ᎧᏫ

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ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎧᏫ

ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ roasted ᎤᎦᏔ(ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ tuya, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎧᏫ ᏚᏯ) ᎯᎠ ᎧᏫ ᎦᎪᏘ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ. ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ traded ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ (ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ), ᎦᎳᏄᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎪᎢ (ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎢ) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ.[1] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ, 6.7 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ tonnes ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1998-2000, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ 7 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ tonnes ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ 2010.[2] ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ caffeine, ᎠᏅᏬᏗ. ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ 7 ᎦᎾ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ (ca. 207 mL) ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎧᏫ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ 80-140 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ caffeine.[3]

ᎧᏫ, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ingested ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏦᎢᏁ Ꮎ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ.[4]

ᎧᏁᏨ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᎧᏫ ᎤᎭ Ꮝ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᎦᏐᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ 9th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᎭ originated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ Ethiopia ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ Egypt ᎠᎴ Europe.[5] ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᎧᏫ ᎤᎭ ᏚᎾᏠᏒ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Arabic ᎧᏁᏨ Qah'Ꮹ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ Turkish Kahve, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏘᏣᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ intoxicating ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎢᎦᏓᏊ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ Islamic ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ anaditsgv ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏘᏣᏍᏗ, ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ anaditsgv ᎧᏫ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ forbidden ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ imams ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Mecca ᎾᎾᎢ 1511 ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ Cairo ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1532 ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Egypt, coffeehouses ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏫ berries ᎨᏒᎩ sacked. ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎬᏗ ᎪᎳᏨᎯ, ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏧᏚᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1524 ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Selim ᎠᏯ.[6] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1538, Léonard Rauwolf, ᎠᏓᏥ ᎦᎾᎦᏗ, ᎤᎲᎢ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎦᏐᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏍᎪᎯ-ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ westerner ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎦᏢ: "ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᎿᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᎯ ᏗᎨᏪᎶᏗ, ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ illnesses, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ. Ꮝ consumers ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᎾᎴᎢ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏢᏫᏎᎯ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ yvwatuwidv ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ cupful. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏩᎢᏢᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ bunnu." [7]. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏂᏪᏒ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᎾᏂ, ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ugatohvsv ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 15th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi, Muslims ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎧᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Persia, Egypt, ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ Africa ᎠᎴ ᎬᎾ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ cafeteria, Kiva Han, ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1475 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Constantinople. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Muslim ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎧᏫ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ Europe, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 17th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi. ᎩᎵᏏ coffeehouses ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎬᏗ ᎪᎳᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ. Lloyds London, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ coffeehouse.[8]

ᎧᏫ tuya ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ[edit]

Main article: Coffee varietals

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏫ ᎦᎪᏘ, Coffea arabica ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ. ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ-ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ Ethiopia, ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Kefa, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎩᏛ Ꮝ ᏚᏙᎥ.[9] ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎥᏳᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, Coffea canephora (robusta). Robusta, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 40-50% ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ caffeine, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏢᏃ arabica ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᏳᏅᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ originated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Uganda.[9] ᎪᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ Ꮝ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ arabica ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎧᏫ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ arabica, robusta ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ "ᎤᎴᏴᏒ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ" ᎠᎴ "ᎦᏚᎵᏓ cardboard" ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ. ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ robustas ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ espresso ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ "crema" (foamy ᎠᏍᎪᎵ), ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Italy, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ espresso ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ-roasted robusta. ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ roasters ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎧᏅᏩᏅᎯ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏲᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ robusta ᏚᏯ[10] ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ-marketed ᎧᏫ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᏐᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Coffea liberica ᎠᎴ Coffea esliaca, ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᎦᏛ Liberia ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ Sudan ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗᏳ.[9]

Brazil ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎧᏫ ᏩᏗ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ flooded ᎾᎥᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ robusta ᏚᏯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Vietnam.[11] ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏫ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎧᏫ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ 1975-1989 ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ pricing ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 2001 2004.[12] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1997 ᎯᎠ "c" ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎧᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ York ᏧᎵᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ$3.00/ᏄᏓᎨᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 2001 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎶᏒᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ$0.43/ᏄᏓᎨᏒ. Robusta ᎧᏫ (traded ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ London ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎢᏤ York ᎤᏤᎵ Arabica) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎡᏆ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏣᎦᏘᏲᏎᎯ (multinational roasters, ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎧᏫ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.) ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ.

