburo Kurusu, Historical inevitability of the war of Greater East ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ, ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏯᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ, Tokyo, ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 26, 1942 (accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 10, 2005).
  11. Haruko ᏔᏯ & Theodore F. ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎩ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᏄᏩ: ᎧᏁᏨᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ (ᎢᏤ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ; ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, 1993). ISBN 1-56584-039-9
  12. Charles Burress, "Biased history helps feed ᎠᎹᏰᏟ fascination with ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ," ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 19, 2001 (accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 10, 2005);
  13. Hiroaki Sato, "The View From New York: Debunking America's 'Good War' myth," ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 25, 2001 (accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 10, 2005);
  14. Burritt Sabin, "The War's Leagacy: Dawn of a tragic era," ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎧᎦᎵ 8, 2004 (accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 10, 2005).
  15. Churchill, Winston. Ꮎ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ, Vol. 3, 539.
  16. Medal of Honor Citations, ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ.
  1. Kiroku Hanai "ᎠᎹᏰᏟ War Conduct: No sense of proportionality," ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 28, 2004 (accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 10, 2005);
  2. Gregory Clark, "Shedding imposed war guilt," ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎫᏬᏂ 15, 2005 (accessed ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 10, 2005).
  3. McCollum memo Roosevelt ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎪᏪᎵᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1940 (declassified ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1994) ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ.

ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ[edit]

  • Gordon W. Prange, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎩᏥᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎸᏅᎩ (McGraw-ᎦᏚᏏ, 1981), ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ: ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ (McGraw-ᎦᏚᏏ, 1986), ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᎩᏱ 7, 1941: ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂᏏ Attacked ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ (McGraw-ᎦᏚᏏ, 1988). ᎪᎯ monumental trilogy, ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏙᎦᏟᏐᏗ Donald M. Goldstein ᎠᎴ Katherine V. Dillon, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ.
  • Walter ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎢᎦ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᏅᎡᏁᎲ (Henry ᎦᎪᏘ, 1957) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ anecdotal, re-ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ.
  • W. J. Holmes, ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ-ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏕᎵᏓ: ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ (ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ, 1979) ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Holmes' ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ Ꮎ, ᎠᏰᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏓᏓᏰᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ.
  • Michael V. Gannon, ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ Betrayed (Henry ᎦᎪᏘ, 2001) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎠᏥᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ ᏓᎦᏚᏫᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ.
  • Frederick D. Parker, ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ Revisited: United States Navy Communications Intelligence 1924–1941 (ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Cryptologic ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, 1994) ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏛᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ intercepted ᎠᎴ decrypted ᏣᏩᏂᏏ tsunadatvgotanv ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᏓᎬᎾ.
  • Henry C. Clausen ᎠᎴ Bruce ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ, ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ: ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ, (HarperCollins, 2001), ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᎵᏓ "Clausen ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ" undertaken ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᏗᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏓᏄᏩ Stimson.
  • Robert . Theobald, ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎤᏕᎵᏓ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ (Devin-Adair Pub, 1954) ISBN 0-8159-5503-0 ISBN 0-317-65928-6 ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ William F. Halsey, Jr.
  • Albert C. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ! (Henry ᎦᎪᏘ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ, 1958) ISBN 0-89275-011-1 ISBN 0-8159-7216-4.
  • Hamilton ᎠᏣᏗ, ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ: FDR ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ (Devin-Adair Pub, 1983) ISBN 0-8159-6917-1.
  • ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Toland, ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᏅᎡᏁᎲ: ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏥᏍᏚ (Berkley Reissue ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, 1986 ISBN 0-425-09040-X) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᎶᎲᏍᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Pulitzer ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᎠᎾᏓᏠᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ.
  • Robert Stinnett, Day of Deceit : The Truth About FDR and ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ (ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1999) ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ tohi adedi ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᎪᏪᎵᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎯ Ꮎ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ Kimmel ᎠᎴ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ. ISBN 0-7432-0129-9.
  • Edward L. ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ, ᎠᏥᏓᏁᎸ: ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ Kimmel ᎠᎴ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗISBN 1-55750-059-2.
  • ᏥᏍᎪᏯ Krepinevich, [1] (ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Budgetary ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ) ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ Yarnell ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ.
  • Roberta Wohlstetter, ᏓᎬᎾ Harbour: ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ, (Stanford ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ: 1962). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᎾ Harbour. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ "ᎤᏃᏴᎬ" ᎾᏢᏲᎵᎲᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ.
  • ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Hughes-Wilson, ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎫᏢᏗ-Ups. ᏑᎾᎴᎢ, 1999 (ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅ 2004). ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᎴ insightful ᎠᏯᏙᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ broader overview ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ.

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

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