ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ

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ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᎹᏍᎧᎦᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Rhön ᏙᏓᎸ
ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ, 4 tonne, ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Iceland

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ 14 ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ phases ᎠᎹ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ non-ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ contexts, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏯh, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ phases ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ' biosphere. ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ, ᏩᏂᎨ, crystalline ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎸᏑᏘ ᎠᎴ opaque bluish-ᎤᏁᎬ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ impurities ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏐᎢ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᎥdadanetlivysegv transition ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏯh occurs ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᎾ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ cooled ᎡᎳᏗᏢ 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) ᎾᎾᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ atmospheric pressure. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ vapor ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮭ intervening ᎦᎾ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᎥdadanetlivysegv ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ formation ᎤᏯᏨᏒ. ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏁᏐᏍᎬ, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ cube, ᎠᎴ glacier. ᎾᏍᎩ plays ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ meteorological phenomena. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ caps ᎯᎠ polar regions ᎠᎴ significance ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ global ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ cycle.

ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏱᏓᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ[edit]

unusual ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ pressure ᏌᏊ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ 8% ᎦᏲᎵᎨ dense ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎦᎾ ᎠᎹ. ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎤᎭ density 0.917 g/cm³ ᎾᎾᎢ 0 °C, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎤᎭ density 0.9998 g/cm³ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ. ᎦᎾ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ dense, essentially 1.00 g/cm³, ᎾᎾᎢ 4 °C ᎠᎴ becomes ᎦᏲᎵᎨ dense ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ molecules ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ hexagonal crystalᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ drops 0 °C. (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "crystal" derives ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏯᏨᏒ.) ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ hydrogen ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏙforming ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ molecules, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ molecules ᎦᏲᎵᎨ efficiently (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ) ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ floats ᎾᎿ ᎦᎾ ᎠᎹ, ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ. Density ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎧᏁᏉᎠ slightly ᎬᏙᏗ decreasing ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ (density ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ −180 °C (93 K) ᎨᏒᎢ 0.9340 g/cm³).

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ melts, ᎾᏍᎩ absorbs ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ (ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ fusion) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ equivalent ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎥᎢ 80 °C, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Ꮝ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ 0 °C.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵᏊ superheat ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ Ꮝ equilibrium melting ᎪᏍᏓᏱ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ultrafast laser pulses, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ heated ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ melting ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ crystal ᎤᎭ melting ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 0 °C ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ melting ᎾᎾᎢ 0 °C ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ. [1]

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ crystalline ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ mineral.

ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ[edit]

Snowflake ᎾᎥᎢ Wilson Bentley, 1902

ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏥ ᎨᏒᎢ hexagonal ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ (ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏯh). Subjected ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ pressures ᎠᎴ varying temperatures, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ roughly ᏔᎳᏚ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ phases. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ (metastable) ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏯh ᎨᏒᎢ cubic structure ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ (ᎠᏯc). ᎠᎴ cooling ᎠᏯh ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ protons ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ, XI.

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ cooling ᎠᎴ pressure ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ, ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᎥdadanetlivysegv ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ II, III, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, ᎠᎴ X. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏢᏔᎲᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ambient pressure. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ differentiated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ crystalline structure, ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ density. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏔᎵ metastable phases ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ pressure, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ hydrogen disordered, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ IV ᎠᎴ XII. ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ XII ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1996. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ crystalline ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎹ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ amorphous ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ amorphous ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎹ (ASW), ᎡᎳᏗ density amorphous ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ (LDA), ᎦᎸᎳᏗ density amorphous ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ (HDA), ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ density amorphous ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ (VHDA) ᎠᎴ hyperquenched glassy ᎠᎹ (HGW).

Rime ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎬᎭᏛ freezing ᎾᎿ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ trapped ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎸᏑᏘ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ density ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏌᏊ ᎩᏄᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ.

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ icicles, ᎤᏠᏱ stalactiteᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ drips ᎠᎴ re-freezes.

Clathrate hydrateᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ molecules trapped ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ Ꮝ crystal lattice. Pancake ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ formation ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ areas ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ tohinusdv conditions.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ substances (ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ fluids) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ": ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ dioxide.

ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ[edit]

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ harvesting[edit]

Harvesting ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ Clair ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Michigan, circa 1905.
ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ (yakhchal) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Kerman, Iran, ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ Ages ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ storing harvested ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ.

