ᏃᏈᏏ

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Pleiades

ᏃᏈᏏ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ. Unlike planet, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ reflected, ᏃᏈᏏ emits ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ. Scientifically, ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎣᏩᏒ-gravitating spheres plasma ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ hydrostatic equilibrium, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ generate ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ nuclear fusion. Stellar astronomy ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ.

ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ lyudetiyvda. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ determines ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ evolution ᏃᏈᏏ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮝ eventual ᎢᏳᏓᎵᏍᏓᏁᏗ. Hertzsprung-Russell ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ overall lyudetiyvda ᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ evolution. Initially, ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ composed ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ hydrogen, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ helium ᎠᎴ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ Ꮎ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ metallicity ᏃᏈᏏ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᏤᎵ evolution, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ hydrogen ᎨᏒᎢ converted ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ nuclear fusion. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ recycled ᎦᏐᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ interstellar environment, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏤ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ-ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ.

Multi-ᏃᏈᏏ systems ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ gravitationally ᏩᎦᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏴᏩyvwatuwidv ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ orbits. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏔᎵ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ orbit, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ gravitational interaction ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ significant ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ evolution. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, nova occurs ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏁᎬ dwarf accretes ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ ᏃᏈᏏ.

ᏃᏈᏏ formation ᎠᎴ evolution[edit]

Main article: stellar evolution

ᏃᏈᏏ formation occurs ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ molecular ᎤᎶᎩᎸ, ᎡᏆ regions ᎦᎸᎳᏗ density ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ interstellar ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ (ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᏙᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ dense ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ earthly vacuum ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ). ᏃᏈᏏ formation ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ gravitational instability ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᎶᎩᎸ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ triggered ᎾᎥᎢ shockwaves ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ supernovae ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ collision ᏔᎵ galaxies (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ starburst galaxy). ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ powerfully illuminate ᎯᎠ ᏚᎶᎩᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi. ᏌᏊ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ nebula ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Orion Nebula.

ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 90% ᎤᎾᏤᎵ lifetime fusing hydrogen ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ helium ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-pressure reactions ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ sequence.

ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ (ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎩᎦᎨ dwarf) ᎦᎴᏴᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂ tens ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ billions ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ dimmer ᎠᎴ dimmer, fading ᎾᎾᎯ ᎬᎿᎨ dwarf. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ lifespan ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ lyudetiyvda ᎯᎠ universe (13.7 billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ), Ꮭ ᎬᎿᎨ dwarfs ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎩᎳ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ exhaust ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ hydrogen, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ outer layers expand ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎩᎦᎨ giant. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 5 billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎩᎦᎨ giant, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎡᏆ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ consume ᎢᏧᎳ Mercury ᎠᎴ Venus. ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ compressed ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ helium fusion, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ heats ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎾᏓᏁᏤᎸ. ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ fuse ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ nuclei ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ tightly ᏩᎦᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ nuclei, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ fused ᎤᏅᏌ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ — ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏁᏍᎩ consume ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢᎨᏙᏗ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ tightly ᏩᎦᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ nuclei, ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ fission. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ massive ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, ᎡᏆ ᎠᏰᎵ inert ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎦᏒᏔᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ.

ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ-ᏂᎬᎢ ᏃᏈᏏ (<1.4 solar masses after explosion) will then shed its outer layers as a planetary nebula. The core that remains will be a tiny ball of degenerate matter not massive enough for further compression to take place, supported only by degeneracy pressure, called a white dwarf. These too will fade into brown, and then black dwarfs over a very long stretch of time.

The Crab Nebula, remnants of a supernova which occurred around 1050 AD.

In larger stars, defined as >1.4 solar masses ᎤᎶᏐᏅ explosion, fusion ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎩ until ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ accumulates Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ too ᎡᏆ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ electron degeneracy pressure. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏫᎵ ᏄᎵᏍᏛᏊ collapse ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮝ electrons ᎠᎴ ᎤᏱᎵᏒᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ Ꮝ protons, forming neutrons ᎠᎴ neutrinos ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏣᎷᏘᏓ inverse beta decay. ᎯᎠ shockwave ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ collapse ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ explode ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ supernova. Supernovae ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏍᏆᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ outshine ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ galaxy. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Milky ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, supernovae ᎤᎭ historically ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ-ᎠᎦagatoli observers ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎢᏤ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ" ᎭᏢᏃ ᎧᏂᎩᏛ existed ᎤᏓᎷᎸ. ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏅ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ explosion (forming nebulae ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Crab Nebula) ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ neutron ᏃᏈᏏ (sometimes pulsar ᎠᎴ X-ray burster) ᎠᎴ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ (>3 solar masses ᎤᎶᏐᏅ explosion), ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏅ-ᎤᏣᏘᎾ outer layers ᎠᏲᎱᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ recycled ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎢᏤ ᏃᏈᏏ formation. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ formation rocky planet. ᎯᎠ outflow ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ supernovae ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ stellar ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ shaping ᎯᎠ interstellar ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ.

ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ[edit]

ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎦagatoli ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎬ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎦᎷᎾᏗ Ꮎ twinkle ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ. Interferometer telescopes ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ images ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏃᏈᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ disk ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎡᎦᎫᏘ.

ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ gravitationally-ᏩᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, forming binary ᏃᏈᏏ. ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏃᏈᏏ clusterᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ. ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ uniformly ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ universe, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ normally grouped ᎾᎾᎯ galaxies ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ interstellar ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ. typical galaxy ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ billionᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ 50 billion ᎠᎴ 100 billion galaxies ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ universe.

Astronomers ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ least 70 sextillion (7×1022) ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ universe [1]. Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ 70 000 000 000 000 000 000 000, ᎠᎴ 230 billion ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ 300 billion ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ Milky ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎨᏒᎢ Proxima Centauri, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ 39.9 trillion kilometers, ᎠᎴ 4.2 ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓᎤᏣᏘᎾ (ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Proxima Centauri ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ 4.2 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ). Travelling ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ orbital ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ Shuttle (5 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ -- ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ 30,000 kilometers ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ), ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 150,000 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎾᎿᎢ. Distances ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ typical ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ galactic discs, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ. ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ centres galaxies ᎠᎴ globular cluster, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ galactic halo.

ᎤᏍᏗ (dwarf) ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᎭ essentially featureless disks ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ starspots. ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ (giant) ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ, ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎬᏂ starspots, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ stellar ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ-darkening (ᎯᎠ brightness decreases ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ stellar disk).

lyudetiyvda ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏩᏕᎴᎩ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏕᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ overall ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Ꮝ destiny ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ characteristics, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ lifespan, luminosity, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ neutron ᏃᏈᏏ(ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ) Ꮭ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, supergiantᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Betelgeuse ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Orion constellation, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1,000 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ – ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1.6 billion kilometers. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, Betelgeuse ᎤᎭ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ density ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ 1 billion ᎠᎴ 10 billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ 13.7 billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ lyudetiyvda ᎯᎠ universe. (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᏆ Bang ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ stellar evolution.) ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ massive ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ, ᎯᎠ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨᏍᏗ Ꮝ lifespan ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ, ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ star’s ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ pressure ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏰᎵ, causing ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎦᎴᏴᏒ Ꮝ hydrogen ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ amounts ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ depleting ᎯᎠ star’s ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ massive ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎦᎴᏴᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᏭᏍᏗᎬᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ (ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎩᎦᎨ dwarfs) ᎦᎴᏴᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂ tens ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ billions ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎦᎷᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ theoretical models ᎠᎴ simulations, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ models ᎠᎴ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ spectral observations ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᎶᏛ ᎯᎠ diameters ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ measurement ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏃᏈᏏ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1921 ᎾᎥᎢ Albert ᎡᏆᎭᎻ Michelson ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Hooker ᎠᎧᏔᏘ.

ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ massive ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ Eta Carinae, ᎬᏙᏗ 100–150 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ lifespan ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ. ᎾᏞᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Donald Figer, astronomer ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᎦagatohvsdi ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Baltimore, Maryland, ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ 150 solar masses ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ universe. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ Hubble ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Arches cluster, massive ᎠᏲᎵ ᏃᏈᏏ cluster ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ Milky ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ Ꮭ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ despite statistical Ꭴutugi gvsv Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Eddington ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ Bang ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 300 solar masses ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏅᏙᎲᏅ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ lithium ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ supermassive ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ extinct, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ theoretical.

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 93 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi Ꮎ Jupiter, AB Doradus C, ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ AB Doradus , ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ smallest ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏃᏈᏏ undergoing nuclear fusion ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎵ. Smaller ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏬᏗᎨ dwarf, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏁᎸ poorly-ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ grey ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ giant. ᎯᎠ ᏭᏍᏗᎬᎢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏃᏈᏏ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ 75 Jupiters.

