ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ

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Fljótsdalur ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬ Iceland, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ
Mt.Gilbert & ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏴᎩ Canyon, ᏁᏩᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎦᏅᏬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏔᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ-ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ

ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ landform, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ(ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ kilometer) ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᎠᏝᎥ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᏓᎦtᎤᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎣᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏚᏏ.

ᎼᏏ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ[edit]

ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ geographical processes. ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ Ꭴ- ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ V-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ (ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ lyudetiyvda) ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ erosive ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏴᏢ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎥᏓᎵ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ. ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ tectonic ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ. ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᎴ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ (ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ ᎠᎹ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᎶᎬᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ.

File:ValleyProfile3.png
Schematic ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏬᎢ Ꭴ ᎠᎴ V ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ

ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ[edit]

ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ - ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎯᎠ Ꭴ ᎠᎴ V ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1 5 km ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏓᎸ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᏃᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ, ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᏒᏙᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᎸd.

ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ V ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Ꭴ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ; ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎰᎵ clammies ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ-ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᏌᏆᎦᏘ, ᎾᎿ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᎤᎶᏒᎩᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ. ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏔᏃᏲᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ.
ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎦᏃᎱᎩᏍᎬ.

ᎤᏒᏙᏂ[edit]

ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ England ᎠᎴ Missouri ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ geographic ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ. ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎪᏢᎯ ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Mansfield ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᏴᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏰᎳᏍᏗ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏯᏔᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎳᏗ. ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ. ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Europe ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ Karst, ᏛᏍᏓᏅᏅᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ (e.g. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Slovenia ᎠᎴ Austria).

ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ[edit]

Extraterrestrial ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ[edit]

ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎡᎶᎯᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ. ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎪᏢᎯ ignelvhi ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎤᎾᏓᏕᏒᏓ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ. ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ rille, ᏰᎵᏇ originated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ, ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎬᎿᏅᎢ ᎣᏓᎸ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ (ᎡᎶᎯ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, Carpathes ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.) ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 300 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ (e.g. J.H. Schröter ᎤᏤᎵ Selenotopographische Fragmente 1791). ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ phenomena ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Rheita ᎠᎴ Schröter ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ Vallis Alpes (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ) ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᎿᏅᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1 km (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 5-10 km ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ)—ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ geological ᎼᏏ ᎤᏬᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ 11 ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ᎪᎨᏱ 1969. ᎡᎶᎯᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏙᎯᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ "ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᏜ Olympica" ᎾᎿ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏄᏪᎵᏒᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ extraterrestrial ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ, ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1970s ᎪᎯ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ. ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ Io.

File:ValMarinerisPIA00422 modest.jpg
Valles Marineris ᎾᎿ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ. ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ Canyon ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ Eurasia ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ USA.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Valles Marineris ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ. ᎯᎠ Valles (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ detected ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1877 ᎾᎥᎢ Schiaparelli) ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ canyon ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, 4,500 x 600 km ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 8 km ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ 4-8 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ "ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ Canyon". ᎯᎠ Valles ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ tectonic ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ grabenᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ ᎠᎹ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᎹ.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, Saturn ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ photographed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᏚᏏ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ interpreted ᎾᎥᎢ astrogeologists ᏥᏄᏍᏗ tectonic ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ ᎤᏠᏱ graben ᎠᎴ lyadvnehi geologic ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

Extraterrestrial ᎤᎨᏓᎵᏴ[edit]