ᎦᏚᎲᎢ

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File:Cairo3.jpg
ᎯᎠ lyudetiyvda ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ Cairo.
Chicago ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ.

ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ differentiated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏚᎲ, ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ, ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏢᏉᏛᎾ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᎸᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏍᏛ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎠᎴ designated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ "downtown" ᎠᎴ "ᎦᏚᎲᎢ centre".

ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ residential, ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ wider geographical ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎡᏆ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ infrastructure ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏅᏃᎯ, ᎦᎳᏅᏛᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏁᏙᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎥᏓᎵᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ.

"ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏴᏫ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎣᎵᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ." (ᎪᎯ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎾᏅᏁᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Israeli ᎦᏁᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ 2000 ᏓᎾᏓᎵᎮᎵᎬ Biennale ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ)

ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ[edit]

Map of Haarlem, the Netherlands, of around 1550. The city is completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal. The square shape is inspired by Jerusalem.

ᎯᎠ geographies ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ. ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ, ᎬᏙᏗ harbourᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎤᏪᏴᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ. ᎠᎹ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏪᏴᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ (ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ) ᎤᏍᏗᎠᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᏟᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏅᏃᎯ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ.

ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ EuropeᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎳᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ jumbled ᎢᏧᎳ, ᎢᏯᎨᎵᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ unplanned ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ perceived ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᎼᏈᎵ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᏯᏖᎾ ᎦᎳᏅᏛ impractical ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎳᏏᏕᎾ.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎭᎦᏔ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ grid, favoured ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ. Derry ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ireland, ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1613, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏐᏴ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ 5 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1618. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏅᏯ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ walled ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ defence. ᎯᎠ grid ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ copied ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ colonies ᎩᎵᏏ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ grid ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ iyuwakodi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ colonies yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ grid. ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ yvwatuwidv ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ Priene. ᎪᎯ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮝ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᏍᎦᏚᎩ, ᎤᏣᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ lyudetiyvda itsuwakodi ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ. ᎣᏍᏛ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ France ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ Dutch ᎠᎴ Flemish ᏕᎦᏚᎲ.

ᏐᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ radial ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ iyuwakodi ᎬᏙᏗ concentric ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏐᏴᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ- ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ supplemented ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ-ᏕᎦᏅᏅ Ꮎ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᏓᏅᏓᏁᎸ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎦᏚᎲ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Dutch ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ structured Ꮎ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ: ᎠᏰᎵ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ dagatuwistanv ᎾᎥᎢ concentric ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ. ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎪᏣᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ (ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ + ᎦᏚᎲ ᏓᏐᏴ). ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Amsterdam ᎠᎴ Haarlem ᎪᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ[edit]

ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏁᎵᏍᎬᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎳ ᎨᏒᎩ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᏗᏂᎶᎩᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ dagatuwisdisgv ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ specialized ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ, ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ centralized. Societies Ꮎ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ.

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎯ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎣᎾᏛ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Mesopotamia, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ur, ᎠᎴ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Nile, ᎯᎠ Indus ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ. ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎪᎯ iyuwakodi ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏓ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Jericho, Çatalhöyük ᎠᎴ Mehrgarh. Harappa ᎠᎴ Mohenjo-daro (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Indus ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ) ᎨᏒᎩ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 80,000.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᏓᎳᏏᏛᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ centres ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ Alexandria, Antioch ᎠᎴ Seleucia ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Tigris ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Greece, Carthage, Changan (ᎾᏊ Xi') (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ), ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Rome, Ꮝ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ Constantinople (ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ Istanbul), ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ Chinese, Islamic, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬn ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ-ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Rome ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ yvwatuwidv 1 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi BCE, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏎᏍᏗ iyuwakodi ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ. Alexandria ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ Rome ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎾᎢ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ iyuwakodi (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 32 CE, Alexandria ᎠᏰᎲ 180,000 ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ). ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ, ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ, ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ centres emerged ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ Baghdad, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ Rome.

