ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ

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ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ classified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ keyboard, ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᏂᎲᎢ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ. ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᎠᎴ transmitted ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏒᏢᎢ ᎯᎠ soundboard.

ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ, ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ transmitted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ replicated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏍᏗᎠᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᏟᏗ electronic keyboards, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎾᏛᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᏛᎦᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎾᏣᏅᏙᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ shortened ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏩᎵᏲᏥᎢ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, gravicèmbalo col ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ e ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ (ᎾᏍᎩᏯ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ). ᎪᎯ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ pressed. ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ-ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ keyboards.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ keyboard stringed ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ, ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎩᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ, ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ pressed, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ dampened ᎾᏍᎩ ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎤᏓᏗᏅᏓ, ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᏄᏚᏓᎸᎾ.

ᎢᎬᏱ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

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ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ stringed keyboard ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Pollens ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ, ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ. 1), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ: Bartolomeo Cristofori Padua, Italy. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Cristofori ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏓᎾᏝᎢ, ᎯᎠ Medici ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ, ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ 1700. ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ Cristofori ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ 1720s.

ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ technological ᏧᎾᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ benefited ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ centuries ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, soundboard, ᎠᏒᏢᎢ, ᎠᎴ keyboard. Cristofori, ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ.

Cristofori ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ solving, ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ: ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᏎ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ). ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᏎ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎧᏍᏘ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏅᎬᎪᎪᎩ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ. Cristofori ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ approaches ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ. Cristofori ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᎨᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ quieter ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ (ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ keyboard ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ), ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ louder ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ.

Cristofori ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏤ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎬᏩᎵᏲᏥᎢ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ, Scipione Maffei, ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ (1711), ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏍᎩ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Gottfried Silbermann, ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏍᎩ. Silbermann ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ Cristofori', ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ: Silbermann ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎾᏗᏝᎡᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ.

Silbermann ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ Bach ᏌᏊ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1730s, ᎠᎴ Bach ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎧᎵ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏠᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Silbermann, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᏚᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏘᏉ heeded. Bach ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎪᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1747, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎾᏕᎬ Silbermann ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.

ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ flourished ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Viennese ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ Johann Andreas Stein (ᎦᎪ ᏚᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Augsburg, ᎠᏂᏛᏥ) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Viennese ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ Nannette Stein (ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎨᏴ Johann Andreas) ᎠᎴ Anton Walter. Viennese-ᎠᏣᏅᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᎭ ᏗᎦᎸᏙᏗ, ᏔᎵ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏃᏥ-ᎫᏝᎢ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ Mozart ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ, ᎠᎴ replicas ᎠᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ-ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ Mozart ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏰᎲ softer, clearer ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ fortepiano ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ 18th-ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.

ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1790–1860, ᎯᎠ Mozart-ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ underwent ᎤᎪᏗᏳ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ, ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ technological ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎯ) ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏙᏗ.

ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏇᏓᎸ-ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ tonal ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ Mozart ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ 7⅓ (ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ) ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, technological ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ atsitugv ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ Broadwood, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏳᎳ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ splendour ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ Ꮝ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎯᎠ Broadwood ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, louder, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏓᎵᏂᎩᏛ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ. ᎯᎠ Broadwood ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ Haydn ᎠᎴ Beethoven, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ: ᎯᏍᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᏍᎩᏁ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 1790s, ᏑᏓᎵ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ 1810 (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Beethoven ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ 1820. ᎯᎠ Viennese ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ: ᎯᎠ Broadwood ᏌᏊ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏓᎵᏂᎩᏛ, ᎯᎠ Viennese ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ.

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 1820s, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ shifted ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ Érard ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᎪᏢᏅᏅᎯ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Chopin ᎠᎴ Liszt. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1821, Sébastien Érard ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ escapement ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏪᎵᏒ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎩᎳ risen Ꮝ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ, ᎡᏆ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏅᎬᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Henri Herz, ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ escapement ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ:

