ᎡᎶᎯ

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ᎡᎶᎯ (ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ") ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ planet ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩᏁ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ Ꮝ planetary ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ terrestrial planet ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 4.57 billion (4.57Template:E)[1] ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ) ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ satellite, ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ orbiting ᎾᏍᎩ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ, ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 4.533 billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ.

ᎡᎶᎯ

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎭ evolved ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ geologic ᎠᎴ biological processes ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ conditions ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ virtually eliminated. ᎯᎠ outer ᎦᏚᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᏯuniyatolv ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ tectonic ᎠᏖᎵᏙᎾ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗᏱ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ geologic yuwakodi spans. ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ planet ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎭᎨᏛ layer molten ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ Ꮎ generates magnetic ᏠᎨᏏ. ᎯᎠ atmospheric conditions ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ significantly altered ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ecological ᎤᏘᏴᎯ Ꮎ modifies ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ conditions. ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 70% ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᏊ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎺᏉ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ continents ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ significant interaction ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ environment. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎡᏆ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏓᏣᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ modified ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ planet ᎤᏤᎵ rotation ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ. ᎠᏥᎳᏢᏓᏥary bombardment ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ planet ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ oceans. ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, asteroid impacts ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ significant ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ environment. ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ orbit ᎯᎠ planet ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎫᏝᎢ significant portions ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ glacial sheets.

ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ orbiting ᎠᏰᎸ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ asteroid Cruithne ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ erroneously ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ. Cruithne ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1986 ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎦ elliptical orbit ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ orbital ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎡᎶᎯ, Cruithne ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎦ horseshoe orbit ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ Ꮎ avoids ᎠᏍᏚᏗ proximity ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

Lexicography[edit]

ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎳᏗᎾ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ terra-, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ terrestrial. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ alternative ᎳᏗᎾ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ tellur-, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ telluric, tellurian, tellurion ᎠᎴ Tellurium. ᎢᏧᎳ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ derive ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ goddess Terra Mater, ᎦᎪ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ presumably ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᏚᏙᎥ Tellūs Mater. ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ, geocentric ᎠᎴ geothermal ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ prefix geo-, derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Terra Mater ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎪᎢ counterpart ᎨᏯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᎩ fictions ᏗᎪᏪᎵ,ᎠᎴ video ᏧᎾᏁᎶᏗᎢ, ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ Terra.

ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᎡᎶᎯ" ᎤᎭ cognate ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ languages. Examples ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᎦᏅᎦ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ aarde ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Dutch ᎠᎴ Erde ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏥ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏍᏕᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ cognates ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ extinct languages ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ertha ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ Saxon ᎠᎴ ert (ᎦᏛᎬᎢ "ᎦᏙᎯ") ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ Irish, derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎩᎵᏏ eorðe. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎠᎴ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Proto-Indo-European alenvdidsv *er-. ᎠᏓᏁᎸ metathesis, ᎢᏧᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ cognates "ᎡᎶᎯ" ᎠᏰᎵ terra ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ Romance languages, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ tierra ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏍᏆᏂ ᎠᎴ terra ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Portuguese.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ Semitic languages ᎤᎭ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ "ᎡᎶᎯ" ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Indo-European languages, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ overwhelming. ᎡᎳᏈᎩ ᎤᎭ aard; Akkadian, irtsitu; Aramaic, araa; Phoenician, erets (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Mesha Stele); ᎠᎴ Hebrew, ארץ (arets, ᎠᎴ erets ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏚᏙᎥᎢ modifier).

ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎯᎠ astrological ᎠᎴ astronomical ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ circled ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ ᎾᏓᏛᏁᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ (⊕). variant ᏩᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ atop Ꭿ

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ, scientists ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ reconstruct ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ planet ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ. ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 4.55 billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ ᎠᏥᏄatsinuqowisgv ᎯᎠ solar nebula, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ planets. ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎣᏂ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ. Initially molten, ᎯᎠ outer layer ᎯᎠ planet cooled, resulting ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ crust. Outgassing ᎠᎴ volcanic ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ primordial ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ; condensing ᎠᎹ vapor, augmented ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᏩᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏥᎳᏢᏓᏥ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ oceans.[2] ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ energetic ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎣᏩᏒ-replicating molecule ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 4 billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ.[3]

ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ photosynthesis allowed ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᏋ harvested ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ; ᎯᎠ resultant oxygen accumulated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ozone layer. ᎯᎠ incorporation smaller cells ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ complex cells ᎤᏯᏅᎲ eukaryotes.[4] Cells ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ colonies ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ increasingly specialized, resulting ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ multicellular organisms. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ozone layer absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation, ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ colonized ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, continents ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎵᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ reshaped ᎤᏩᏌᏊ. ᎯᎠ continents ᎤᎭ migrated ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ combining ᎤᏙᏢᏒ supercontinent. Roughly 750 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ supercontinent Rodinia, ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ. ᎯᎠ continents ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ recombined ᎤᏙᏢᏒ Pannotia, 600-540 mya, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ Pangaea, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎵᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ 180 mya.[5]

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ 1960s ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ hypothesized Ꮎ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ glacial ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ 750 ᎠᎴ 580 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Neoproterozoic, ᎫᏝᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ planet ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎬᎯᏓ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ. ᎪᎯ hypothesis ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ termed ᎯᎠ "Snowball ᎡᎶᎯ", ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ precedes ᎯᎠ Cambrian explosion ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ multi-cellular lifeforms ᎤᎴᏅᎲ proliferate.[6]

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ Cambrian explosion, ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 535 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ 5 ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ extinctions.[7] ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᏌᏊ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ 65 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ meteorite collision ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ triggered ᎯᎠ extinction ᎯᎠ (non-avian) dinosaur ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎡᏆ reptiles, ᎠᎴ spared ᎤᏍᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ mammal, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ resembled shrews. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ 65 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, mammalian ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ diversified, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎤᏍᏗ African ape ᎤᏁᏉᏤᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎦᏘ. ᎪᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏛ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ nutrition ᎠᎴ stimulation ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏥᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ allowed ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ timespan ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Ꮭ ᏐᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ, affecting ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏐᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ global ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ.

ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ characteristics[edit]

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ viewed ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ outer ᎤᏜᏅᏛ, ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ, ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ oceans ᎠᎴ ᏚᎶᎩᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ albedo 36.7%, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ exceeded ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ Venus ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ inner planets ᎯᎠ solar ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ densest ᎯᎠ inner planets.

ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎯᎠ atmospheric pressure ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ averages 101.325 kPa, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 6 km. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ amounts ᏐᎢ gaseous molecules ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ vapor. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ protects ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, moderating ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ extremes, transporting ᎠᎹ vapor, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ gases. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ components ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ determining ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

Geology[edit]

ᎡᎶᎯ cutaway ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ exosphere. Partially ᏗᎦᏛᏗ

ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ oblate spheroid, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 12,742 km (~ 40,000 km / π).[8] ᎯᎠ planet ᎤᏤᎵ curvature ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎦᏛ regions ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Bonneville ᎠᎹ ᏗᏯᏖᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ atmospheric, hydrologic, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ geologic layers. Ꮝ components ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ hydrosphere, ᎯᎠ crust, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᎯᎠ biosphere ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ layer ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ layers ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎯᎠ geologic component layers ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ[9] ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ depths ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎢ:

Depth Layer
Kilometres Miles
0–60 0–37 Lithosphere (locally varies between 5 and 200 km)
0–35 0–22 Crust (locally varies between 5 and 70 km)
35–60 22–37 Uppermost part of mantle
35–2890 22–1790 ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ
100–700 62–435 Asthenosphere
2890–5100 1790–3160 Outer ᎠᏰᎵ
5100–6378 3160–3954 Inner ᎠᏰᎵ

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ solar ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi[edit]

animation ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ rotation ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ, 23 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ, 56 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ 4.091 seconds (1 sidereal ᎢᎦ) rotate ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᏓᎾᎵᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ celestial ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎾᏗ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏅᏯ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗ-orbiting satellites) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ 15 °/h = 15'/min, i.e., ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏔᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎡᎶᎯ orbits ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ 365.2564 ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ solar ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ (1 sidereal ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ). ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎪᎯ gives ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1 °/ᎢᎦ, i.e., ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ 12 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ, eastward. ᎯᎠ orbital ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ averages ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 30 km/(108,000 km/h), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎫᏢᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ (~12,600 km) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 7 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ (384,000 km) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 4 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ.

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏌᏊ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ satellite, ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ revolves ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ barycenter, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᏃᏈᏏ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᏃᏈᏏ, ᏂᎦᎥᎢ 27.32 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ-ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ synodic ᏏᏅᏙ, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏤ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎢᏤ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, ᎨᏒᎢ 29.53 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᏏ sphere (sphere ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ) ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1.5 Gm (930,000 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ.

