ᏎᎷ

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?ᏎᎷ (Maize)
Cultivars of ᏎᎷ
Cultivars of ᏎᎷ
Scientific classification
ᎴᎬᎾᎻ: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
ᏗᎦᎪᏗ: Liliopsida
ᎣᎸᏙ: Poales
ᏥᏓᎾᎷ: Poaceae
ᎨᏄᏍ: Zea
Species: Z. mays
Binomial name
Zea mays
L.
Zea mays "fraise"

ᏎᎷ (Zea mays ssp. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏎᎷ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Mesoamerica. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ European ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ 16th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏎᎷ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎨᎾᏓ, ᎠᏤ Zealand, ᎠᎴ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ Ꮎ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ mealies ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ. ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ varieties ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ heterosis ("ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ"). ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ genetically ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ varieties ᎪᏢᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏎᎷ varieties ᎠᏛᏍᎬ 7 m (23 ft) ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏎᎷ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᏣᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ 2.5 m (9 ft). Sweetcorn ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨᏍᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏠᎨᏏ-ᏎᎷ varieties.

ᏎᎷ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᏍᏔᎳᎾᎵ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ bamboo ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏫᏢ (ᏂᎯ) ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 20–30 cm (8–12 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ) ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ. ᏎᎷ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎦᎶᏂᏗ, 50–100 cm ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ 5–10 cm ᎠᏯᏖᎾ (2–4 ft ᎾᎥᎢ 2–4 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ); ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᏍᎦᏗ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ 2–3 m (7–10 ft) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎯ, ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎦᏓᏘ-ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏂᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ.

ᏎᎷ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ-ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏏᎵᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎶᎬ whorl ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᏏᎵᎩ ᎠᎴ elongated ᎤᏚᎯᏍᏛ Ꮎ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ. ᏎᎷ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏫᎵ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ 2–4 ᏗᎦᎴᏂ. ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ techniques ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ rely ᎾᎿ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏂᎧᏅᏍᎬ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 0.9 (Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ stressed ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᏜ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ).[1] ᎠᏂᎧᏅᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ silage ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ denser ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ. ᎤᏙᎯᏳ varieties ᏎᎷ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᏣᏘ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏍᏗ ᏎᎷ" Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Asian ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.

ᏎᎷ cultivar ᎤᏛᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎦ-ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎾᎢ > 50° F (10 °C). ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏎᎷ cultivars ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ-ᎢᎦ ᎤᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏥᏣᎷ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏓᏠᏍᏗ.[2] ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ-ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ controlled genetically ᎠᎴ regulated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ phytochrome ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᏚᎵᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏥᏣᎷ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏏᎵᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ pollen ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏥᏣᎷ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ, ᏌᏊ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ. ᎠᏲᎵ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ consumed ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ, ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᏏᎵᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ; ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ (ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ) ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ tougher ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏏᎵᎩ dries inedibility. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎦᎶᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎧᏲᏔᏅ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᎾᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᏩᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏢᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏎᎷ ᎤᎭ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ fused ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ grasses. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ (ᎯᎠ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ) ᎥᏝ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏒᏙᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏚᏓᏅ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏂ. ᎦᎴᏂ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏔᎵ ᏅᎩ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 10–25 cm (4–10 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ: ᎬᎿᎨ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ, ᏌᎪᏂᎨ-ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ, ᎩᎦᎨ, ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏒ ᏩᏂᎨ, ᏎᎷ ᏚᏓᏲᏒᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏒ ᏩᏂᎨ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎦᏔᏁᎦ, ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏤᎵ ᏤᎵ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ baked ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎠᎵᏌᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏛ.

genetic ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ Ꮎ ᎦᏒᏔᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏗᏍᏓᎦᏯᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ consumed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ sweetcorn.

ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᏎᎷ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᎦᏒᏔᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-ᏌᏊ). DIMBOA ᎨᏒᎢ ᎨᎳ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ hydroxamic ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ benzoxazinoids) Ꮎ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ, pathogenic fungi ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ. DIMBOA ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ grasses, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ. ᏎᎷ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ (bx) ᎦᎷᎶᎩ DIMBOA ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎠᎴ fungi. DIMBOA ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᏎᎷ ᎯᎠ European ᏎᎷ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ (ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Crambidae). ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏎᎷ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ, DIMBOA ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ classified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ subspecies:

  • ᎢᏒ ᏩᏂᎨ ᏎᎷ - Zea mays L. subsp. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ Amylacea ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ
  • ᎠᎾᏔᏍᎩᏍᎩ - Zea mays L. subsp. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ Everta ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ
  • ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᏎᎷ - Zea mays L. subsp. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ Indentata ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ
  • ᏓᏫᏍᎦᎳ ᏎᎷ - Zea mays L. subsp. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ Indurata ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ
  • Sweetcorn - Zea mays L. subsp. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ Saccharata ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ
  • ᎪᎢ ᏎᎷ - Zea mays L. ceratina Kuleshov
  • Amylomaize - Zea mays
  • ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏎᎷ - Zea mays L. var. tunicata Larrañaga ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ . ᏒᎯᏰᏱ. Hil.

ᎪᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ 60 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ multi-ᏂᏙᏓᎳᎬᎾ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ. Agronomic ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ supplemented ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏫᏒᏅ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏓᎵᏂᎩᏛ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, cytological, ᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ DNA ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ. ᎾᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ (ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ), ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ, racial complexes, ᎠᎴ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ.

ᏎᎷ ᎤᎭ 10 ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ (n=10). ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ 1500 cM. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "chromosomal ᎦᏂᏴᏗ". ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ repetitive heterochromatic ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᎬ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ. ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ polymorphic ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ teosinte. Barbara McClintock ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ markers ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ transposon ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ "ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ genes".

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏎᎷ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᎪᏒ - ᎤᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ, funded ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ USDA ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᎦᏩᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎢᎵᏃᏱ ᎾᎾᎢ Urbana-ᏂᎬᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ 80,000 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ genes, ᎧᏁᏉᏨ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ gene ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ heritable variants. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1000 chromosomal ᏧᎾᏍᏗ (e.g., ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ) ᎠᎴ ᏚᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ (e.g., tetraploids). ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᏂᏃᎮᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᏚᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᏐᎢ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ accessed ᎾᎾᎢ MaizeGDB, ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Genomics ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2005 ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎦᎫᏍᏓᎥ (NSF), ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ (USDA) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ (ᎦᏣᏄᎳ) ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ consortium ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ genome. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ DNA ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎾᎾᎯ GenBank, ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ genome-ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ. Sequencing ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ genome ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎡᏆ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ genome ᎤᎭ 50,000–60,000 genes scattered ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ 2.5 ᎯᏍᎩ ᏗᎳᏗ – ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ DNA – Ꮎ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ Ꮝ 10 ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. (ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ, ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ genome ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2.9 ᎯᏍᎩ ᏗᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ 26,000 genes.)

ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏎᎷ[edit]

ᏔᎵ teosintes ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᏎᎷ

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ theories ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏎᎷ:

  1. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ teosinte, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎯᎠ Balsas ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎺᎯᎪ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 12% Ꮝ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ otsel igvnelv ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Zea mays ssp. mexicana ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ;
  2. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ hybridization ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ maize—a ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ maize—and teosinte ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ Luxuriantes, ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ Z. luxurians ᎠᎴ Z. diploperennis;
  3. ᎾᏍᎩ underwent ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ teosinte;
  4. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ hybridization Z. diploperennis ᎾᎥᎢ Tripsacum dactyloides. (ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "teosinte" ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ subspecies ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Zea, ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ Zea ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ssp. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ.) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1930s, Paul Mangelsdorf ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ hybridization ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Tripsacum, ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ tripsacum (ᎦᎹ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏎᎷ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, negating Mangelsdorf’s ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏁ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ.

ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ (ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ hypotheses) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏕᎪᏏᏏ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ dauntingly ᏂᎦᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Nobel ᎠᏌᏍᏛ winner George ᎠᏍᏚᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1939, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅᎯ:

  1. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. Zea originated,
  2. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᏆᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ 3500–2700 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ (uncorrected) ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ teosinte,
  3. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏱᎸᏓ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ teosinte ᎠᎴ ᏎᎷ ᎬᏙᏗ teosintoid ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ca. 1100 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ,
  4. ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ.
Guila Naquitz ᎤᏍᏔᎦᎳᏱ, ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᏎᎷ

ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ researchers—ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ, geneticists, ethnobotanists, geographers, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 7,500—12,000 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ (ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ). ᎾᏞᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏎᎷ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ occured 9000 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎺᎯᎪ, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ Oaxaca ᎠᎴ Jalisco.[4] ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ teosinte ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏛᏍᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ Balsas ᎤᏪᏴ. ᏧᏆᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ Guila Naquitz ᎤᏍᏔᎦᎳᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Oaxaca ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ 6,250 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ (ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ; 3450 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, uncorrected); ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏍᏔᎦᎳᏱ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Tehuacan, Puebla, ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ca. 2750 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ ca. 1100 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎡᏆ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏍᏆᏂ ᎤᏍᏔᎦᎳᏱ: ᏎᎷ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏆᎫᏔᏅᏒ teosinte ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ.

ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 1500 ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, ᏎᎷ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎢᏤ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎢᏤ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ varieties ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ. ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-Columbian ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ, Mesoamerican, ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ Caribbean ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 1st ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ (ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ), ᏎᎷ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ Southwest ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ northeastern ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎨᎾᏓ, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏧᎸᏌᏛᎯ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎠᎴ grassland ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ. Gavin Menzies, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ 1421 - ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ transplanted ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ 15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ disputed [5]).

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ precipitated Ꮝ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ bi-ᎠᏍᏚᏙᏗ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, George ᎠᏍᏚᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ teosinte ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ "popped" ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎾᏔᏍᎩᏍᎩ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ argued Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ selective ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ intercrossing teosinte ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏎᎷ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2005, ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ USDA ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏎᎷ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ 500 1,000 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ southeastern ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ contributed ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ freshwater ᏓᎫᎾ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ environmental ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ.[3]

ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ[edit]

ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ, ᏐᎢ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᏆᏏᎵᎢ, ᎦᎸᏥᏱ, Indonesia, ᎠᎴ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ. ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 600 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2003 – ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏗᎵᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2004, ᎠᏍᏚᏗ 33 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ hectare ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎧᏅ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ $23 ᎯᏍᎩ.

ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏴᏢ-ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ. Ꮝ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ C4 ᎦᎪᏘ (ᎦᎪᏘ Ꮎ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ C4 photosynthesis), ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎹ-ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ C3 ᎦᎪᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ, ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ soybeans. ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᏓᏣᏁᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏏᎵᎩ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ pollination. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ predicted ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ "ᎧᏂᎩᏂ-ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏁ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ", ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ. ᏎᎷ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ silage ᎨᏒᎢ harvested ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ. ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ harvested ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏅᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ", ᎤᎶᏐᏅ pollination ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏗᏍᏓᎦᏯᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-ᎤᎳᎪᎲᏍᏗ. ᏠᎨᏏ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᎪᎲᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ harvested ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎪᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᏓᏣᏁᎬ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎪᏄᎳ ᎾᎥᎢ causing ᏎᎷ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ.

ᏠᎨᏏ ᏎᎷ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Liechtenstein

ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏫᏯᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏚᏏ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᎸ: ᏚᏯ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏍᏆᏏ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎫᏢᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎦᏚᏏ ᎠᏂᎧᏅᏍᎬ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᏚᏏ 60–120 cm (2–4 ft) ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ 3 ᎠᎴ 4 ᎤᎦᏔ, ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ technique ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎥᏓᏗᏎᎸᎯ ᏎᎷ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏗᎦᏚᏏ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ 40 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎵ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ 10–12 cm (4–5 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ) ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ ᎠᏓᏂᏢᏗ ᎠᎹ. ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ technique ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᏎᎷ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏓᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ.

ᏎᎷ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎵ-ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ nitrogen-ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎴ soybean ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎪᎨᏱ. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏦᎢᏁ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ, ᎪᎳ ᎤᏣᎴᏍᏗ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Ꮭ-ᎩᎳ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ. ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏎᎷ cultivars ᎤᏛᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎦᎧᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ genetically ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ biotechnology ᎢᎦᏪᏍᏗ agronomic ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏚᎸᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ.

ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ harvested ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏌᏊ- ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ-ᎤᏓᏅᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏙᏗ pickers ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏙᏗ picker, ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᎴᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ harvested ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᏎᎷ sheller ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏂ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎦᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏎᎷ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ-ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ (ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᏗᏲᏛᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏗᏆᎴᏴᏍᏙᏗ) ᏗᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏂ ᏎᎷ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏄᎶᏔᏅ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏄᎶᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ.

Pellagra[edit]

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ enthusiastically ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᏂᎬᎾᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ productivity. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ malnutrition ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏚᎴᏅ ᎾᎿᏇ ᏱᎾᎩ ᏎᎷ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ malnutrition ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏂᏚᏍᏗᏓᏅ.[citation needed]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᏕᎶᏆᎥ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ alkali—ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᏍᏚ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏍᏚᎤᏁᎬ (calcium carbonate) ᏄᎾᏛᏅ Mesoamericans—ᏎᎷ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ B-vitamin niacin, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ underlying ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ pellagra. ᎪᎯ alkali ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ Nahuatl (Aztec)-derived ᏚᏙᎥ: nixtamalization.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ niacin, pellagra ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ, ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᏔᎵ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ amino ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏎᎷ, lysine ᎠᎴ tryptophan. Nixtamalization ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ lysine ᎠᎴ tryptophan ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᏎᎷ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏫᎬᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏕᎶᏆᎥ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ ᎤᏘᏴᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏎᎷ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏚᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏤᎵ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ amaranth ᎠᎴ chia, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏣᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ amino ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏤᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ.

