ᎫᎴ

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ᎯᎠ ᎫᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏍᎦ ᏡᎬ (genera Quercus, Lithocarpus ᎠᎴ Cyclobalanopsis, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Fagaceae). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏐᎯ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᎦᏔ (ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᏔᎵ ᎤᎦᏔ), ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᏔᏯ, ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᎶᎲᏍᎬᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ cupule. ᎫᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1-6 cm ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ 0.8-4 cm ᎠᏯᏖᎾ. ᎫᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 6 ᎠᎴ 24 ᎢᏯᏅᏓ (ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ) ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ; ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ Quercus ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᏕᎬᎿᏅᎢ ᏧᏍᎦ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ phenology ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ.

ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ[edit]

ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ wildlife ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏧᏍᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ. ᏕᏁᎳᏅᎯ Ꮎ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏥᏍᏆᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏜᏴᎦ, ᏬᏱ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏬᏄᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎫᎫᏣ. ᎤᏍᏗ gantlai Ꮎ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎫᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ, ᏌᎶᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏐᎢ rodent. ᎡᏆ ᎦᎾᏝᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏛ ᏏᏆ, ᎠᎵᏐᏆᎸᏗᎠᎴ ᎠᏫ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎡᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎫᎴ; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 25% ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏫ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎡᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᎪᎲᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ southwest ᏳᎳᏛ, ᎠᏛ ᏏᏆ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎸᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᎪᎲᏍᏗ, kalil ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏦᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᎿ ᎫᎴ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏐᏈᎵ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ, ᎫᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ constituted ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵe ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᏐᎳ ᎠᎴ weevil ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎫᎴ, ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎷᏍᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ.

ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ consumed ᎠᎴ cached. ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ nutrients. ᏎᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎫᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏤᎵ, carbohydrateᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢ calcium, ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ potassium, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ vitamin niacin. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎫᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ varies ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ.

ᎫᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏴᏍᏗ tannin, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ tannins, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎪᏘ polyphenol, ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ gantlai ᎤᏤᎵ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ metabolize ᏤᎵ, ᏕᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏎ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ nutritional ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ Ꮎ ᎫᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ. ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎫᎴ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ tannins. ᏕᏁᎳᏅᎯ Ꮎ ᎬᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎫᎴ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏜᏴᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏌᎶᎵ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎦᏘᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎫᎴ iyuwakodi ᏰᎵᏊ groundwater ᎤᎭ percolated ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏂ ᏝᏄᏏ ᎯᎠ tannins atsinuqowisgv. ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎫᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ gantlai metabolize tannins ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ-ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏄᎵᎶᎲᏍᎬᎾ ᎫᎴ-ᏝᏄᏏ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ.

ᎫᎴ Lithocarpus collettii

ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎫᎴ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ tannins ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏴᏍᏗ, ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎫᎴ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏧᏍᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᎫᎴ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏧᏍᎦ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ tannins, ᎠᎴ nutty ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ flavour, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ enhanced ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎵᏢᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎦᏅᎾᏩ. Tannins ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎲᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏢᏍᎩ chopped ᎫᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ, iyuwakodi ᎠᎹ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᎠ ᏬᏗᎨ. ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ, ᎫᎴ ᎢᏒ ᏩᏂᎨ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯy ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ. ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎦᎸᏗ ᎪᎢ.

ᎫᎴ dispersal ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ[edit]

ᎫᎴ Quercus macrolepis

ᎫᎴ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ, ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎢᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏡᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏩᎾᏐᎲᎯ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ, ᏧᏍᎦ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎦᏔ dispersal ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎫᎴ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏥ ᏡᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ eligwa igai ᎠᎹ, sunlight ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᎯ nutrients, ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᏭᏍᏗᎬᎢ 20-30 m ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᏡᎬ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎫᎴ predators ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎫᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏡᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎾᏒᎯ ᎫᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮭ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏍᎦ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎫᎴ predators ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᏔ dispersal ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ. ᏜᏴᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏌᎶᎵ Ꮎ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏯᏍᏗ-ᎬᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ, ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎫᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏅᏁᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏜᏴᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏌᎶᎵ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗᏱ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏂ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎫᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏜᏴᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏌᎶᎵ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ Ꮝ ᏓᏓᎾᏅ. ᎤᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏍᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ ᏧᏍᎦ.

ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏯᏍᏗ-ᎬᏍᎦᎶᏗ behaviour ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏜᏴᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏌᎶᎵ associating ᎬᏙᏗ digakohidi Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎦᏇᏅᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ nutritionally ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎡᏆ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ dispersal ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎫᎭᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᏂᏕᎬᎢ ᏜᏴᎦ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎡᏆ ᎫᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏜᏴᎦ ᎠᏓᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏂ.

ᎫᎴ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎾᎿ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏎᎸ, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏍᎦ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ. ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎫᎴ ᏚᏱᏢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ligninᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ.

Cultural ᎢᎦᏛ[edit]

ᎫᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏕᏡᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏅᏦᎠᏎᏍᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ, ᎠᏍᏓᏯ labour. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ Ꮎ ᎡᏆ ᏧᏍᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ, urging ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏘᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎠᏓᏥ folktale ᎤᎭ ᏗᎦᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ, ᎦᎪᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎭ atuyastanv ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏛᏛᎲᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏓᎪᏂᏲᎢᏍᏗ iyuwakodi ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ harvested; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ digakohidi ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Britain, ᏌᏊ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏫᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ aging ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎢᎪᎯᏓᏊ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏲᎵ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎠᏫᏒᏅ ᎦᏪᏢᏗ Ꮎ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ ᏧᏍᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏐᎯ.