ᏃᏈᏏ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ classifications ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ spectra ranging ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ O, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ, M, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ Ꮎ molecules ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ atmospheres. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ classifications ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎠᏅᏓᏛᎯ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ mnemonic "Oh, Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me" (variant: ᏧᎾᏍᏗ "ᎠᎨᏳᏣ" "guy"), invented ᎾᎥᎢ Annie ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ ᎦᎶᏇ ᎡᏆ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ mnemonics ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏃᏈᏏ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ. ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ spectral ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ classifications. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ L ᎠᎴ T, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ classify ᎯᎠ coldest ᎡᎳᏗ-ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏬᏗᎨ dwarfs. ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎭ 10 subclassifications ᏗᏎᎸᎯ (hottest coldest) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 0 9. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi matches ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᎵ ᏍᏆᎵᏓ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ hottest ᎤᎵᏍᏛ; ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ O0 ᎠᎴ O1 ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ classified ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ "luminosity ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ", ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ spatial ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 0 (hypergiant) ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ III (giant) V (ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ sequence dwarfs) ᎠᎴ VII (ᎤᏁᎬ dwarf). ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ sequence ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ hydrogen-ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏯayatoli ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ graphed ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude ᎠᎴ spectral ᏗᎦᎪᏗ.

ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ G2V (ᏓᎶᏂᎨ dwarf), ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ intermediate ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ prototypical ᏃᏈᏏ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ closest ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᏃᏈᏏ), ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ characteristics ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ solar units.

solar ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ: M_\bigodot = 1.9891 \times 10^{30} kg
solar luminosity: L_\bigodot = 3.827 \times 10^{26} watts.

Nuclear fusion reaction pathways[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ-nitrogen-oxygen cycle.

ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ nuclear fusion reactions ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ cores ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ stellar nucleosynthesis.

ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ hydrogen ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 23–28% helium ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ 107 K ᎠᏰᎵ, hydrogen fuses ᎤᏙᏢᏒ helium ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ proton-proton ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ:

41H → 22H + 2e+ + 2νe (4.0 MeV + 1.0 MeV)
21H + 22H → 23ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ + 2γ (5.5 MeV)
23ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ → 4ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ + 21H (12.9 MeV)

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ reactions ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ overall reaction:

41H → 4ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ + 2e+ + 2γ + 2νe (26.7 MeV)

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ massive ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, helium ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ cycle reactions catalyzed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ-nitrogen-oxygen cycle.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎬᏙᏗ cores ᎾᎾᎢ 108 K ᎠᎴ masses ᎠᏰᎵ 0.5 ᎠᎴ 10 solar masses, helium ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ transformed ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ triple-alpha ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ:

4ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ + 4ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ + 92 keV → 8*ᎾᏍᏋ
4ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ + 8*ᎾᏍᏋ + 67 keV → 12*C
12*C → 12C + γ + 7.4 MeV

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ overall reaction :

34ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ → 12C + γ + 7.2 MeV

ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ-ᎤᏛᏒᎯ nuclear fusion, radiates ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ electromagnetic radiation ᎠᎴ particle radiation. ᎯᎠ particle radiation emitted ᎾᎥᎢ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ manifested ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ stellar ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ electrically ᏗᎫᏮᎶᏔᏅ particles (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ protons, alpha particles, ᎠᎴ beta particles) emanating ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ star’s outer layers ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ neutrinos emanating ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ star’s ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ brightly: ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ atomic nuclei ᏌᏊ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ fuse ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ atomic nucleus ᎢᏤ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏃᏈᏏ, photonelectromagnetic ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ nuclear fusion reaction, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ converted ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ star’s outer layers. ᎯᎠ ᏫᎪᏍᏓᏴ frequency ᎠᎴ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎯᎠ star’s outer layers, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Ꮝ photosphere. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ emit ᏚᏙᏢᏒ electromagnetic radiation Ꮎ ᎠᎴ invisible ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎦagatoli. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, stellar electromagnetic radiation spans ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ electromagnetic spectrum, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᎢᏍᏗ wavelengthᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦᎠᎴ infrared ᎯᎠ shortest wavelengths ultraviolet, X-ray, ᎠᎴ gamma ray. ᏂᎦᏛ components stellar electromagnetic radiation, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ invisible, ᎠᎴ typically significant.

