ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ

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?ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ
Conservation status: Least concern[1]
Wild turkey eastern us.jpg
Scientific classification
ᎴᎬᎾᎻ: gantlaiia
ᏆᎢᎳᎻ: Chordata
ᏥᏓᎾᎷ: Phasianidae

ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ (Meleagris gallopavo) ᎨᏒᎢ gamebird, ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎬᎾ. ᎤᏔᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ featherless ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ, ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏴᏤᏂ, ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎩᎦᎨ-ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᎠᏰᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏂᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎫᏢᏗ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓasehihi iga adatugv ᎤᏯᏅᎲ dewlap Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ engourged ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎬ. ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎭ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᎳᏍᎬᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏤᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ. ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏅᎩ ᎧᎾᏌᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ.

ᎬᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᎠᏔᏃᏲ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎶᏂᏗ ᏬᏗᎨ. ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ, ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ, ᎠᏥᏱ, ᏬᏗᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ. ᎠᎨᏴ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎠᎴ duller ᏬᏗᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ-ᎦᏛᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ[2]. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ. ᎬᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ 5,000-6,000 ᏧᎷᏄᎯ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ "ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ" ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ atsinuqowisgv ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᏥ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ 9 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ, 10-20% ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎬᎾ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎭᏄᎸᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ thinner ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ.

ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏯᏂ[edit]

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ Galliformes, ᎬᎾ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ sexual dimorphism. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ fliers ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ: ᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎬᎾ). ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ achieving ᎦᏣᏄᎳ 50 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ (80 kilometers ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ tvga ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏡᎬ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏅ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ .25 ᏑᏟᎶᏛ). ᎬᎾ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ, putts, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ, cutts, ᏥᏔᎦ ᏂᎦᏪᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ kee-kees. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Oscellated ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ, ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ/ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, "ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ" ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᏣᏔᎦ ᎠᎩᏏ ᏫᎵ "ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ" ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾ ᎠᏨᏯ ᎣᎾᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ. ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎬᎾ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎬᎾ ᎠᏨᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ, ᏫᎵ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ announcing ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ. ᎬᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᏣᏔᎦ ᎠᎩᏏ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎾ ᎠᏨᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ. ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎦᎳᏅᎯ" ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ "ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ" ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎾᏛᎦᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ.

ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ[edit]

ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏕᎦᎸᏌᏓᏗᏍᎬ, ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ Canada, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎦᏁᎳ. ᎯᎠ forested ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎬᏍᎦᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ predators. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᏡᎬ, ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᎾᎩᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᏡᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ ᎤᎴᏲᎥ ᎾᎾᎯ backyards ᎤᎪᎲᎢ atsinuqowisgv birdseed. ᎬᎾ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗᏱ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏤ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Ꭴ..

Foraging[edit]

ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, foraging ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎴᎬ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏕᏡᎬ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ mast ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎫᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏕᏡᎬ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ hazel, ᎤᎾᎩᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᏩᏁᎢ, ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎦᏔ, berries, ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ vertebrates ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎢᎾᏛ, ᏩᎶᏏᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ. Poults ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ, berries, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ. ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎡᏆ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ forgage ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎢᎬᏱ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᏒᎯᏰᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏚᎸᏓ itsuwakodi ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ. Alanine ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ leucine aminopeptidase ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ carbohydrate ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ alanine transporter.[3]

ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ polygamous, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ territories Ꮎ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 5 ᏣᏔᎦ ᎠᎩᏏ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ. ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ atsinuqowisgv ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ, ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ atsinuqowisgv ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎠᎴ dragging ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ. ᎪᎯ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ strutting. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏍᎪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏑᏫᏒ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ, ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅnusdv udanvtv, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᏍᏓᏁᎸ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏍᏛᎪᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ. ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏅᏓ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎫᏬᏂ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ flocked ᎢᏧᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎳ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ.

ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ inflating ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᎳᏍᎬᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎱᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Ꮎ courted ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ fathered ᏑᏓᎵ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Ꮎ courted ᎤᏩᏒ. ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏠᏱ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ-ᎬᎨᏳᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎦᎶᏍᎬ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᏒ.[4]

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏛᎩ, ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎦᏓ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ engulfed ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ. ᏣᏔᎦ ᎠᎩᏏ ᎠᏠᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ 10-12 ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ incubated ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ 28 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ poults ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 12-24 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ precocial ᎠᎴ nidifugous.

