ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ

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?ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ
Fossil range: Late Jurassic - Recent
ᎤᏬᏚ ᏱᏁᎯ-ᏔᎵᏔᎹ, Malurus cyaneus, ᎠᏲᎵ
ᎤᏬᏚ ᏱᏁᎯ-ᏔᎵᏔᎹ, Malurus cyaneus, ᎠᏲᎵ
Scientific classification
ᎴᎬᎾᎻ: gantlaiia
ᏆᎢᎳᎻ: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
(unranked) Archosauria
ᏗᎦᎪᏗ: Aves
Linnaeus, 1758
ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ
Many - see ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ bipedᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, ᎤᎦᎾᏩ-ᎩᎬᎭ, oviparous vertebrate ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎩᏓᎵ, forelimbs ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏯᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏩᎴᎳᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎬᎾ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᎴ Emu. ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ taxonomic viewpoint, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 8,800–10,200 ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ (ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 120–130 Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ vertebrate.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ, ᎦᎪᏘ, ᎤᎦᏔ, ᏨᏍᎪᏱ, rodent, ᎠᏣᏗ, ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ lyadvnehi ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎫᎫᎠᎴ nightjar, ᎠᎴ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ (lyadvnehi ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᏒᎯᏱ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ), ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ waderᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏣᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗᏱ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ utilise optimum ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ (e.g., ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏦᎢᏁ) ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ iyuwakodi ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ (e.g. ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ Albatross). ᎢᎦᏛ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎦᏥᏄᎳ, ᎡᏙᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎾᎢ iyuwakodi, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎦᎵᎲᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ.

ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮭ ᏕᎦᏅᏙᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏝᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ-shelled ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗ metabolic ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ, 4-chambered ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ characterised ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ratiteᎠᎴ flightless, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ, ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎪᎯ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ. Flightless ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ penguins, ᎬᎾ ᎤᏔᎾ, kiwi, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ Dodo. Flightless ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ gantlaiᎤᏅᏌ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ Auk, flightless ᏐᏯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ moa ᎢᏤ Zealand, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ gantlai ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎩ ᎤᎿᎸ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ (ᎤᏯᏅᎲ birdwatchers ᎠᎴ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, birders) ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ.

ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ categorised ᏥᏄᏍᏗ biological ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, Aves. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ Archaeopteryx lithographica, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ Jurassic ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, Aves ᎠᎴ ᎤᎸ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Crocodilia, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᎯᎠ Archosauria.

Phylogenetically, Aves ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ (ᎠᎴ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎦᎶᏍᎩ domesticus), ᎠᎴ Archaeopteryx. ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ phylogenies ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ dinosaur clade Theropoda.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ uniyatolv ᎾᎾᎯ ᏔᎵ superorder, ᎯᎠ Paleognathae (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ flightless ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎬᎾ ᎤᏔᎾes), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ Neognathae, ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ.

ᏥᏍᏆ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ[edit]

ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ Sibley-Ahlquist ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ

ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎯᎠ taxonomic ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Aves. ᎯᎠ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ.

Paleognathae:

Neognathae:

ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ: ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ (ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ). ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏞᎬ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ (ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Sibley-Monroe ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ Sibley-Ahlquist ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ), ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎲ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ.

ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ[edit]

ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Mesozoic ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ Ꮭ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Archaeopterygiformes, ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Confuciusornithiformes, ᎪᏍᏓᏱ seabirds ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ Hesperornithiformes ᎠᎴ Ichthyornithes, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ Subclass Enantiornithes ("ᎠᎿᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ").

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ lyudetiyvda ᏥᏍᏆ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ lyudetiyvda ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ.

ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ Ꮎ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ theropod dinosaurs, ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ, Ꮎ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎳ Maniraptora, ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ theropods ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ dromaeosaurᎠᎴ oviraptorids, ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ.[1] ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ-avian theropods Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎦᏔᏅᏍ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ. ᎾᏞᎬ discoveries ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ (Liaoning ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ) ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎾᏅᏁᎲ Ꮎ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ theropod dinosaurs ᎠᏰᎲ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ.