Stellar Luminosity ᎠᎴ Magnitude[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ astronomy, luminosity ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏚᎸᏌᏛ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᏃᏈᏏ radiates ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi. Luminosity ᎨᏒᎢ typically ᎢᏳᏂᏪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ SI ᏌᏊᎭ watt(W), ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ CGS ᏌᏊᎭ ergᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ (ergs/), ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ solar luminosities (LᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ); Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ radiates ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ luminosity ᎨᏒᎢ 382.7 septillion watts (LᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ = 3.827 x 1026 W). ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ brightness ᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ measured ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ brightness ᏃᏈᏏ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ star’s luminosity, ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ altering ᎯᎠ star’s ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏓᏂᎶᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Earth’s ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ. Intrinsic ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude ᏃᏈᏏ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ 10 parsecs (32.6 ᎠᏨᏍᏛ-ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ star’s luminosity, measured ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ 10 parsecs. ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude scales ᎠᎴ logarithmic: ᏌᏊ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ magnitude ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏗ brightness variation ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2.5 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi (2.512 ᎾᏍᏋ precise). ᎪᎯ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᎬᏱ magnitude (+1.00) ᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2.5 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi brighter ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏔᎵᏁ magnitude (+2.00) ᏃᏈᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 100 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi brighter ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏑᏓᎵᏁ magnitude (+6.00) ᏃᏈᏏ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ faintest ᏃᏈᏏ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ ᎠᎦagatoli. ᎾᎿ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude scales, ᎯᎠ smaller ᎯᎠ magnitude ᏎᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ brighter ᎯᎠ ᏃᏈᏏ; ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ magnitude ᏎᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ fainter. ᎯᎠ brightest ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, ᎾᎿ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᎤᎭ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ magnitude ᏗᏎᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ variation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ brightness ᎠᏰᎵ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ calculated ᎾᎥᎢ subtracting ᎯᎠ magnitude ᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ brighter ᏃᏈᏏ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ magnitude ᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ fainter ᏃᏈᏏ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ exponent ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗalenvdidsv ᏎᏍᏗ 2.512; Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᏁᎩ (mf – mb = x) ᎠᎴ (2.512x = variation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ brightness). ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎢᏧᎳ luminosity ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude (M) ᎠᎴ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude (m) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ equivalent ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏃᏈᏏ; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᏃᏈᏏ Sirius ᎤᎭ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude -1.44, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude +1.41. ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude -26.7, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ +4.83. Sirius, ᎯᎠ brightest ᏃᏈᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎦᎷᎾᏗ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 23 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ luminous ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ LᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ x 23 W, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Canopus, ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ brightest ᏃᏈᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎦᎷᎾᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ magnitude -5.53, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 14,000 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ luminous ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ LᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ x 14,000 W. Despite Canopus ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ vastly ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ luminous ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Sirius, Sirius ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ brighter ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Canopus ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏗᎦdigatoli, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ 8.6 ᎠᏨᏍᏛ-ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Canopus ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎾᎾᎢ 310 ᎠᏨᏍᏛ-ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ.


ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude (m), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ brightness ᎠᏰᎵ Sirius ᎠᎴ Polaris?


(mf – mb = x)

(2.512x = variation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ brightness)


ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude Sirius ᎨᏒᎢ -1.44, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude Polaris ᎨᏒᎢ 1.97. Polaris ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ fainter ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Sirius ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ brighter.


(mf – mb = x)

(1.97 – -1.44 = x)

(1.97 – -1.44 = 3.41)

(x = 3.41)


(2.512x = variation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ brightness)

(2.5123.41 = variation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ brightness)

(2.5123.41 = 23.124)

(variation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ brightness = 23.124)


ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ magnitude, Sirius ᎨᏒᎢ 23.124 ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi brighter ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Polaris ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏃᏈᏏ.

ᏓᎪᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ identified ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᎭ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ. ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Arabic), Flamsteed designation, ᎠᎴ Bayer designation. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎲᎢ competence ᏚᏙᎥ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ celestial ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ Astronomical ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ (IAU). ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ (ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏃᏈᏏ Registry") ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗᏱ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ astronomy ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛpreying ᎾᎿ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎦᏔᎲᎾ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏃᏈᏏ designationᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎾᎥᎢ constellation.

ᏃᏈᏏ mythology[edit]

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ constellationᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ, ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ mythology. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎠᎴ gods ᎠᎴ goddesses. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Greco-ᎶᎻ pantheon, ᎢᎦᏛ "ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ", ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ identified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ planets, ᏄᏓᏛᏁᎸᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ deities, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎯᎠ planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter ᎠᎴ Saturn ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ. (Uranus, Neptune ᎠᎴ Pluto ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎶᎻ gods, ᎠᎴ ᎧᏂᎩᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ planets ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎯᎠ Romans ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᎳᏗ brightness. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ astronomers.)

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  • Cliff Pickover (2001) "ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ", Oxford University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ
  • John Gribbin, Mary Gribbin (2001) "Stardust: Supernovae ᎠᎴ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ — ᎯᎠ Cosmic ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ", Yale University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

External ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]