ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ

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ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, Ꮎ encode ᎠᎴ decode ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ.

Overview[edit]

ᎪᏣᎴᏛ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ typeset ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᎥᎢ William Caslon, ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏩᏥᎩ; ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ 1728 Cyclopaedia.

ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ (ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ lexeme) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ(rule) ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ manipulated. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏗᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏂ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏗᏑᏓᎴᎩ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᏗᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏓ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ Max Weinreich ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏚᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ Ꮎ " ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ;" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ cultural ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏔᎵ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ.

ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ, Ido, Interlingua, Klingon, programming ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏍᎦᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ restricted ᎯᎠ ᏗᏑᏓᎴᎩ shared ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.


ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏑᏓᎴᎩ[edit]

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏅᏥᏓ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ: Broca ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, Wernicke ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, Supramarginal gyrus, ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ gyrus, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ

ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏗᏫᏒᏗ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏐᏅ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ, ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎪᎳᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᏓᏰᏏ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎢᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎦᏔᎭ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎯ ᎤᎪᎲᎩ ᎩᏟ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᏁᎩ, "ᎩᏟ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏍᎦᏍᏗ" ᎠᎴ "ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏍᎦᏍᏗ ᎩᏟ". ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎨᏒᎢ unclear. ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏍᎦᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ? ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ Ꮎ ᎩᏟ? ᎠᎴ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᏟ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ? ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎩᏟ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᎦᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ? ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏍᏗ, "ᎠᏯ'm ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏍᎦᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ", ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ "ᎩᏟ" ᎠᎴ "ᎠᏍᎦᏍᏗ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ.

ᏄᏓᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ mapped onto ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ (ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ onto ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ). ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ Spanish ᎧᏁᏨ nada ᎤᏩᏌᏊ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ Spanish ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ "ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ". Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ Spanish ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ memorized ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Croatian ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ nada ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ "ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏗ".

ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ Ꮎ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ Ꮎ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎤᎭ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ. ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ" ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "jarn", ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ memorized ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎧᏁᏨ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏳᏂᏪᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ.

ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᏚᎾᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᎠᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗᎠᏓᏥ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ Dutch. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ continuum).

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏚᏦᏔᏩᏘ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ. (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎶᏂ Schleicher ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ.)

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ausbausprache, Abstandsprache ᎠᎴ Dachsprache ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ finer ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏴᏫ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

Ꮭ ᏌᏊ ᎩᎳ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ (ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ). ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ (2,000,000) ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ Homo habilis, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ (40,000) ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ Cro-Magnon ᎠᏍᎦᏯ.

ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ underlying ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ (ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ, ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ); ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎡᏙᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ:

  • ᎠᎫᏱᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ—ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ relatedness ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ,
  • ᎠᎫᏱᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ (ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ) ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏚᎢ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ—ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ,
  • ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ geographical ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ-ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ areal ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. (ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᏦᏔᏩᏘ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ biological phylogenetics ᎠᎭᏂ: ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ monophyletic vs. polyphyletic ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ.)

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎲ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎤᏙᏣᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ-ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᏜᎩ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎦᏚᎢ—ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎦᏚᎢ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎢᎦᏅᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᎦᏅᏗ.

ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ grouped ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏙ-ᎡᎶᏆ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎭᎻ-ᏎᎻ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ Austronesian ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎭᏂ-ᏣᏂ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ shared ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏌᏊ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ shared ᎦᏌᏆᎸ. (ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ.)

Typological ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ[edit]

ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ typological ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ verb, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏒᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ: SVO, SOV, VSO, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ, ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. (ᎩᎵᏏ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎤᏙᏣᎵ ᎯᎠ SVO ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ.)

ᎯᎠ shared ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ (= ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏌᏊ typological ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ) ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ arisen ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. (ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ.) ᎤᎾᏤᎵ cooccurence ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ—ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ.

Areal ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ linguistically ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ areal ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏌᏊᎭ, ᎠᎴ sprachbund: Balkan ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ European ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ; Caucasian ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ genetically ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ, ᏗᎪᎥᎯ: ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ iyuwakodi ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ converged ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "areal ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ".

N.B.: ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ underlying ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏘᏉ geographical ᏚᏙᎥ: ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ areal ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏌᏊᎭ, ᎯᎠ taxa ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ (ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ) ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ geographical ᎡᏍᎦᏂ.

ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ, ᎠᏏᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ideological ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᏌᏊ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ L. L. Zamenhof ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏪᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ--ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᏐᎢ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ("loglangs") ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ; ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ Lojban.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ J. R. R. Tolkien, ᎠᎴ Christopher Paolini, ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎦᏔᎯ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ lyudetiyvda ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம்), ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Tamil ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 200 BC ᎾᎥᎢ Tolkāppiyar. Ꮝ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎶᏆᏍᏙ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸᎠᎴ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ breakthrough. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ Pāṇini, ᎯᎠ 5th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ BC ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ formulated 3,959 ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ lyudetiyvda ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Template:Unicode (अष्टाध्यायी). Template:Unicode ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ systematized ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ phoneme, ᎯᎠ morpheme, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ; ᎯᎠ phoneme ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏔᎵ millennia ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᎯᎠ Persian ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ Sibawayh ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Arabic ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 760 CE ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ monumental ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ-kitab fi ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ-nahw (الكتاب في النحو, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ), ᎠᏲᎯᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ.

ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ agatohvsdi, ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ formalization ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "semantic ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ". ᎪᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ Ferdinand ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Saussure.

ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "gantlai ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ researchers ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ; ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ gantlai ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ. ᎢᎦᏛ researchers ᎠᏘᏲᎯᎭ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ separating ᏴᏫ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ underlying ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ publicised ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ, ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏴᏫ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎨᏲᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, chimpanzeeᎠᎴ ᏄᏁᎸᎾᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏚᏕᏲᏅᎩ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎪᏪᎵᎠ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎥᏝ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏚᏕᏲᏅᎩ Ꮝ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2003 Kanzi, ᎠᏥᏴᎩᏴ bonobo chimpanzee ᎠᏤᎸᏗᏱ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ creating ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ gantlai ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎤᎭ debated ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ semantics, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ.

ᎢᎦᏛ researchers ᎠᏘᏲᎯᎭ Ꮎ continuum ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᏚᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ behaviour ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ "ᏓᏎᏘ ᎦᏁᎸ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ. ᎪᎯ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏌᏊ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ. ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ"? ᎤᎪᏗᏗ researchers ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ Ꮎ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ homologous.

ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ entities ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ programming ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗᎠᎴ markup ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎦᏛ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ semantics ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]





ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  • ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, David (1997). ᎯᎠ Cambridge ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. Cambridge, Cambridge ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.
  • ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ, David (2001). ᎯᎠ Cambridge ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. Cambridge, Cambridge ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.
  • Katzner, K. (1999). ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎢᏤ York, Routledge.
  • McArthur, T. (1996). ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎠᎾᎵᎪᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ. Oxford, Oxford ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ.
  • Kandel ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM. ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ Neural agatohvsdi, ᏅᎩᏁ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, 1173 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ. McGraw-ᎦᏚᏏ, ᎢᏤ York (2000). ISBN 0-8385-7701-6

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]