ᎤᎵᎾᏫ

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?ᎤᎵᎾᏫ
Fossil range: Triassic - Recent
"Chelonia" from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms  ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ, 1904
Scientific classification
ᎴᎬᎾᎻ: gantlaiia
ᏆᎢᎳᎻ: Chordata
ᏗᎦᎪᏗ: Sauropsida
ᎣᎸᏙ: Testudines
Linnaeus, 1758
Suborders

Cryptodira
Pleurodira
See text for families.

ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ gantlaiᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Testudines (ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ Chelonia), ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ shielded ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ cartilagenous ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏄᎳᏥ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Testudines ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ (ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ) ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ Triassic ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ lyudetiyvda gantlai ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎭᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎾᏛ. ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 300 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏃᏛ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ.

ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᎦᏏ?[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ gantlai ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᏓᎦᏏ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗᏳ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, Chelonia mydas, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ [1]; ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, ᏓᎦᏏ [2]; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, Terrapene carolina carolina, ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ [3].

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ freshwater chelonians ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ. ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-ᏓᏰᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Testudinidae, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ gopher ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ (Gopherus polyphemus), ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ. "ᏓᎦᏏ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ diamondback ᏓᎦᏏ (Malaclemys ᏓᎦᏏ), ᎤᏴᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎨᏒᎢ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Algonquian ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ gantlai, [4] ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ-ᎡᎶᎯ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Australia; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ Australian ᎩᎵᏏ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏜ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ freshwater ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎪᎯ confusing ᏓᎪᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏚᏂᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏜ ᎠᎴ freshwater ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ [5].

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ chelonian, ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᎦᏏ, ᎨᏒᎢ kanquotsegi ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ, conservationists, hobbyists ᎠᎴ veternarians ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎧᏁᏨ χελώνα ( /çeˈlona/, chelone ), ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Chelonian ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎦᎫᏍᏓᎥ.

Geoffroys ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ-ᎠᏢᏉᏛ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ (Phrynops geoffroanus) ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ

ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ existed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Mesozoic, yvwatuwidv 200 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ disputed. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ clade Anapsida, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ procolophonoid, millerettid, protorothyrids ᎠᎴ pareiasaur. ᏂᎦᏛ anapsid ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ amnioteᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏚᎵᏍᏚᎢᏒ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ gantlai ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ zygomatic ᏂᎬᎢ). ᎤᎪᏗᏗ anapsids ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ Permian ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ procolophonoids ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎯᎠ testudines (ᎤᎵᎾᏫ).

ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ anapsid-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ anapsid ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᏞᎬ phylogenetic ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ nanahwunvgi ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᏚᏙᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ diapsid, ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ Squamata ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Archosauria. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏗᏳ upheld ᎪᎯ ᎢᏤ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ archosauria. Re-ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ phylogenies ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ classified ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ anapsids ᎢᏧᎳ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ (ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂ ᏚᎾᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏑᏰᏍᏗ anapsid ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ) ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ lyudetiyvda ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ taxa ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ cladogram. ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ placodonts.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ proganochelys, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎦᏳᎳ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ "ᎤᎵᎾᏫ" ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎦᎾᏌᏁᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎾᎾᎯ Ꮝ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ (ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ, ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏆᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ, ᎪᏣᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ankylosaur(ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ, presumably, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏚᏦᏔᏩᏘ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ).

ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎠᏜ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎡᏆ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ chelonian ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏜ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ leatherback ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ 200 cm (80 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ) ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 900 kg (2,000 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ, ᎠᎴ 1 ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏂ). Freshwater ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ Asian softshell ᎤᎵᎾᏫ Pelochelys cantorii, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 200 cm ᎠᎴ 80 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ (ᏓᏍ, 1991). ᎪᎯ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏧᎳᏍᎩ snapping ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ chelonian ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏥᏙᎲ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 80 cm (31.5 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ) ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 76 kg (170 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ). ᏂᎬᎢ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ genera Geochelone, Meiolania, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏴ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ lyudetiyvda itsuwakodi, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎤᎭ existed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, Australia, ᎠᎴ Africa. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ iyuwakodi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏁᎵᏒ Ꮎ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ hunted ᎠᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Seychelles ᎠᎴ Galápagos ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 130 cm (50 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 300 kg (670 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ) [6].

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏊ chelonian ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Archelon ischyros, ᎣᏂᏱᏳ ᎤᎾᏥ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 4.6 m (15 ft) ᎦᏅᎯᏓ [7].

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ padloper ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Africa. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗ Ꮭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 8 cm (3 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 140 g (5 oz). ᏔᎵ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ tlawotu ᎤᎵᎾᏫᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫᎾ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ Ꮎ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Canada ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 13 cm (5 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ.

ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏔᎵ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ, ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏎᏒᎲᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ (ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ tsuqagutanvsv Proganochelys ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎿᏛᎦ): ᎯᎠ Cryptodira, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Pleurodira, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎩᎳᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ.