Viewed ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ, Ꮝ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ axial rotations ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ counterclockwise. ᎯᎠ orbital ᎠᎴ axial planes ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ aligned: ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ tilted ᎢᎦᏛ 23.5 ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ-ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ); ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ-ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ tilted ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 5 ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ-ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ (ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ eclipse ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏏᏅᏙ).

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ inertial ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ undergoes ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ precessional ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ 25,800 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ nutation ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ 18.6 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ motions ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ differential ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ equatorial bulge, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ Ꮝ oblateness. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, Ꮝ rotation ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ slightly ᏂᏙᏓᎳᎬᎾ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ polar ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ polar ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ quasi-periodic, ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ component ᎠᎴ component ᎬᏙᏗ 14-ᏏᏅᏙ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ Chandler wobble. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎯᎠ rotational velocity varies, phenomenon ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎢᎦ variation.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ, ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ perihelion ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 3, ᎠᎴ aphelion ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 4 (ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ solstice, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 21 ᎠᎴ ᏕᎭᎷᏱ 21). ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏐᎢ eras, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ precession ᎠᎴ Milankovitch cycles. ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ sometimes ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ Planet ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᏐᏁᎳ planets ᎠᏆᏤᎵ solar ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi, ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢᏁ closest planet ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ.

Magnetic ᏠᎨᏏ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ magnetic ᏠᎨᏏ ᎨᏒᎢ shaped roughly ᏥᏄᏍᏗ magnetic dipole ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ poles ᎾᏊ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ proximate ᎯᎠ planet ᎤᏤᎵ geographic poles. ᎯᎠ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ Magnetosphere Ꮎ deflects particles ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ solar ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏣᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 13.5 RE. ᎯᎠ collision ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ magnetic ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ solar ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ Van Allen radiation ᎠᏓᏠᏍᏗ, pair concentric, torus-shaped regions energetic ᏗᎫᏮᎶᏔᏅ particle. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ plasma enters ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ magnetic poles, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ Aurora.

ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ[edit]

Name Diameter (km) Mass (kg) Semi-ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ (km) Orbital period
ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ 3,474.8 7.349Template:E 384,400 27 Days, 7 hours, 43.7 minutes

ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, sometimes ᎤᏯᏅᎲ 'Luna', ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎡᏆ terrestrial planet-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ satellite, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏌᏊ-ᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ'. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ Pluto' Charon, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Solar ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ Ꮝ planet. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ satelliteorbiting ᏐᎢ planets ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "moons", ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ.

ᎯᎠ gravitational ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ tides ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ Ꮝ tidal locking: Ꮝ rotation ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ orbit ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎯᎠ planet. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ orbits ᎡᎶᎯ, ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ Ꮝ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎠᎴ illuminated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ ᎯᎠ lunar ᏓᏓᏁᏟᏴᏎᎬ: ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ separated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ solar terminator.

ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ tidal interaction, ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ recedes ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 38 mm ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ lengthens ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 17 µs ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ modifications ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ significant ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ - ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Devonian ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ 400 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎢᎦ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ 21.8 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ.

Earthrise ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ lunar orbit ᎾᎿ Apollo 8, 24 ᎥᏍᎩᏱ 1968. ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ tidal locking, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎾᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ dramatically ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ taming ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. Paleontological ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎵᏍ simulations ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ axial tilt ᎨᏒᎢ stabilised ᎾᎥᎢ tidal interactions ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ.[10] ᎢᎦᏛ theorists ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᎯ stabilization ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ torqueᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎠᎴ planets ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ equatorial bulge, ᎯᎠ rotational ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᏋ chaotically unstable, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏙᏗ Mars. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ rotation ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ ᎯᎠ ecliptic, ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ seasonal ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ. ᏌᏊ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏭᏎᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎪᎳ. Planetary scientists ᎦᎪ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ.[11] ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ controversial ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ Mars—ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ shares ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ rotation ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ axial tilt, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ Ꮝ ᎡᏆ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾ ᎠᏰᎵ—ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ insight.

ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᏅ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎤᎭ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ angular ᏂᎬᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ (ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ 400 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ 400 itsuwakodi ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ). ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ eclipse ᎠᎴ annular eclipses ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᏂᏕᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, ᏗᎦᏛᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ widely accepted ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎤᏤᎵ origin, ᎯᎠ giant ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ, ᎧᏃᎮᎭ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ collision Mars-ᏂᎬᎢ protoplanet ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎪᎯ hypothesis ᏕᎪᏏᏏ (ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏐᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ) ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ volatile ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ Ꮝ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ crust.

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ least ᏔᎵ co-orbital satellite, ᎯᎠ asteroid 3753 Cruithne ᎠᎴ 2002 AA29.

ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ[edit]

ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ (ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ) (ᎡᏆ 2 MB)

ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ:

ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, Coordinate.

ᏭᏔᏅ geographic subdivision

ᎡᏆ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎺᏉᎯ

ᎡᏍᎦᏂ:[12]

  • ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ: 510.072 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ. km2
  • ᎦᏙᎯ: 148.94 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ km2
  • ᎠᎹ: 361.132 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ km2
  • ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ: 70.8% ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎹ, 29.2% ᎨᏒᎢ exposed ᎦᏙᎯ

ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎹ: 1.4 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ; 109 km3, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ 2.5% ᎨᏒᎢ freshwater.[13]

ᎦᏙᎯ boundaries: ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ boundaries ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ 250,472 km[12] (ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏛᏎᎯᎯ shared boundaries ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ)

Coastline: 356,000 km.[12] (ᏐᎢ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ substantially ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ measured, tides ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ)

Maritime ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ: ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ United ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ Convention ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ

  • Contiguous ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ: 24 nautical ᏑᏟᎶᏛ(44 km) ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ
  • Continental ᎠᏯᏔᎾᎵ: 200 m depth ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ depth exploitation; ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ 200 nautical ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (370 km) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ continental ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ
  • Exclusive ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ: 200 nautical ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (370 km) ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ
  • Exclusive ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ: 200 nautical ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (370 km) ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ
  • Territorial ᎠᎺᏉᎯ: 12 nautical ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (22 km) ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ
  • ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ: ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ situations ᎬᏙᏗ neighboring ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏫᎧᏁᏉᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ zones ᎧᎵ 200 nautical ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (370 km)
  • 42 ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ areas ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ landlocked (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ landlocked ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ)

ᎠᏖᎵᏙ tectonics[edit]

ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ pointing ᎠᏥᏄatsinuqowisgv ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ.

ᎠᏖᎵᏙ tectonics (ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ "ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ constructs ᎠᎴ destroys", τεκτων, tektoon) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ geology ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ phenomenon continental drift ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ accepted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ scientists ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ tectonics ᎯᎠ outermost ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏔᎵ layers: ᎯᎠ lithosphere comprising ᎯᎠ crust ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ solidified uppermost ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ. ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ lithosphere ᏓᏂᎾᎬ ᎯᎠ asthenosphere ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ comprises ᎯᎠ inner viscous ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ behaves ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ superheated ᎠᎴ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ viscous ᎦᎾ.

ᎯᎠ lithosphere essentially floats ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ asthenosphere. ᎯᎠ lithosphere ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ tectonic ᎠᏖᎵᏙ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ relation ᏌᏊ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ boundaries: convergent, divergent, ᎠᎴ transform. Earthquake, volcanic ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ, ᎣᏓᎸ-ᎠᏓᏁᎸ, ᎠᎴ oceanic trench formation ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ boundaries.


Continental / Continental
Oceanic / Oceanic

ᎠᏖᎵᏙ tectonic ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᏚᎴᏅ atsinuqowisgv ᏔᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ geological observations: continental drift, ᎤᏕᎶᎰᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ seafloor spreading, ᎤᏕᎶᎰᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1960s. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1960s ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ universally accepted ᎾᎥᎢ virtually ᏂᎦᏛ scientists. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᎭ revolutionized ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᎩ comparable ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ unifying ᎠᎴ explanatory ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ diverse geological phenomena ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ periodic ᎦᏍᎩᎶ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ genetic ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ biology, ᎠᎴ quantum mechanics ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ physics.

Environment ᎠᎴ ecosystem[edit]

ᎯᎠ planet ᎤᏤᎵ lifeforms ᎠᎴ sometimes ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ "biosphere". ᎪᎯ biosphere ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ evolving ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 3.5 billion (3.5Template:E) ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ. ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ universe ᎭᏢᏃ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ absolutely ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ scientists ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ biospheres ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ.