ᎯᎠ basal ᏥᏍᏆ Archaeopteryx, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Jurassic, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ "ᎠᎾᏠᎦ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ" ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 19th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ. Confuciusornis ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏍᏆ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᎾᏥ. ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ predated ᎾᎥᎢ Protoavis texensis, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎪᎯ lyudetiyvda ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎤᎪᏗ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ. ᏐᎢ Mesozoic ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ Confuciusornithidae, Enantiornithes, Ichthyornis, ᎠᎴ Hesperornithiformes, ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ flightless ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ grebeᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᏅᏛᎾ.

ᎯᎠ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ dromaeosaur Cryptovolans ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ powered ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ alenvdidsv ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏄᎳᏥ ᎬᏙᏗ uncinate processes. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, Cryptovolans ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ "ᏥᏍᏆ" ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Archaeopteryx ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᏠᎦ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ, ᎢᎦᏛ paleontologists ᎤᎭ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ dromaeosaurᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ basal ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᎴ secondarily flightless, ᎠᏯ.e. dromaeosaurs ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ yvwatuwidv. ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎪᏍᏗ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ) ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎩ feathered dromaeosaurs.

ᎤᎾᏥ ᎤᎫᎫ, Bubo scandiacus

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ornithischian (ᏥᏍᏆ-hipped) dinosaurs ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎧᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ originated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ saurischian (ᏗᎦᎭᎵ-hipped) dinosaurs (ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ dinosaurian ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎧᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏆ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᎧᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᏦᎢᏁ iyuwakodi ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ theropods, ᎯᎠ Therizinosauridae.

ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗᎭ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ dinosaurian ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, espoused ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ (ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ Lary ᏡᏡ ᎠᎴ Alan Feduccia), ᎧᏃᎮᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ maniraptoran "dinosaurs") ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎬᏱ archosaurs ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Longisquama, ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ contested ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ tsuqagutanvsv, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎩᏓᎵ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ R.O. Prum. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ Longisquama ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ classified ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Neornithes, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏍᏡᏴ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ Paleognathae ᎠᎴ Neognathae. ᎯᎠ paleognaths ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ tinamou(ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ratite. ᎯᎠ ratites ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ flightless ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ostriches, cassowaries, kiwis ᎠᎴ emus (ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᎳᏩᏎᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ratites ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ tvga ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ). ᎯᎠ basal ᏂᏙᏓᎳᎬᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ Neognathes ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ Galloanseri, ᎯᎠ superorder ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Anseriformes (ᎧᏬᏄ, geese ᎠᎴ ᏌᏌ), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Galliformes (ᎯᎠ ᏝᎾᏘᏥ, gantlai, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎾᎵᎪᎯ). ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏥᎡᏗᏱ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ. Sibley & Ahlquist ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ (1990) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ debated ᎠᎴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅ). ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ taxa. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ; ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ DNA ᎤᎭ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎠᎵᏐᏆᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ emerged. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ: Sibley-Ahlquist ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ.

ᎤᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏥᏍᏆ

ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏍᏗ[edit]

Main article: bird anatomy

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ adaptations (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ) Ꮎ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏓᏠᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ vertebrate phylum.

ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ[edit]

ᏧᏪᏥ[edit]

ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏠᏗ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ calcium carbonate. ᎬᏙᏗ-passerines ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏙᎯ-ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Charadriiformes, sandgrouse ᎠᎴ nightjar, ᎭᏢᏃ camouflage ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ passerine ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏪᏥ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ passerines, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎠᏠᏗ coloured ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ-nesters.

ᎯᎠ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎩᎦᎨ protoporphyrin ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ passerine ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ calcium ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Ꮎ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ. ᎯᎠ colour ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎨᏒᎢ genetically influenced, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏥ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ, ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ gene ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ pigmentation ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ determining W ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ (ᎠᎨᏴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ WZ, ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ZZ).

ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏰᎸᎭ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏍᏛᎪᏍᏗ elaboratey decorated ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ oropendola.

ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ iyahdvnelidasdi ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ iyahdvnelidasdi Ꮎ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ polyandry, polygyny, ᎠᎴ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ. ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 91% ᏂᎦᏛ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. Polygyny ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ 2% ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ polyandry ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1%. Monogamous ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ.

ᏌᏊ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ vertebrate ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ. "ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏗ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ Ꮣ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ" [2].

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Redwing hatchlings ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ. ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ, ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ confining ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ iyuwakodi ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ physiological ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᏓᏓᏜᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ incubating ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. "ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ sexual ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ taxa ᎭᏢᏃ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ incubate, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏗᏱ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ" [3]. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ, ᎠᎨᏴ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ[edit]

Chinstrap Penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica
birdbox ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎳᏏᏙ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏥᏔᎦ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ geese, ᏝᎾᏘᏥ, ᎬᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᏬᏄᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ. ᏐᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ utilized ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ emu, ᎬᎾ ᎤᏔᎾes, ᏬᏱ, gantlai, ᎫᏇ, ᏬᏯ, woodcock, songbird, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ passerineᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ gantlaies. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ gantlai.

ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ iyuwakodi ᏌᏌᎠᎴ flamingoᎨᏒᎩ delicacies ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᏓᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎾᏊ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ ᎭᏫᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏓᎵᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏥᎳᏓᏗᏍᎬ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ-derived ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ nitrogen ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᏅᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎤᎦᎹ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ-ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᏬᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, deforestation ᎠᎴ intensive ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏴᏫ activities ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏬᏱ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏯ ᏬᏯ (Columba livia) ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏅᏁᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᏥᏍᏆᏯ, ᏧᏣᏔᏊ Starling, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ gantlaies ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏂᎬᎢ.

ᏐᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, Homing ᏬᏱ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ tsunadatvgotanv ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ (ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎩ). ᎠᏯᏍᏔᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏚᎳᏗᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ fishermen. ᏥᏔᎦᎠᎴ ᏬᏱᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ toxins, ᎯᎠ gantlai ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏥᏃᏍᎦ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ gases, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏥᏃᏍᎦ ᎦᎴᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ iyuwakodi ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏥᏐᏅᏅ.

Colorful, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ (e.g., ᏥᏍᏆ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ mynah) ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏗᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎸ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ trafficking ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ; CITES, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1963, ᎤᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ trafficking ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ.

ᏥᏍᏆ ᎥᏳᎩ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ psittacosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, Newcastle ᎤᏤᎵ ᎥᏳᎩ, mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis), avian ᎥᏳᎩ, giardiasis, ᎠᎴ cryptosporidiosis.

ᎠᏓᎾᏄᎳᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ[edit]

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Worldwatch ᏧᎾᏕᏲᏗ, ᏥᏍᏆ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ lyudetiyvda ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ 1,200 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi. [4] ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ cited ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ,[5] predation ᎾᎥᎢ nonnative ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ,[6] ᎪᎢ ᎠᏤᏩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ pesticide ᎬᏙᏗ, ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ.

ᏯᏛᎾᎤᏙᎯᏴ[edit]

  • preen ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏣᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓasehihi iga dadatugv ᎦᏄᎪᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ avifauna.
  • ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎬᏙᏗ chemical defences ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ predators. TubenoseᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏄᎪᏫᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᏦᏯᏍᏗ ᎪᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ pitohui, ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏕᎳ, ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ neurotoxin ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ.
  • ᎯᎠ Latin ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎨᏒᎢ avis.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

Fledgling

ᏥᏍᏆ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ taxonomic ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ Sibley-Ahlquist ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ.

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  1. Early Adaptive Radiation of Birds: Evidence from Fossils from Northeastern China -- Hou et al. 274 (5290): 1164 -- Science. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-21.
  2. Template:Cite journal2
  3. Template:Cite journal2
  4. Worldwatch Paper #165: Winged Messengers: The Decline of Birds. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-21.
  5. Help Migratory Birds Reach Their Destinations. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-21.
  6. Protect Backyard Birds and Wildlife: Keep Pet Cats Indoors. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-21.

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

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