ᎤᏯᏍᎦ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ plastron. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ plastron ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᏒᏢᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 60 ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏖᏍᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏄᎳᏥ, ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎠᏓᎾᏏᏅᏍᏗ atsinuqowisgv Ꮝ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎯᎠ outer ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ scuteᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ Ꮝ outer ᎦᏁᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ. Scutes ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏤᎵ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ keratin Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏐᎢ gantlai. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ scutes ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ scutes. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ leatherback ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ-shelled ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎠ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ Ꮎ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ predators ᎦᏔᏪᏚᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ. ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ African ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᏩᏂᎨ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏗᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏅᏯ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ aquatic ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, streamlined ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ diving. ᏴᏩᏁᎬ snapping ᎤᎵᎾᏫᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ plastrons Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎦᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎢᏒᎢ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ.

ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ aquatic ᎠᎴ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ-shelled ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ fontanelleᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎤᎵᏬᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ leatherback ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ scutes ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ fontanelles.

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ. ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ coloured ᏬᏗᎨ, ᎬᎿᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎩᎦᎨ, ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ, ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᏙᏓᎳᎬᎾ blotches. ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ colorful ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ plastron ᎠᎴ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏓᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ.

ᎦᏁᎦ ᎠᎴ Moulting[edit]

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, ᎯᎠ outer ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ, ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ scute (ᎠᎴ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ) ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᏓᎾᏓᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᏏᏴᏫ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ, ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏐᎢ gantlai. ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎦᏏ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ moult ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎾᏛ ᎿᏛᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᎭᎷᏴᎯ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ aquaria, ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎦᏁᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ (ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏌᎨᎢ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ), ᎤᎲᎢ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ sloughed ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ gantlai ᎤᏓᎪᏂᏲᎢᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᎠᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏯ. ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏚᎦᏔᏬᎸ ᎦᏁᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎦᏁᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎦᏒᏔᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ.

ᎯᎠ scutes ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏝ moulted, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᏒᏔᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ iyuwakodi, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ thicker. ᎾᎥᎢ ᏛᏎᎯᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᏒᏛ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ, ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ scutes ᎾᎿ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, newer ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ lyudetiyvda ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎯ ᎣᎾᏛ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ scutes ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ [8]. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, ᎢᎦᏓᏊ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ scutes ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ.

ᎠᏍᎪᎵ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ digatoli nanahwunvgi ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏍᎪᎵ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ Ꮎ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ digatoli ᎠᎦᏘᏍᎬ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ. ᎢᎦᏛ aquatic ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ snapping ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ-shelled ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎤᎭ digatoli ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏗᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ predators ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ digatoli ᎠᎴ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ. ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ glands ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ digatoli Ꮎ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ salty ᏗᎦᏌᏬᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ.

ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ. ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ-ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ predators Ꮎ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.[9]

ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏳᎨᏂᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏕᎦᏅᏙᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏣᎴᎩ. ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎭᏰᎳᏍᏗ-ᎪᏍᏓᏯ ᏣᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ slicing ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. Herbivourous ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᎭ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏣᎴᎩ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎦᏁᏔᏯ digakohidi. ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏅᎦ ᏦᏕ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ't, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ gantlai, ᎦᎾᏍᏓ atsinuqowisgv ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏅᎦ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.

ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ[edit]

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ, ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ. ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎠᎢᏒ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏣᏍᏈᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎭᎵ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᏥᏃᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ gantlai.

ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎠᎴ webbed ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏅᎩ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎩᏟ ᎠᏚᎯᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ. ᎡᏆ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ aligator snapping ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎥᏝᎰᏩ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ, preferring ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᎠᎢᏒ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᎵ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ webbed ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ, ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ, ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎵᏌᎳᏗᏍᎬ onto riverbanks ᎠᎴ ᎤᎩᏓᎵ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ. ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᎭ webbed ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ, ᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛ ᏏᏆ-ᎦᏴᏐᎵ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ fused ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏚᎯᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᏬᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ).

ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ aquatic ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ. ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ "tvga" ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ-ᎠᎴ-ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ; ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᎯ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎾᎵ. ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ freshwater ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ hatchlings, ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎥᏝ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ. ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏎ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎦᏐᎯ onto ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏠᏗ ᏧᏪᏥ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ, dragging ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏍᎪᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ kalil ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏳ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ.

ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Testudines - ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏓᎦᏏ[edit]

ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, Terrapene carolina ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ
Hawksbill ᎤᎵᎾᏫ, Eretmochelys imbricata

Suborder Paracryptodira (ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ)

Suborder Cryptodira

  • Superfamily Testudinoidae
  • Superfamily Trionychoidae
  • Superfamily Kinosternoidae
  • ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Dermatemydidae (ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ)
  • ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Kinosternidae (tlawotu ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᏟᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ)
  • ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Platysternidae (ᎡᏆ-ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ)

Suborder Pleurodira

  • Superfamily Pelomedusoidae
  • ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Pelomedusidae (Afro-ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Sideneck ᎤᎵᎾᏫ)
  • ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Bothremydidae (ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ)
  • ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Podocnemididae (Madagascan ᎡᏆ-ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Sideneck ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᎵᎾᏫ)

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ[edit]

  • Iskandar, DT (2000). ᎤᎵᎾᏫ ᎠᎴ gantlai ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎧᎸᎬ Asia ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏕᎳ. ITB, Bandung.

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

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