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ European ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᎦᏚᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏗᎦᎵᏦᏗ. ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ tohi adedi ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᎾᏛᏁᎯ ᎠᏍᏛ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ ᎠᏓᏚᏓᎸᏁᎸ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ: "Stadtluft macht frei" ("ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᏂᎯ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ") ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Germany. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ Europe ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ weren't ᎾᏛᎦᏅᎾ , ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ countryside, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ dagatuwisdisgv ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎶᎻ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮭ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏓᎾᏓᎵᎮᎵᎬ, Genoa ᎠᎴ Lübeck, ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ dagatuwisdisgv ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ. ᎤᏠᏱ phenomena existed ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎯᏴ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ Sakai, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ lyudetiyvda ᎠᏰᎵ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎢᏅ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1500 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏔᎵ ᏔᎳᏚ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 100,000 ᎦᏁᎳ: ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 1700 ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯ, ᎠᏎᏍᏙ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ 300 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1900. ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 10,000 ᎦᏁᎳ, ᎦᏚᎲ ᎢᏅ ᎦᏲᎳᎨᎢᏍᏗ ᏙᎢ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ-ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ poleis, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ Baltic ᎠᎺᏉᎯ languished ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ 16th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi, Europe ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ benefited ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ Atlantic ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ fuelled ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ Peru. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 18th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi, London ᎠᏰᎲ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ 1 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ rivalled ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ-ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ Baghdad, Beijing, Istanbul ᎠᎴ Kyoto.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 18th sqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎢᏒ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ urbanization ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎡᏆ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Europe ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᏓᏓᏜᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ migrants ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏍᏛ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎯᎠ 1930s ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ unemployment, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ alenvdidsv ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎨᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏙᎢ tohi adedi ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ Asia, Africa ᎠᎴ Latin ᎠᎺᎵᎨ.

Environmental ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ[edit]

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ creating ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ microclimate. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎦᏚᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ sunlight ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ rainwater ᎾᎾᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ windier ᎠᎴ cloudier ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ dagatuwisdisgv countryside. ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ (ᎦᏁᎸ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ) ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ dagatuwisdisgv ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎤᏃᎴes ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ yvwatuwidv ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ, ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎨᎢ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎤᏲ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎥᏳᎩ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᎩ(ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ). ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎾᎿ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎯᏴ, ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏍᎩ hinterlands ᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎪᏪᎸ (ecological ᎪᏪᎸ).

ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢᎭ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᏌᏊ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ: ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᏂᎬᎢ; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏐᎢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎦᏁᎸᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ conurbation (ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ) ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎦᏁᎸ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ wider ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ.

ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ iyuwakodi lyudetiyvda, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᎲ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ — ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ (ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᎭ cathedral ᎠᎴ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ). ᎢᎦᏛ cathedral ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏒᎯᏰᏱ David' ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Wales, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ. (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ.) Preston ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ England ᎤᏤᎵ newest ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ 2002 ᎤᏙᏪᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᎠᏂᏁᎳ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᎵᎮᎵᎬ.

ᎤᏠᏱ iyahdvnelidasdi existed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ lyudetiyvda ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏧᏂᏴᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏜᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ (ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ) Ꮎ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ didn't ᎤᎭ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏓᏐᏴ, ᏚᏂᏴ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏧᎾᏓᏱᎵᏓᏍᏗ.

ᏒᎳᏗᏝ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ Zealand[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ Zealand, ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Perth [1] ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Perth, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ. ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ, Gisborne ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ Zealand ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ administered ᎾᎥᎢ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ.

ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ[edit]

ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ generalisation ᎾᎿ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ paperwork ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ. Britons ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎪᎲᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏓᏛᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᏜ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᎾᏚᎵᏍᎬ kalil ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, ᎦᏚᎲ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Ꭴ.. ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ designated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᎮᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎯ, ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᏒᏓᎷᎦ (ᎠᎴ ᏒᏓᎷᎦ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎦᏚᎲ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗᏱ. ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Hempstead, ᎢᏤ York, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ 755,785 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2004), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ varies ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ municipalities. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ gayatohvsdi Ꮎ "ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ" ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎦᏚᎲ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ-opted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ developers ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ welcoming ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎢᏴ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ 20 ᎠᎴ 30-ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Westwood ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Los Angeles.