  • ᎬᏙᏗ ᏦᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏔᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ
  • ᎯᎠ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ "ᎠᏖᎵᏙ", ᎤᏬᎳ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ soundboard, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ thicker, tenser, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ 20 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎤᏛᏂ). ᎯᎠ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᏩᏗᏅᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ patented ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1825 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Alpheus Babcock, combining ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎨᎵᏌᏛᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᏘ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ (1821, ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Broadwood ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ Samuel Hervé) ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ (Thom ᎠᎴ Allen, 1820, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Broadwood ᎠᎴ Érard). Babcock ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Chickering ᎠᎴ Mackays ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ patented ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎧᎵ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ (1843). ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ European ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.
  • ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ Henri Pape ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1826, ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ layered ᎦᏃᏥ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏪᎵᏒ wider ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᏂᏚᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ.
  • ᎯᎠ sostenuto ᎠᎳᏏᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ), ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1844 ᎾᎥᎢ Jean Louis Boisselot ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Steinway ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1874.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ-ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ"; ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ overlapping slanted ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏔᎵ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᏒᏢᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ soundboard, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏌᏊ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏤᎵᏒ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏎᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ, ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ Jean-Henri Pape ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 1820s, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ patented ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎾᎥᎢ Henry Steinway Jr. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1859.
Duplex scaling: Treble strings of a 182 cm. grand piano. From lower left to upper right: dampers, main sounding length of strings, treble bridge, duplex string length, duplex bridge (long bar perpendicular to strings), hitchpins.
  • ‘‘‘Duplexes’’’ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1872 Theodore Steinway patented ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ. ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ Blüthner (1872), ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Taskin (1788), ᎠᎴ Collard (1821) ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᏙᎶᎩ ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ ᏓᏣᏁᎬ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ.

ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ, ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ attained ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎠ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎬ processes, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏂᏕᎬᎿᏅᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ).

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ keyboard ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᏙᏓᎳᎬᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ Silbermann ᎠᎴ Frederici ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Petzold ᎠᎴ Babcock. ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ 1890s (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ), Steinway ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏕᏗᏴᎲ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ Zumpe ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ sonority ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ restricted ᎾᎥᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ soundboard ᎠᎴ ᎠᏒᏢᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ. ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ evocatively ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ revived ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ advertising ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ Southwell ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1806 ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ 1840s ᎠᏰᎲ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎾᎿ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏒᏢᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ, ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ keyboard ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎤᏂᏍᏔᎸᏍᏘ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏓᏚᏅ Robert Wornum ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1810 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᎯ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ birdcage ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᎴ Blanchet ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1820s.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ 1930s ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ "ᎪᎭᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ" ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ.

ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ admired ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ — ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, Ꮎ Haydn, Mozart, ᎠᎴ Beethoven — ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Chopin, Schumann, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎦᏤᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎳᏍᏛᏁᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ.

ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ[edit]

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎵ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏂᏕᎬᎢ: ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.

ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏫᎧᏁᏉᎬ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ keyboard. ᎪᎯ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏓᏗᏅᏓ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏂᏕᎬᎢ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᏗᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏐᏅ generalization distinguishes ᎯᎠ "ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ", (ᎠᏰᎵ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 2.2 m 3 m ᎦᏅᎯᏓ) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ "ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ" (ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1.7 m 2.2 m) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ "ᎤᏍᏗ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ" (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨᏍᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ). ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᏗᎦᏗ, ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ inharmonicity ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏓᏊ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ tuned ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏗᏅᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏗᏓᏁᏍᏙᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ: ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ). ᎧᎵ-ᏂᎬᎢ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ.


ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ, ᏫᎧᏁᏉᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ keyboard ᎠᎴ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᏓᏰᎯᎨ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ upward ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎠᎴ responsiveness. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏌᏊ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᏙᎲᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ, catches ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ, ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᏄᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎲᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ, ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎩ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 14 ᎤᏪᏴ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎾᎿ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1863, Henri Fourneaux ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ "ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ" ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏛᎯ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᏅᎯ.

ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ Ꮝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1980s, digital ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ digital sampling ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ digital ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, weighted ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ, ᏎᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ, ᎠᎴ MIDI interfaces. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᏗᎪᎥᎯ Ꮎ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ sympathetically ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ-ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ-linearity ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏙᎵᏣᏘ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏬᏚᎯ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ' ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎯ digital ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏙᎢ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ. ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏙᎵᏣᏘ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ software.

Keyboard[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ keyboard, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ keyboard. ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎯᎠ colour ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ (ᎤᏁᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ C ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏐᎢ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ) ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.

ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ 88 ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ (ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗᎧᏁᏉᏨ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏦᎢᏁ, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ A0 C8). ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᎭ 85 ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ (ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ A0 A7), ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎩ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ Bösendorfer ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᏔᎵ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ F0, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏰᏏ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᏂ C0, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎧᎵ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏍᎦᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ hinged ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ flipped ᎡᎳᏗ ᎫᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ disorientation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ keyboard; ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᎯᎠ colours ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ reversed (ᎬᎿᎨ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏁᎬ). ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎤᏓᏗᏅᏓ; Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ sympathetically ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ fuller ᎤᏃᏴᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎯᎠ Stuart ᎠᎴ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏢᏅᏅᎯ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ F0 ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ F8 ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎵ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ.

