ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ

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ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎪᏢᏅᎥᏍᎩ

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ, ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ (ᎠᎪᎢ: Metallon) ᎨᏒᎢ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ Ꮎ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ion(cations) ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ metallic ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏙ. ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ions (cations) dagatuwistanv ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ delocalized electrons. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ionisation ᎠᎴ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏙ properties, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ metalloidᎠᎴ nonmetal. ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ, ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏎᏒᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ boron (B) polonium (Po) ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ nonmetals. ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎴ metalloids, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏴᎩ-ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ; ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ; ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ nonmetals.

ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ overlapping ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩᎠᎴ valence ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ electronic ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎢᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ metallic polymers ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ researchers ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-tech ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ synthetic ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ-ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ reflectiveness elemental ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ.

Nonmetal ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ metallic ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ aluminium, ᎠᏥᏱ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᎦᏂ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ, titanium, uranium, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᎳᏂ.

ᎯᎠ allotropeᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ nonmetals ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏩᎾ ᎤᏲᏍᏗ (ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ nonmetals), ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ insulator.

ᎯᎠ properties ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ outermost electron(valence electron); ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎯᎠ valence electrons ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏗᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ-ᎦᏇᏅᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ nuclei cations.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ chemically ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ oxides ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ timescales (ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ potassium ᎦᎴᏴᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎵᏁ). ᎯᎠ alkali ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ quickest ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ alkaline ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ leftmost ᏔᎵ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ oxidise (ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᎠᏥᏱ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᎳᏂ, ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏅᏖᏗ). ᎠᏂᏐᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ, platinum ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ oxide ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ penetrated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ (ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ aluminium, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ titanium). ᎯᎠ oxideᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ nonmetals, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔic).

ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ anodising ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ.

ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ, ᏩᎾ ᎤᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ chemically reactive. Combining ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ properties ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏐᏍᏛ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏩᎾ ᎤᏲᏍᏗ, ᎠᏍᏓᏰᎯᎨ, ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ lustre. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ (ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ), ᏣᏱ (ᎠᏥᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᎳᏂ), ᏬᏗᎨ (ᎠᏥᏱ ᎠᎴ ᏍᎫᎣ), ᎠᎴ duralumin (aluminium ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏱ). ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛᎭ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᎩ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ.

ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ properties[edit]

ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ properties: ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ (ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ "lustre"), ᎤᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ, ᏩᏂᎨᎢ, ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ reactive, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᏗᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ elemental, metallic ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ.

ᎡᎶᎯ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ specialised ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ astrophysics, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ" ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ hydrogen ᎠᎴ helium, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ chemically ᎬᏙᏗ-metallic ᏥᏄᏍᏗ neon, fluorine, ᎠᎴ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱᏊ Ꮭ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ Ꮎ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ chemical ᏗᏚᎳᏙ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ" ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ-helium ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘ scarcer ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ hydrogen ᎠᎴ helium ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏃᏈᏏ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ-ᎤᏪᎾᎢ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]