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ cultural ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎾᎿ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎯᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ. ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ alkali ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ, pellagra disappeared. ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ lysine ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᎪᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᏘᏴᎾ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ contributed Ꮝ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᏎᎷ[edit]

ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎬᏙᏗ varieties ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏢᏅ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ selectively ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎢᏤ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎸ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏎᎷ ᎯᎠ European ᏎᎷ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎡᏆ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ losses, ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ transgenic Bt ᏎᎷ ᏂᎦᏪᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. Bt ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏃᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ.

ᎥᏳᎩ[edit]

ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏎᎷ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, silage ᎠᎴ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ. Silage ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ chopped ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ cornstalks. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ hydrolyzed ᎠᎴ enzymatically ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ fructose ᏎᎷ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, sweetener, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ fermented ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏫᏍᎩ. ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎦᏔ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏫᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ bourbon ᏫᏍᎩ. ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ethanol ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ (10% ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᏐᎵᏂ (gasohol) ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ octane ᏓᏂᎬᏩᎶᏗᏍᎬ, ᎡᎳᏗᎨ pollutants, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎪᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ.

Multicolored varieties ᏎᎷ

ᏴᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎴ cornmeal ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᏎᎷ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ: ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ polenta ᏲᎶ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ mămăligă Romania ᏩᏂᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ sadza, nshima, ugali ᎠᎴ mealie ᏂᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ tortilla ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ ᎠᏍᏆᏂ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ chicha, fermented ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ.

Sweetcorn ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏍᏓᎦᏯᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ. ᎠᎾᏔᏍᎩᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ varieties Ꮎ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᏗᎬᎭᎷᏴᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ.

ᏎᎷ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᎮᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ ᎠᎴ bleached ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᎳ ᎤᎥola uvysdi; ᎠᎴ ᏁᏩᏛ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ bleached ᎤᏃᎮᎾ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏎᎷ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᏭᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ. ᏄᏓᎴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏎᎷ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ (ᏎᎷ ᎢᏌ ᎠᎴ masa) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏎᎷ ᎦᏚ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂ tortillas. Teosinte ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏎᎳᏬᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ popped ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏔᏍᎩᏍᎩ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏬᏚ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ, ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ coloured ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ colorful ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ. ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ, ᏂᎬᎢ-ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ varieties, ᎤᎲᎢ ᏭᎷᏨᎩ 31 ft (9m) ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ [6][Evening Journal; ᏩᏏᏓᏂ, ᎠᏯᏩ; 1946], ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ 24 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ [Journal of Heredity, 1924], ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.

ᏎᎷ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ, .k.. ᏎᎷ ᎤᏥᏣᎷ
ᏎᎷ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ, .k.. ᏎᎷ ᏏᎵᎩ

Corncobs ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ hollowed ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎪᎦᏍᎬ ᎦᏅᎾᏩ, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏢᏅᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1869. ᏎᎷ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ biomass ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ. ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ-ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏎᎷ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎩᏛ ᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᏎᎷ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ (ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎩᏔᏯ ᎦᏙ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ) ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ.

ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏎᎷ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏎᎷ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏎᎷ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ Adrian Fisher, ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎩᏓᎵᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1993. ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏎᎷ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ GPS ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎷ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎬᏯᏗᏢ vistor ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᎾᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏎᎷ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ" ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1983, Barbara McClintock ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ Nobel ᎠᏌᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ transposons ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏚᎾᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᏎᎷ. ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ developmental ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ.

ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ biomass ᎪᏛᏙᏗ. biomass ᏙᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Strem ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Güssing, Burgenland, Austria ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2005. ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ diesel ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ biogas ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Fischer Tropsch ᎢᎬᎾᏗ.

ᏎᎷ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᏑᏗ ᎦᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏃᎮᎾ ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ.

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  • Ferro, D.N. ᎠᎴ Weber, D.C. Managing Sweet Corn Pests in ᎺᏌᏧᏎᏗ
  • ITIS 42268 ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 22 ᏚᎵᏍᏗ 2002
  • A list of Zea taxonomic names ᎪᎯ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ taxonomists. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆᏯ Ꮭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏏᏴᏫ-gene ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ entries ᎦᏅᎯᏓ. ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]