ᎯᎠ Norse ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎸ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ sheltered ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏍᎦ ᏡᎬ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ Ꮎ ᎤᎲᎢ ᎫᎴ ᎾᎿ windowsill ᏫᎵ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎬ, ᏯᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᏦᎳᏅ ᏗᎨᏫ ᎦᎾᏌᏁᏍᏗ decorated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎫᎴ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ, (Jomon ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ), ᎫᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ harvested, peeled ᎠᎴ soaked ᎫᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎲᏍᏗ tannins, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ processed ᎾᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎫᎴ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎳᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Korea, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏤᎵ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ dotorimuk ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎫᎴ.

motif ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎶᎻ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ celtic ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏦᏒ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎾᎿ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎠᏣᏅᏙ, ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᏅᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎾᎿ finialᎾᎾᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ Abbey. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏐᏩᏅᏅ ᏚᏙᎥ akran, ᎠᏓᏥ Eicher, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ., ᎠᏰᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ "ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ unenclosed ᎦᏙᎯ". ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏍᎦ. Chaucer ᎤᏁᏨ "achornes okes" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1300s. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘ, ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᏙᏗ "ᏎᎷ" ᎠᎴ "ᏧᏍᎦ-ᎤᏲᎾ", ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏂᏍᏇᎵᏲᎬ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1600s, ᎦᏁᎲ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎫᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ administered ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ anaditsgv. ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᏏᎤᎴ ᎡᎱ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏔᎵ ᎫᎴ, ᎾᏓᏛᏁᎲ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᏓᏂᎸᎢᏍᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ utugi gvsv ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎢᏧᎳ; ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎫᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏕᎨᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎬ (ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᎵ, ᎢᏳᏃ nanahwunvgi ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ).

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎫᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᎠᏓ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ mast-ᎠᏍᎪᎵ.

ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ ᎫᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ[edit]

ᎫᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ California, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ, kanquotsegi ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ resource.

ᎫᎴ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ, ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ processed ᎾᏞᎬᏊ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ iyuwakodi ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ Ꮎ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎫᎴ, ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏓᏂᏢᏅ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎫᎴ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎫᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎫᎴ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ cached ᎠᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ, ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎫᎴ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᎬᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏥᏍᏕᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏌᎶᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎫᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ. ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏪᎵᏒ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎫᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎨᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎪᎳ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏐᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎧᏂᎬᎩ. ᎠᏂᎨᏴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏗᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎫᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ focused ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᏐᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᎪᎲᏍᏗ.

ᎠᏂᎨᏴ shelled ᎠᎴ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎫᎴ Ꮎ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ, ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎫᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏲᎢ. ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂ. ᎡᏍᎦᏗᏢ, ᎤᏲᎢ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎫᎴ ᎠᎦᏘᎭ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Ꮭ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ.

ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ lyadvnehi ᎠᎴ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ ᎫᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎠᏓᏂᏢᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎯᎠ larvae ᎫᎴ ᏩᏐᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎫᎴ weevils Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 95% ᏧᏍᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎫᎴ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ dormancy ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎠᏥᎸ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ nutrients ᏩᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ fertilizing ᏧᏍᎦ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏕᎦᎸᏌᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏧᏍᎦ tohi adedi ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᏥᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎤᎭ eliminated ᎦᎪᏘ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ yvwatuwidv ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ. ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎤᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏛ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎬ ᏐᎢ ᏕᏡᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ subclimax ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᏍᎦ dominated. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎫᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎠᏓᎪᏅᏙᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ sunlight, ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᎯ nutrients, eliminating ᎠᏲᎵ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᏧᏍᎦ savannahs ᎬᏙᏗ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ spaced maximize ᎫᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ flammable ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏥᎸ Ꮎ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᏍᎦ ᏕᏡᎬ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ, ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎤᎭ ravaged ᎠᏂᎧᎵᎢ, ᎪᏛᏙᏗ-ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ. ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏕᎳᎰᏒᎯ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎦᏛ resource ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ techniques, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ controlled ᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎫᎴ.

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

  • Baumhoff, ᏡᏡ . (1963) Ecological Determinants ᏅᏁᎯᏯ California ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ. ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ California ᏚᏂᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ tsuqagutanvsv ᎠᎴ Etnology 49(2)155-235.
  • ᏬᏗᎨ, Leland R. (1979) ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ California ᏧᏍᎦ ᏕᏡᎬᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎯᎵᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏎᏍᏗ-ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ California ᎤᏤᎵ Hardwood ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ᎦᎪᏘ ᏆᏄᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Norman Pillsbury (eds.). Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-44, USDA, ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ, Pac. .W. ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ, Berkeley, California, pp. 184-194.
  • Janzen, Daniel H. (1971) ᎤᎦᏔ Predation ᎾᎥᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᏅᎬᎪᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ. Richard F. Johnson, Peter W. ᏂᏚᏢᏫᏎᎲᎾ ᎠᎴ Charles Michner (eds.).
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