ᎠᎳᏏᏗ[edit]

ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ pressed upward ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏂᎩᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ.) ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎯᎠ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ", ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ rightmost ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ padded ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ vibrating. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ pressed. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ pressed, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏔᎵ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ. ᎢᎬᏱ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ (ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᏩᎾᎢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏢᏃ Ꮭ ᎦᏰᏌᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᏰᎵᏊ. ᏔᎵᏁ, ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ sympathetically ᎬᏙᏗ whichever ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ enriches ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ.

ᎤᏁᏟᏴᏌᏘ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ techniques ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏎ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Chopin ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎢᏒ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ achieving ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Haydn, Mozart ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Beethoven; ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, pedaling ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ coloristic ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎠᎴ "una corda" ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎿᏭᏅᎩ leftmost ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ. ᎾᎿ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎪᎯ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ keyboard ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏦᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏂ. ᎪᎯ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ modifies Ꮝ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏅᏓᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎬᏩᎵᏲᏥᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ.

ᎯᎠ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ Cristofori ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 18th ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ 19th centuries, ᎯᎠ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᏦᎢ, ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏌᏊ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ— ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ "una corda", ᎬᏩᎵᏲᏥᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ "ᏌᏊ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ". ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ spaced ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ "una corda" ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ — ᎢᏳᏃ shifted ᎢᏅ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏌᏊ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎾᎿ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᏗᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ' ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "una corda" ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᎿ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.

Digital ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ Ꮎ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ. ᎠᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ, leslie ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ/ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, vibrato ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏳᎳ-ᎡᏆ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ sostenuto ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎠᎴ "ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ" ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ. ᎪᎯ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ (ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎯᎠ sostenuto ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ) ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎯᎠ sostenuto ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ sostenuto ᎠᎳᏏᏗ. (ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ sostenuto ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ.) ᏎᏍᏗ ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ-ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ Olivier Messiaen ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏙᏗ d'oiseaux.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ sostenuto ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎠᎴ celeste ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ sostenuto. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᏍᏋ locked ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ, ᎪᎭᏍᎬ ᎢᎬᎾᏕᏍᏗ ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ muted — ᎠᎯᏛ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏓᏕᏯᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ neighbors. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ transposing ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ Irving ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏆᎴᎷ ᎣᏏ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ keyboard ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, enabling ᎯᎠ keyboard ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏓᏅᏒ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ shifted ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏃᏴᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ.

ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ keyboard, enabling ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏚᎾᏁᎶᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎾᏩ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᏒᏓᎷᎦ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏦᏬᏰᏂ ᎬᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ keyboard, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ (ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ detachable) ᏌᏊᎭ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ termed ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. Mozart ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Schumann ᎠᎴ Alkan. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ pianistic ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩpractise ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ. [1] [2]

ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ sturdiness. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ outer ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ hardwood, ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏢᏩᎦ ᎠᎴ beech. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Harold A. Conklin, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ "ᎯᎠ vibrational ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏫᎵ ᎡᏙᎠ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ soundboard ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ dissipating ᏄᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ ᎠᎦᎾᏩᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ." ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ laminating ᏩᏂᎨ ᎢᎬᎾᏕᏍᏗ hardwood ᎯᎠ ᎠᏚᎸᏓ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ Theodore Steinway ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1880.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᎠᏓᎭ ᏕᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ (ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ) ᎠᎴ ᎦᏐᎯ (ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ) ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ acoustically ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ softwood, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎢ-ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ.

ᎯᎠ pinblock, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏂᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᏍᏆᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿᎢ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ hardwood, (ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏢᏩᎦ) ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ (ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ) ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ gripping ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ.

ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎯ), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏎ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏅᎯ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ tonal ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ wrapped ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏱ ᎤᏯᏅᎯ, ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ, ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏩᏗᏅᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏌᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ, ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ transmitted ᎯᎠ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ ᏫᎵ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏚᎸᏓ (ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ) ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ, ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏒᏢᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ soundboard. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎩ ᎾᏊ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏩᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏂᎨ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏌᏊ ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ. ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏢᏔᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎶᏂᏗ, ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ decorating ᎯᎠ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ; ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏂᎥᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᏚ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ grand parts ᎠᎴ upright parts ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ hardwood (e.g. ᏢᏩᎦ, beech. hornbeam). ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ, ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ. ᎢᎬᏱ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1940s ᎠᎴ 1950s, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ crystallized ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ Steinway ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ Teflon, synthetic ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ DuPont, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᏄᏬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᏚᏲᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎢᎦᏛ "ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏗ" ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ Teflon ᎨᏒᎢ "ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ" ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓ adjacent ᎯᎠ Teflon ᏫᎵ ᎠᎲᏲᎵᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎯᏌᏛ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ, causing ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ.) ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎯᎠ Kawai ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎠᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ technicians.