ᎯᎠ biosphere ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᏯuniyatolv ᎾᎾᎯ ᏎᏍᏗ biome, inhabited ᎾᎥᎢ broadly ᎤᏠᏱ flora ᎠᎴ fauna. ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ, biomes ᎠᎴ separated ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ latitude. Terrestrial biomes ᎠᏝᎥ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Arctic ᎠᎴ Antarctic ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎣᏍᏛᎯ ᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ populous biomes ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ.

ᎠᏓᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ simultaneously ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ lithosphere, hydrosphere ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ.

ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᏔᎵ ᎡᏆ polar regions, ᏔᎵ ᎠᏯayatoli temperate zones, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅial tropical subtropical ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. Precipitation ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ widely, ranging ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ metres ᎠᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ millimetre.

ᎠᎺᏉᎯ currents ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ factors ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ determining ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ spectacular thermohaline ᏓᎾᏗᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ distributes ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ equatorial oceans ᎯᎠ polar regions.

Terrain[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ terrain ᏰᎵᏇ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᎿᎢ. ᎫᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 70% ᎠᎹ, ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ continental ᎠᏯᏔᎾᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ evenly, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ Statue ᏅᏩnvwatohiyadv.[14] ᎯᎠ remaining 30% Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎭ ᏙᏓᎸ, deserts, ᏂᎬᏅ, plateau, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎾᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ arable ᎦᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ 13.31% ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 4.71% supporting ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ.[12] ᎠᏍᏚᏗ 40% ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᏊ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ cropland ᎠᎴ ᏩᎦ ᏗᏴᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ 3.3 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ; 109 ᏑᏘᎶᏛcropland ᎠᎴ 8.4 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ; 109 ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ pastureland.[15]

Extremes[edit]

Elevation extremes: (measured ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ)

ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ[edit]

  • ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ crust ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎡᏆ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ fossil ᎪᏛᏙᏗ: (ᏥᏃᏍᎦ, petroleum, ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ, methane clathrate). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ feedstock ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ chemical ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ.
  • Mineral ore ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ crust ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ erosion ᎠᎴ ᎠᏖᎵᏙ tectonics. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ concentrated ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ.
  • ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ biosphere ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ biological ᎤᎾᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ (ᎠᎴ ᎢᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ) ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᏓ, pharmaceutical, oxygen, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ recycling ᎤᎪᏗᏗ organic wastes. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ecosystem ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ topsoil ᎠᎴ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ oceanic ecosystem ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ dissolved nutrients ᎠᎬᏍᏉᎥ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ mineral ᎪᏛᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ replenish ᎾᎿ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ non-renewable ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ. ᎯᎠ exploitation non-renewable ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ significant ᏗᏓᎴᏅᎢᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ environmentalism movements.

ᎦᏙᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ[edit]

  • Arable ᎦᏙᎯ: 13.13%[12]
  • ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏓᏫᏒ: 4.71%[12]
  • ᏂᎪᎯᎸ pastures: 26%
  • Forests ᎠᎴ woodland: 32%
  • Urban areas: 1.5%
  • ᏐᎢ: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated ᎦᏙᎯ: 2,481,250 km2 (1993 est.)

ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ environmental hazards[edit]

ᎡᏆ areas ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ (tropical cyclone), hurricane, ᎠᎴ typhoonᎾ ᎠᎨᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ areas. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ earthquake, landslide, ᏧᎾᎻ, volcanic eruptions, ᎤᏃᎴes, sinkhole, ᎤᏴᏝ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎬ, ᎦᏃᎱᎩᏍᎬ, drought, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ calamities ᎠᎴ disaster.

ᎡᏆ areas ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏴᏫ-ᎪᏢᏅᎯ pollution ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ, ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ toxic substances, ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ wildlife, species extinction, ᎦᏙᎯ degradation, ᎦᏙᎯ depletion, erosion, ᎠᎴ introduction invasive species.

ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ alteration ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ enhancement ᎯᎠ greenhouse ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᏫ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ dioxide emissions ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ, ᎯᎠ focus ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ.

ᏴᏫ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ, composite sattelite ᏗᎨᎦᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ illumination ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ. ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᏂᏃᏗ 1994 ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 1995.

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 6,500,000,000 ᏴᏫ inhabitants (ᎧᎦᎵ 24, 2006 ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ). [17] Projections ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ billion ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2013 ᎠᎴ 9.1 billion ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2050 (2005 UN ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏗ). ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ. ᏴᏫ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ density varies widely ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏌᏊ ᏧᏁᎵᏁ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ — ᏦᎢ-ᎠᏂᎩᏄᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎾᎨ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎣᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ unsuitable terrain.