ᎤᏓᏩᏗᏍᎬ-ᏕᏡᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Orosí, Costa Rica. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ pruned

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ "ᎡᏆ ᏅᎩ" ᎧᏫ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ robusta ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ contributing ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏫ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ[13], ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ arabica ᏚᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎠᏢᏔᏍᏗ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎧᏫ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Africa, Indonesia ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏪᎾᎲᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ Ꭰayosdodi atuyasdv ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ coca ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎯᎠ Dutch ᎦᎴᏴᏛ 'Max Havelaar' ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᎪᎾᏛᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏗ ᎧᏫ growers negotiated ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ; ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ roasters ᎠᎴ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᎮᎯ & ᏗᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Starbucks ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᎠᎾᏓᎪᎾᏛᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ[14]. ᏄᏓᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ecological: ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ togiyadv dunilvwisdanehv ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ sustainably harvested, ᎤᏓᏩᏗᏍᎬ-ᎤᏛᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎧᏫ vs. ᎯᎠ newer mono-cropped ᎧᎵ-ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ varieties, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏂ deforestation ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ.[15]

Arabica ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ exported ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ lyudetiyvda ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ Mocha, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Yemen, ᎠᎴ Java, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Indonesia. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎧᏫ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᏚᏙᎥ ᎦᏯᎸ ᎧᏫ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ, ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ. Varietal[16] ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏫᏒᏅ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ denoting taxonomic ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ arabica ᎠᎴ robusta ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ. ᎧᏫ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᏯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏏᏴᏫ varietal, bourbon, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ: Rwanda ᏌᎪᏂᎨ Bourbon). ᎧᏫ aficionados ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ auctioned ᎧᏫ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏎᏍᏗ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ arabica ᎧᏫ ᏚᏯ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏌᏊ ᏦᎢ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ; ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎧᎸᎬ Africa/ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Asia/ᎡᎷᏪᎢ. ᏚᏯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎭ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ (ᎠᏑᏴᏗ criteria ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "citrus-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ" ᎠᎴ "ᎦᏙᎯ"), ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ (ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ "ᎤᏓᏔᏅᎯ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ" ᎠᎴ "ᎠᏣᏅᏙ"), ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎴ mouthfeel, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ. ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ tangy ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ-ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ, ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎬᏍᏉᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ processed ᎧᏫ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ pH ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ. (ᎬᎿᎨ ᎧᏫ ᎤᎭ pH yvwatuwidv 5).[17] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ subspecies ᎠᎴ varietal.[18]

"Caracoli," ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ peaberry, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏫ tuya ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏫ ᎩᏔᏯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᏔᎵ. ᎯᎠ Caracoli ᏚᏯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎾᎿ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏩᎢᏢᎢ (~4% ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᏯ). ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ flavour ᎨᏒᎢ concentrated ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏏᏴᏫ tuya ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᏔᏯ, Caracoli ᏚᏯ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ Arabica) ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ prized.

ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎧᏫ[edit]

Main article: Economics of coffee

ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ commodities ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ-traded ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎪᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ #1. ᎧᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ environmental ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ.

ᎧᏫ ᏛᏓᏓᏂᎸᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏦᎢᏁ Ꮎ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ Europe.[4] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2002 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ, ᎧᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ 22.1 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ.[19]

ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎧᏫ[edit]

Main article: Coffee and health

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎧᎵᏍᏥ ᎠᎴ cardiovascular ᎥᏳᎩ ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᎳ ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ. ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎧᏫ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎤᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ.[citation needed] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ unclear ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ caffeine ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᏐᎢ chemical ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏫ (ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ decaffeinated ᎧᏫ ᎠᏫᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ).[citation needed]

ᏌᏊ ᏰᎵ ᎣᏏ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎥᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ diabetes mellitus ᏗᎦᎪᏗ 2 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏫ consumers, ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ Ꮎ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ caffeine ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ decaffeinated ᎧᏫ.[20]

ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎧᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏝᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎤᏪᎳ ᎠᏓᏰᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᎳ: ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ 1 ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏝᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ 20%, ᎠᎴ 4 ᏗᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏝᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ 80%.[21]

ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ anaditsgv ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ lyudetiyvda ᏫᎵ "ᎾᏛᏍᎬᎾ ᏂᎯ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ".

ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏢᏙᏗ[edit]

Roasted ᎧᏫ ᏚᏯ
Main article: Processing of coffee

ᎤᏣᏘ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ labour ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎧᏫ berries ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ processed ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ roasted ᎧᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ consumers ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᎩ. ᎧᏫ berries ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏑᏰᏒ, defruited, ᎠᎧᏲᏔᏅ, ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ, ᎠᎴ—ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ processes—ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎦᏳᎳᏨ.

ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ roasted, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏢᏙᏗ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ roasted ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ consumed. ᎧᏫ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ roasted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ supplier; ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ roasted.

ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎧᏫ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ processes ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᎯᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ roasted ᎧᏫ ᏚᏯ ᎯᎠ consumer. ᎦᏅᎾᏩ ᎯᎠ roasted ᎧᏫ ᏚᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ roastery, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ roastery ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ consumer ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ packaged, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ "ᏂᎦᏛ-tuya" ᎧᏫ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. ᎠᏍᏙᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ. "Turkish" ᎠᏍᏙᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏬᏌᏂᏴ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎦᏥᏃᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ coarsest ᎠᏍᏙᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏫ percolator ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ: "ᎤᏪᏴ" ᎠᎴ "Ꭺ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ" ᎠᏍᏙᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏪᏴ" ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ-ᎠᎵᏢᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎧᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꭺ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ. ᎯᎠ espresso ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ, ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏫ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ, ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ chemical ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᏫ tuya ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ. ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ brewed, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ: ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏓᏢᏓ, ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ. Roasted arabica ᏚᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏬᏗᎨᎧᎵᏤᏥ. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎧᏫ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ.

ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᎧᏫ[edit]

ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎯᏕᎨᎢ consumers ᎦᎪ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ't ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎧᏫ. ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎧᏫ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎧᏲᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᎾ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ dissolved ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ. ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏔᏅ ᎧᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Asian ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Korea. ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ varieties ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏔᏅ ᎧᏫ, ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ. ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏧᏍᏈᏯ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ Korean ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎡᎯ, ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏔᏅ ᎧᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ. Japanese ᎠᎯᏕᎨᎢ ᏓᏓᎾᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ availability ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ-bottled ᎧᏫ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᏰᎵ ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-blended ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ. ᎣᏂ, ᎦᎾ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ institutional ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎲᎢ ᎠᏑᏴᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᎠᏲᏓᏅ robusta ᎧᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 10 ᎢᏯᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎫᎭᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 500 ᏗᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ, ᎠᎴ 1,000 ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ preheated.[22]

ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏫ[edit]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ: Coffeehouse ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎧᏫ, ᎠᎴ caffè ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ Italian ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ.

ᎧᏫ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ coffeehouses ᎯᎠ 16th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi, ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎢᎦ cafés, ᎧᏫ ᎤᎭ impacted ᎯᎠ lifestyle ᏴᏫ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᎩᎠ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Africa ᎠᎴ Yemen, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ intoxicant. ᎪᎯ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ Islam ᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏥᎵᏱᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Mecca ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ "ᎦᎳᏩᏎᏗ" ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏘᏣᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏍᏆᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ repressed ᎾᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎬᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏴᏫ.[23] Ꮝ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Europe ᎬᏙᏗ rebellious ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ activities ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ Ꮝ banning ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ England, ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏐᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ.[24]

ᏐᎢ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎤᏂᏩᏒ ᎧᏫ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎦᎵᏣᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ nitrogen ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ. Starbucks, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎧᏫ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎤᎭ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎧᏫ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ acidic, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᏫᏒᏅ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ chemical processes Ꮎ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏍᎪᎬ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ. ᎧᏫ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᏞᎠᎨᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎢᏤᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢᎨᏙᏗ, ᎧᏫ ᎠᎹ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏅᎩ itsuwakodi Ꮝ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ tomatoes, chili ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, blueberries, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ digakohidi Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏑᏗ ᎦᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ "ᏂᎬᏅ roach ᏌᏛᏗ".