Global ᏕᎦᏚᎲ[edit]

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ global ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎢᏤ York ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏍᎦᏚᎩ Ꮎ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ.

global ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ centre ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎬᏗ, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "global ᎦᏚᎲᎢ", ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ megacity, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏂᎸᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Saskia Sassen ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ 1991 ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ "megacity" ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ, global ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ. Global ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Sassen, ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏙᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ London, ᎢᏤ York ᎦᏚᎲᎢ, ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Tokyo. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ global ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ lyudetiyvda ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ capabilities ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎠᎴ concentrated: ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ Ꮝ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ. ᎪᎯ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ hierarchically [2]. ᏐᎢ global ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Los Angeles, Hong Kong, Frankfurt, Milan, Chicago ᎠᎴ Singapore ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ "ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ" ᎠᎴ San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto ᎠᎴ Zurich, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ "Beta ᎡᎶᎯ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ".

ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ global ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᎴ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Rome, Istanbul ᎠᎴ Mecca ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ. ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ questioned ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1995, Kanter argued Ꮎ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ identified ᎾᎥᎢ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ. ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ, ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎣᏍᏛ lyudetiyvda (ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ), ᎣᏍᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꭺgoweli gowlisgi (ᏰᎵᏊ) ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏓᎾᏘᏍᎩ (ᏓᎾᎵᎪᏗᏍᎬ). ᎯᎠ interplay ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ, Kanter argued, ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ[edit]

ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ: ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢ Ireland, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ connotation ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᏪᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏅᏨ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ connotations ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ deprived ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᏐᎢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ gentrification ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᏩᎦᏔᏅᏍ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ-ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏙᏗ connotation ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᎾᏙᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "outer ᎦᏁᎸ" ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ implies ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ richest ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎣᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎤᎷᏤᎯ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᏁᎸ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ modernization ᎠᏂᏲᎯᎭ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ countryside ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ favelas).

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ, ᎤᎭ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ anti-urbanism Ꮎ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᏁᎩ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎦᏐᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Thomas Jefferson ᎦᎪ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ Ꮎ "ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᏅ ᎡᏆ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎸ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏰᎸ." ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ businessmen ᎦᎪ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎠᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ workforce, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ "ᎯᎠ ᎠᏃᏢᏂᎥᎥᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ... ᎤᎭ begotten ᏗᏄᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏓᏲᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ." ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏬᏚᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1800s ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ perceived ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᎸᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏁᎲᏴᏫ ᎦᏚᎲ ᏓᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏖᎾ ᎦᎳᏅᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏁᎲᏴᏫ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᏢᏉᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ anti-ᎦᏁᎸ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ amenities, ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᎾᏁᏏᏙᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏦᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎳᏏᏕᎾ.

ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎢᏤ Urbanism" Ꮎ ᏓᏯᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎠᏛᏂᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ-ᎬᏙᏗ zoning ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎢᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏌᏊ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ-ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎴ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎦᏁᎸ, ᎠᎾᏓᎾᏁᏏᏙᎲ, ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᏙᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲᎾ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᎢᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏅᏃᎯ-ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏢᎯᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ ᎠᎴ effectiveness ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏁᏙᎯ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏠᎨᏏ[edit]

ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  • Toynbee, Arnold (ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ), ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ, ᎢᏤ York: McGraw-ᎦᏚᏏ, 1967. ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ/geographical ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ. ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ "ᎡᎵᏉ", ᏚᎵᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ-Ecumenopolis".
  • ᎤᏓᎾᏂ, T. ᏅᎩ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ: ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᎦᏎᏍᏛ. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1987.
  • Modelski, G. ᎡᎶᎯ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ: –3000 2000. Washington, DC: FAROS 2000, 2003.
  1. City of South Perth
  2. ᎦᎳᏅᎯ Friedmann ᎠᎴ Goetz Wolff, "ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ: Agenda ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ," ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ, 6, Ꮭ. 3 (1982): 319

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

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