ᎯᎠ northernmost ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ, Ellesmere ᎠᎽᏰᎵ, Canada. ᎯᎠ southernmost ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Amundsen-Scott ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Antarctica, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ 267 administrative divisions, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ, dependent areas, ᏐᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ entries. ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ sovereign ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ planet-ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ sovereign ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ segments ᏧᏁᏍᏓᎸ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ worldwide ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎯᎠ United ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ. ᎯᎠ United ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ forum ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᎠᎦᏛᎴᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ, ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏅᎩ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2004, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ, ᏔᎵᏚ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎢᏒᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ exploration.

Descriptions ᎡᎶᎯ[edit]

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ personified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ deity, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ goddess (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Gaia ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᏥ ᎡᎶᎯ). ᎯᎠ Chinese ᎡᎶᎯ goddess Hou-Tu ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ Gaia, ᎯᎠ deification ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ patroness fertility, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Norse mythology, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ goddess Jord ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏥ Thor ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎨᏴ Annar. ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Egyptian mythology ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᏐᎢ cultures ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ, Geb, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎷᎾᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎨᏴ, ᏐᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ commonly ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ sphere, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ oblate spheroid. ᎾᏍᎩ bulges slightly ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ slightly flattened ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ poles. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ varying levels ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎪᎢ philosophers ᎠᎴ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ Ages, thinkers ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Thomas Aquinas ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ spherical.

19th-ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ advocated ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ-ᎾᎯᏳᎢ discredited ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ disc-shaped, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ 150-ᎤᎳᏏᏕᎾ (50 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ) ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᏐᏴ ᎤᏁᏍᏓᎳ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ outer ᎠᏍᏛᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ beliefs ᎠᎴ conspiracy theories, ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ 1970s. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎦᏅᎪ-ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ-ᎠᎦᏆᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᎵᏍᎦᎾᏁᎲ.

ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ introduction ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ inaccurate beliefs ᎨᏒᎩ countered ᎬᏙᏗ deductions ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ observations ᎯᎠ secondary ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ parallels ᎠᏎᏒᏓ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᏐᎢ planets. Cartography, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ mapmaking, ᎠᎴ vicariously ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎤᎭ historically ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎯᎠ disciplines ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒᎩ depicting ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. Surveying, ᎯᎠ determination locations ᎠᎴ distances, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᏓadatolasdisgi ᏫᎬᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ, ᎯᎠ determination ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ alongside cartography ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ suitably quantifying ᎯᎠ requisite ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ.

ᎯᎠ technological ᏚᎾᏙᎷᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ widely ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎭ altered ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ perception ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎸᏅ ᎬᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅᏍᎩ ᏂᏚᏢᏫᏎᎲᎾ R. Paul ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ cloudless ᏌᎪᏂᎨ planet (ᎬᏙᏗ sharply ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏙᎯ masses) ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎫᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 1940 ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ Amazing ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ, ᏧᏣᏔᏊ depiction ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ decades ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ. [18] Apollo 17 ᎤᏤᎵ 1972 "ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎦᏓᏲᏍᏗ" ᏣᎦᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ cislunar ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ iconic ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ planet ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ-swirled ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ-ᏬᏗᎨ continents. ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Voyager 1 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1990 ᎤᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅ Carl Sagan ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ planet ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "Pale ᏌᎪᏂᎨ Dot". [19] ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ massive spaceship, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi Ꮎ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎲᎢ biosphere Ꮎ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏌᏊ ᎡᏆ organism. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Spaceship ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ Gaia ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ fictional Hitchhiker ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ Galaxy, ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎧᏁᏨ — "harmless" — emphasizing Ꮝ insignificance ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ cosmos. ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ eponymous ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎸᏅ ᎬᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ, ᎪᎯ humbling ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ alleviated slightly ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ updated ᎥᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ harmless". ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Ultimate ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ, ᎯᎠ Universe ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏩᏕᎴᎩ.

ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ Ꮝ solar lifespan, expands ᎩᎦᎨ giant. ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ models predict Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᏫᎵ expand ᎠᏥᏄatsinuqowisgv ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 99% ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎠ orbit (1 astronomical ᏌᏊᎭ, ᎠᎴ AU). ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ orbit ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏫᎵ expand ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1.7 AUs ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ planet ᏫᎵ ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ envelopment.[20] ᎪᎯ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 5 billion ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. (5 Gyr).

ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎩᎦᎨ giant, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ luminosity ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᏫᎵ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎢᎦᏘᎭᎢ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ luminosity ᎾᎥᎢ 10% ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1.1 Gyr ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 40% ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 3.5 Gyr.[20] ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ models ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ radiation ᎠᎾᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎤᎭ dire ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎯᎠ oceans.[21]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

Subtopic Links
Astronomy Darwin (ESA) · Terrestrial Planet ᎠᏩᏘᏍᎩ
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ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. G.B. Dalrymple, 1991, "ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ", Stanford University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, California, ISBN 0-8047-1569-6.
  2. . Morbidelli et al, 2000, "Source Regions and Time Scales for the Delivery of Water to Earth", Meteoritics ᎠᎴ Planetary ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᎩ, vol. 35, Ꮭ. 6, pp. 1309-1320.
  3. W. ᏗᎦᏐᎯᏍᏗ Doolitte, "Uprooting ᎯᎠ ᏡᎬ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ", ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ, Feb. 2000.
  4. L. V. Berkner, L. C. Marshall, 1965, "ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Origin ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ Oxygen Concentration ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ", ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎯᎠ Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 22, Ꮭ. 3, pp. 225–261.
  5. J.B. Murphy, R.D. Nance, "How do supercontinents assemble?", ᏴᏩᏁᎬ Scentist, vol. 92, pp. 324-333.
  6. J.L. Kirschvink, 1992, "ᎣᏂᏱᏳ Proterozoic ᎡᎳᏗ-Latitude Global Glaciation: ᎯᎠ Snowball ᎡᎶᎯ", ᎯᎠ Proterozoic Biosphere, pp 51-52.
  7. D. Raup & J. Sepkoski, 1982, "ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ extinctions ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ marine fossil ᎪᏪᎸ", ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᎩ, vol. 215, pp. 1501–1503.
  8. "Geodetic ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi 1980 (GRS80)", XVII ᏂᎦᎥ ᏓᏂᎳᏫᎥ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ Geodesy.
  9. T. H. Jordan, "Structural Geology of the Earth's Interior", Procedings ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎢᎬᎢ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᎩ, 1979, Sept., 76(9): 4192–4200.
  10. Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, .C.M., Levrard, B., 2004, "A long term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth", Astronomy ᎠᎴ Astrophysics, 428, pp. 261-285.
  11. Williams, D.M., J.F. Kasting, 1997, "Habitable planets ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ obliquities", Icarus 129, 254-268.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 CIA: ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ Factbook, "World".
  13. Shiklomanov, Igor . 1993, "ᎡᎶᎯ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ", ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ crisis: ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎦᎷᎩ, ed. Peter H. Gleick, 13–24. ᎢᏤ York: Oxford University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, ISBN 0-19-507627-3.
  14. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ depth ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, significantly ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ statue ᏅᏩnvwatohiyadv. ᎠᎾᎵᏍᎪᎸᏘᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ depth ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ ᎢᏗᎦᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᏂᏯuniyatolv ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ: ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1.4 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ; 109 km3; ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 5.1 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ; 108 km2. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ depth ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ roughly 2.8 km, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ statue ᏅᏩnvwatohiyadv ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 0.093 km, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ pedestal.
  15. FAO, 1995, "United ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ Yearbook", 49.
  16. "Deep Ocean Studies." Ocean Studies. RAIN National Public Internet and Community Technology Center. (2006-04-02)
  17. Template:Cite news
  18. Ackerman, Forrest J (1997). Forrest J Ackerman's World of Science Fiction. Los Angeles: RR Donnelley & Sons Company. ISBN 1-57544-069-5, 116-117.
  19. Pale Blue Dot. SETI@home. ᏥᏟᏌ 2006-04-02.
  20. 20.0 20.1 ᎠᏯ.J. Sackmann, .ᎠᏯ. Boothroyd, K.E. Kraemer, "Our Sun. III. Present and Future.", Astrophysical ᏕᎪᏪᎸ, vol. 418, pp. 457.
  21. J.F. Kasting, 1988, "Runaway and Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres and the Evolution of Earth and Venus", Icarus, 74, pp. 472-494.

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]