ᏐᎢ ᏱᏓᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ꮎ Benjamin Franklin ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎦᎷᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1784 criticizing ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏬᎭᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎬᎾ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏯ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎸᎭ ᏬᎭᎵ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎩ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏲᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏂᏚᏳᏙᏛ. ᏂᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ perched ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᏡᎬ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎭᏢᏃ, ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏓᏄᎸᎯ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ watches ᎯᎠ Labour ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ ᏔᏬᏗ; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᎯ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎠᏣᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎸᎭ ᏬᎭᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ.
ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎪᎯ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛᎾ ᎠᏓᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᏝ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ansigaya ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᏍᏓᏯ & ᏌᎲᏍ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ lousy. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎤᏍᎦᎡᎾ: ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏥᏍᏆᏯ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏂᎦᎾᏰᏍᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏱᎴᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ atsinuqowisgv ᎯᎠ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮭ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏂᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᏨᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ Cincinnati ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏱᎵᏒᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ...
ᎠᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎡᎯᏍᏛ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎸᎭ ᏬᎭᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏘᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎬᎾ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ... ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ & ᎤᏜᏏᏛᎯ, ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎵᎦᎵᏴᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏳᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏓᎦᏘᏯ ᎦᎪ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ ᎾᎿ.

ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ Ꮎ () ᎯᎠ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎦᏅᎪ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏆᎵ, (b) ᎯᎠ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎤᏂᏩᏒ ᏑᏓᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏬᎭᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎨᏴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎨᎳ ᏩᏥᏂ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ, ᎠᎴ (c) ᎯᎠ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎠᏎᏒᏓ ᏬᎭᎵ Ꮎ ᎠᎦᏘᎭ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎬᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏬᎭᎵ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ advocating ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ Ꮎ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. Franklin ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏬᎭᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ advocated ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾ.

ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᏗᏁᎶᏗᎢ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏐᎦᎴᏂ, ᎠᎳᏆᎹ, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᎠᎴ ᎺᏌᏧᏎᏗ.

ᎬᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎢᎦ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏂᏃᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Canada. ᎯᎠ AztecᎫᏄᏡᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, M. g. mexicana

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ 20th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᏗᏁᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Ꭴ..ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 30,000 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1900'. ᏗᏁᎶᏗᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏒᎧᎵ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ rebounded ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1980s ᎠᎴ 1990s, ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎡᎵᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 49 ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ Alaska. ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎾᎢ 7 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᏌᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᎭ reintroduced ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Canada ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ.

ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᎾ. ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ:

  1. ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris)
    ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏗᎫᏝᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ; ᏫᎧᏁᏉᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᎾᎯ Ontario, Quebec, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Canada. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 5.1 5.3 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ ᎬᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1817, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 4 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ tipped ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᎩᎾ ᏬᏗᎨ.
  2. Osceola ᎠᎴ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ (M. g. osceola)
    ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Florida ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 80,000 100,000 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ Seminole ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Osceola, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1980. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ darker ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎬᎾ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎪᏣᎴᏛ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎾᎿ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ overall ᎠᏰᎸ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ-ᎩᎨᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ.
  3. Rio Grande (M. g. intermedia)
    ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏅᏓᎩ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ, ᏧᏂᎦᏔᏩᏙᏅᏩᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᎶᏩᏓ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎦᏲᎵ northeastern ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. Rio Grande ᎬᎾ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎭᏩᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1950'. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1,022,700 1,025,700 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1879, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ-coppery ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏚᏕᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎠᎴ lowrer ᎦᏐᎯ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎠᎴ buff-ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᏅᏙ ᎤᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏄᎪᏅᏙᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ, ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ mesquite ᏃᏥ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᎦᎸᏗ ᏧᏍᎦ ᎠᏙᎯ ᎢᎾᎨ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎬᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 6,000 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ.
  4. Merriam's (M. g. merriami)
    ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ Rocky ᏙᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎪᏗ Wyoming, Montana ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Dakota. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 334,460 344,460 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ. ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ponderosa ᏃᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᎸ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1900 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ C. gantlai Merriam, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ Biological ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎤᎩᏓᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎦᏚᏕᏍᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎩᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏬᏗᎨ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏛᏙᏓᎧᏂᏍᎬ.
  5. Gould's (M. g. mexicana)
    ᎾᏰᎯᏯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ-ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ Arizona ᎠᎴ ᏍᏆᏂᏤᏍᏛᎢ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 650 800 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ. ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎤᏓᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎠᎴ regulated. ᎢᎬᏱ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1856. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ. Gould ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ-ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ-ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  1. BirdLife International (2004). Meleagris gallopavo. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ
  2. Template:Citation/core
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ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]