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎧᏫ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. Latte ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎩᎸ espresso-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ. Arfé ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎧᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. International Coffee Organization - The Story of Coffee. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-08-04.
  2. FAO document repository - ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏚᎩ ᏗᎦᎬᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ commodities; ᏂᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ 2010. Rome, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ Argiculture Organisation ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ, 2003. ISBN 92-5-105077-5.
  3. http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/caffeine/caffeine_info1.shtml
  4. 4.0 4.1 Template:Citation/core
  5. John K. Francis Coffea arabica L. RUBIACEAE Factsheet of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
  6. Hanauer. ᎠᏍᎦᏯᎭ-ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎦᏙᎯ. 1907. p. 291 f.
  7. Léonard Rauwolf, Reise ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ Morgenlander (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏥ)
  8. Lloyd's History and Chronology at http://www.lloyds.com
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Mekete Belachew, "ᎧᏫ," ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ von Uhlig, Siegbert, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (Weissbaden: Horrowitz, 2003), p.763.
  10. Process for improving the quality of Robusta coffee - US Patent 5019413. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-08-26.
  11. "Vietnam has played a major role in the increase of global coffee supply", "Nearly all coffee grown in Vietnam is of the Robusta variety"
  12. amsterdam coffee shop, amsterdam coffee shop information. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-08-26.
  13. CoffeeGeek - So You Say There's a Coffee Crisis. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-08-26.
  14. Fair Trade Coffee. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-08-26.
  15. http://www.thanksgivingcoffee.com/justcup/songbird/whatisit.ᏕᎬᏔᏛ
  16. ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅᎯ 1.0.1 (1.0.1) ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ © 2005 ᏒᎦᏔ ᎡᎵᏍ, Inc.,
  17. pH Scale: Some Common Solutions - Chart - MSN Encarta. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-23.
  18. ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎪᏘ James ᎦᏁᎸ; ᎧᏫ: ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎤᏂᏩᏍᎬ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎵᎮᎵᎬ, 5th ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, ᎾᎥᎢ Kenneth Davids
  19. Bottled water pours past competition - Brief Article DSN Retailing Today - Find Articles. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-07-23.
  20. Pereira ᎡᏥ, Parker ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, Folsom AR. ᎧᏫ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ 2 diabetes mellitus. ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Med 2006;166:1311-1316.
  21. http://archinte.ᎠᎹ-assn.org/cgi/ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ/ᎠᏓᏓᎶᏙᏗ/166/11/1190
  22. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎦᎾ ᎧᏫ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ: ᎠᏐᏴ ᎦᎳᏅᏛ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ, ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 21st, 2005, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ C4, Commodities ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ
  23. Hopkins, Kate (2006-03-24). Food Stories: The Sultan's Coffee Prohibition. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-09-12.
  24. Allen, Stewart. "ᎯᎠ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ".

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  • ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ, Robert (1869). ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ' ᎪᏪᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ January 27, retrieved ᎧᎦᎵ 21, 2006.
  • Jacob, Heinrich Eduard: ᎧᏫ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ. ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᏗᎦᏚᏏ: Burford ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, 1998. ISBN 1-58080-070-X. (ᎾᏛᏁᎸ: Lynn ᎦᏁᎸ).
  • Template:De iconMai, Marina. "Boom für die Bohnen" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎡᎶᎯ Nr. 1, 2006/ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 4, 2006. ISSN 1613-0766.
  • Pendergrast, ᎤᏙᏪᎸ. ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ: ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎧᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎾᏍᎩ Transformed ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, 1999. ISBN 0-465-05467-6
  • "ᎯᎠ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ," Stewart ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ Allen, ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

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