View from below of a 182-cm grand piano. In order of distance from viewer: softwood braces, tapered soundboard ribs, soundboard. The metal rod at lower right is a humidity control device.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎬᏉ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ soundboard. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ (Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᏗᏒᏓᎷᎦ glued ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ). ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ-grained, ᎩᏄᏙᏗ-sawn, ᎧᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ-ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎧᏲᏔᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ soundboards. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ soundboard ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ plywood.

ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ basswood, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎩᏓᎵ. ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᎿᎨ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᎾᏕᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎪᎳ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎪᎳ-ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᏓᏠᎯᏍᏛ, ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ. [1] ᏰᎵᏇ ᏙᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎯᎠ Yamaha ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏕᎫᎪᏛ innovated ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "Ivorine" ᎠᎴ "Ivorite", ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ other makers, Ꮎ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎪᎳ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎠᎧᎵᏐᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᏂᎩᏛ hardwood ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎦᎨᏛ; ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᏙᏗ 136 kg (300 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Steinway ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ (ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ D) ᎦᏙᏗ 480 kg (990 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ). ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ, ᎯᎠ Fazioli F308, ᎦᏙᏗ 691 kg (1520 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ).

ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ[edit]

ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ: ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ

ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ; ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ tuned ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ recognized ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏗᏅᏗ  = 440 Hz.

ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏆᎶᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ voiced ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏨᏕᎨᏫ. ᎤᎦᏳᎳᏨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ rebuilt ᎠᎴ reconditioned. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᎾᎥᎢ replacing ᎡᏆ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ, jazz, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, television, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎡᏆ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ.

ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ, ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᎿᎥ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎾᎵᎪᏒ. ᏯᏛᎾ, ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ: "ᎯᎠ ivories", "ᎯᎠ joanna", "ᎯᎠ ᏁᎳᏍᎪᎯ-ᏧᏁᎳ", ᎠᎴ "ᎯᎠ ᎬᎿᎨ() ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎬ()", "ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ joe()". ᏓᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "tickling ᎯᎠ ivories".

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ: ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ:

  • ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎸᏱ ᏗᏕᏠᏆᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ (ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ online ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ), ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎡᏆ ᏄᏪᎾᎲᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ. ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ: "ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ".
  • ᎯᎠ Encyclopædia Britannica (ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ online ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ) ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1988 ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ "ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ".
  • ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ Larry ᎣᏌᏂ (4th ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. Jamaica ᏂᎬᏅ, Massachusetts: Brookside ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 2001; ISBN 1-929145-01-2) ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᎢ evaluative ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏂᏩᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.
  • ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, ᎬᎿᎨ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ: technological ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Cristofori ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏓᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎾᎥᎢ Edwin M. ᎣᏍᏛ (1982, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Stewart Pollens (1995, Cambridge: Cambridge ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, Ꮝ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ Cristofori, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ.

ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ[edit]

  • Banowetz, Joseph; Elder, Dean (1985). The pianist's guide to pedaling. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34494-8. — ᎠᏂᏍᎪᎳᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎫᏝᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ ᏗᏂᏃᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ.
  • Parakilas, James (1999). Piano roles : three hundred years of life with the piano. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08055-7. — ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏚᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ.
  • Reblitz, Arthur A. (1993). Piano Servicing, Tuning and Rebuilding: For the Professional, the Student, and the Hobbyist. Vestal, NY: Vestal Press. ISBN 1-879511-03-7.
  • Carhart, Thad [2001] (2002). The Piano Shop on the Left Bank. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-75862-3. — ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏓᏊ autobiographical ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎿᎸ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ.
  • Loesser, Arthur [1954] (1991). Men, Women, and Pianos: A Social History. New York: Dover Publications. ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎢᏤ York: Simon ᎠᎴ Schuster, 1954, ᎪᎯ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ extraordinarily ᎠᏯᏖᎾ-ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ.
  • Lelie, Christo (1995). Van Piano tot Forte (The History of the Early Piano). Kampen: Kok-Lyra. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Dutch, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᎾᏎᏍᎬ, ᏗᎨᎦᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ en ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎩᎶ ᏄᏂᏪᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

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ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏲᎵ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎤᏔᏅ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ" ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᎾ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ keyboard ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ electronic ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ.

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