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ cooling. Until ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎯᎠ Hungarian Parliament ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ harvested ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎳ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎥᏓᎵ Balaton ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ conditioning. IcehouseᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎳ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ-ᎦᏌᏆᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᎸᏙᏗᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ iceboxes ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏕᎦᏚᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ unusual ᎤᎭ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎨᏱ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ 19th Ꮝsqohitsuqui tsudetiyvdi, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ harvesting ᎠᏰᎲ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎡᏆ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᎢᏤ Englander Frederick Tudor, ᎦᎪ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ “Ice ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ,” ᏚᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ insulation ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏩᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ tropics. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ refrigeration technology ᎤᎭ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏗᏅᏓ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 400 BC Iran, Persian engineers ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏳᎳ mastered ᎯᎠ technique storing ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎾᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ winters ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ nearby ᏙᏓᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ amounts, ᎠᎴ stored ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛᎭ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ, ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ cooled refrigerators, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ yakhchal (ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ). ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎡᏆ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ (ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 5000 m³) Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᏓᏐᏴ (ᎾᎾᎢ least ᏔᎵ meters ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗalenvdidsv) ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᏄatsinuqowisgv ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎦᏃᎾ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ sārooj, composed ᎾᏳ, ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, ᎤᏪᏥ whites, ᎪᏍᏚᎤᏁᎬ, ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏍᏚ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ proportions, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ resistant ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ mixture ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎹ impenetrable. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ Qanat, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi windcatcherᎾ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ temperatures ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎡᎳᏗ frigid levels ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ chill treats ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ royalty ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ.

ᏗᏁᎸᏗᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ[edit]

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ surfing ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Żnin ᎤᏍᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ plays ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎳ recreation, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏁᎸᏗᏱ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏠᎳᏙᏗᏱ, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ hockey, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏥᎵᎱ, curling ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᎾᏏᏁᎩ racing ᎾᎿ bobsled, luge ᎠᎴ skeleton. ᏗᏑᏰᏍᏗ sailboat ᎾᎿ blades gives ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ iceboating.

ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ quest ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏓᏍᎦᏍᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ racing, ᎭᏢᏃ drivers ᎠᏎ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ controlling ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏂᏏᏁᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ vehicle (ᎤᏠᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏅᏅᎢ racing). ᎯᎠ ᏗᎾᏁᎶᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ modified ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ rink.

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ[edit]

ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ icebreaker ᎾᎥᏂᎨ McMurdo ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ, ᎧᎦᎵ 2002.

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏗᏍᎩ; ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ harborᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ-ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ, ideally ᏂᎦᏛ-ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ. Examples ᎠᎴ Murmansk (Russia), Petsamo (Russia, ᏧᏩᎦᏔᏅᏍ Finland) ᎠᎴ Vardø (Norway). Harbors Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ-ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ icebreaker.

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ forming ᎾᎿ ᏅᏃᎯᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ ᎪᎳ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏗᏍᎩ. ᎬᎿᎨ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ lacks ᎯᎠ Ꭴutugi uwasv glossy ᎦᏚᎢ. ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ freezing ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏥ Ꮎ occurs ᎾᎾᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ melting ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎳᏅ vehicles. ᎠᏱᎵᏒ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ-ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ. ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎦᏧᏩᏍᏔᏗᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏦᎳᏅ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎠᏂᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ, ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ-intensive, ᎠᎴ stressful ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ — ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ driver ᏚᎵᏍᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎢᏅ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ freezing ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᏌᎨᎢ layer ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ crystals ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏗᏦᎳᏅ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏥᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ vehicle ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏱᎵᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏱᎵᏒ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ. Moisture ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ driver ᎤᏤᎵ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ crystals. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ troublesome ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏴᏫ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏦᎳᏅ slightly ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ vehicle ᎨᏒᎢ parked ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ moisture dissipate, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏦᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ-ᏦᎳᏅ defrostercombat ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ colder regions ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ-pane ᏗᏦᎳᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ insulation. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ outdoor ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ stays ᎡᎳᏗᏢ freezing ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ layers ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎥᏓᎵᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ flowing ᎠᎹ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ colder temperatures). ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏱᎴᎦ onto ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏓᎼᏈᎵᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏌᏁᏍᏙᏗ. ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎪᎯ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ thickness ᎾᎾᎢ least 30 centimeters (ᏌᏊ ᎤᎳᏏᏕᎾ).

ᏐᎢ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ[edit]

ᎠᏓᎨᏗ iced ᎠᎹ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎠᏃᏢᏂᎥᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ cubeᎠᎴ crushed ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ drinks.
  • Pagophagia, ᏗᎦᎪᏗ pica ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ disorder, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ compulsive consumption ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ.
  • Structures ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ sculptureᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᏥᏄatsinuqowisgv ᎡᏆ chunks ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ. ᎯᎠ structures ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ornamental (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ castle) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ habitation. ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ seasonal ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᏴᏢ areas. IglooᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎨᏰᎯ structure, ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏥ.
  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎦᏘᏍᏗ ᎩᎶ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ icicle. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ confound investigators, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎯᎠ icicle melts ᎾᎿᎢ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ Ꮭ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ weapon. ᎡᏆ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ inflict ᎪᏍᏗᏳᎵ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ trauma ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏠᏱ vein.[citation needed]

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ pressures[edit]

ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏐᏴ, ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎪᎳ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ liquids ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳᏛᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ pressure ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ pressure ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎯᎠ molecules ᎢᏧᎳ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ hydrogen ᏗᏚᎳᏙ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ: ᎠᎹ freezes ᎾᎾᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ 0 °C ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ pressure ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1 atm. ᏫᏄᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 0 °C ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ pressure ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1 atm. ᎯᎠ melting ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ pressures ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᏃ glacierᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ. ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ pressure ᎤᎭ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ crystal structure ᎠᎴ density ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ. ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ, ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ vapor ᏰᎵᏇ coexist ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ triple ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ 273.16 K ᎾᎾᎢ pressure 611.73 Pa.

Phases ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ[edit]

Phase Characteristics
Amorphous ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ Amorphous ice is an ice lacking crystal structure. Amorphous ice exists in three forms: low-density (LDA) formed at atmospheric pressure, or below, high density (HDA) and very high density amorphous ice (VHDA), forming at higher pressures. LDA forms by extremely quick cooling of liquid water ("hyperquenched glassy water", HGW), by depositing water vapour on very cold substrates ("amorphous solid water", ASW) or by heating high density forms of ice at ambient pressure ("LDA").
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ Ih Normal hexagonal crystalline ice. Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice Ih, with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ Ic Metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice. The oxygen atoms are arranged in a diamond structure. It is produced at temperatures between 130-150 K, and is stable for up to 200 K, when it transforms into ice Ih. It is occasionally present in the upper atmosphere.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ II A rhombohedral crystalline form with highly ordered structure. Formed from ice Ih by compressing it at temperature of 190-210 K. When heated it undergoes transformation to ice III.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ III A tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa. Least dense of the high-pressure phases. Denser than water.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ IV Metastable rhombohedral phase. Does not easily form without a nucleating agent.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ V A monoclinic crystalline phase. Formed by cooling water to 253 K at 500 MPa. Most complicated structure of all the phases.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ VI A tetragonal crystalline phase. Formed by cooling water to 270 K at 1.1 GPa. Exhibits Debye relaxation.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ VII A cubic phase. The hydrogen atoms position is disordered, the material shows Debye relaxation. The hydrogen bonds form two interpenetrating lattices.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ VIII A more ordered version of ice VII, where the hydrogen atoms assume fixed positions. Formed from ice VII by cooling it beyond 5 °C.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ IX A tetragonal metastable phase. Formed gradually from ice III by cooling it from −65 to −108 °C, stable below 140 K and pressures between 200 and 400 MPa. It has density of 1.16 g/cm³, slightly higher than ordinary ice.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ X Proton-ordered symmetric ice. Forms at about 40-45 GPa. A transformation of ice VII to ice X at 70 GPa is predicted.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ XI An orthorhombic low-temperature equilibrium form of hexagonal ice. It is ferroelectric.
ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ XII A tetragonal metastable dense crystalline phase. It is metastable in the phase space of ice V and ice VI. It can be prepared by heating high-density amorphous ice from 77 K to about 183 K at 810 MPa.

Trivia[edit]

Kurt Vonnegut ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ Cradle ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ IX ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ plot, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ IX ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ properties Vonnegut ᎤᏤᎵ fictional ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ-ᏐᏁᎳ (ᎠᏯ.e. ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳᏛᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ introduction ᏌᏊ granule).

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᎤᎩᏓᎵ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ plateau ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Alta, Norway. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᎬᏩᏍᏗᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ temperatures ᎡᎳᏗᏢ −30 °C ᎠᎴ −22 °F.
Icicles ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ angles ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎹ splashes ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ-ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏅ spray. hillside, Harlech, Wales
Icicles forming ᎾᎿ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏦᏔ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏂᎬᏅ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ.

ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ[edit]

  • rusticle ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ formation ᎤᏠᏱ icicle.
  • Isaz ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Proto-Germanic rune ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ "ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ".

External ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]