ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ

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ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎲᎢ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᏩᏐᎳ

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵl ᎤᏙᏢᏒ lepidopteran (ᎨᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ comprising ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏐᎳ).

ᎤᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ segmented ᏗᏂᏰᎸ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ prolegᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ prolegs ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ. Sawfly larvae (Hymenoptera) ᎤᏍᏔᎳᎾᎵ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ prolegs ᎾᎿ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ. ᏄᏓᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ lepidopteran ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ crochets ᎠᎴ ᏑᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ prolegs. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ prolegs, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ geometrids, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ inchworms ᎠᎴ loopers, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ locomote, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎬᎢ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ (ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ geometrid ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ-measurer ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎪᎢ), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ prolegs.

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎧᎹᎹ

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎰᎵ. ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏰᎸ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ thorax ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᎵᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ airtubes.

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ. ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎲᎢ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ-ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ digatoli ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ stemmata ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ. ᎤᏅᏌ rely ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ antennae ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎯᎠ larvae sawflies ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎪᎯᏳᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ocelli ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ.

Defence[edit]

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ
ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏤᎵ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᏂᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒᏂ, ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ digatoli ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏉᎵ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ predators Ꮎ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ, ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏓᏜᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ 'ᎣᏂᏗᏢ' ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ attacked. ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎦᎪᏘ.

ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎣᏩᏒ-defence ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏭᏯᏛ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎣᏌᏂ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬᎾ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏓᎿᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ Ꮎ brushes ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎠᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏥᎦᏍᎬ acidic digestive ᎦᏁᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᏗᏂᏓᏄᏫ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᏫᎵ ᏦᏕ ᎯᎠ hairiest ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ glands, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ urticating ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ chemicals ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ; e.g., ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ chemical ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨn ᏏᎵᎩ ᏩᏐᎳ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Lonomia ᎨᏒᎢ anticoagulant ᏯᏛᎿ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ, causing ᎠᏂ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Lonomiasis; [1]) ᎪᎯ chemical ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ investigated ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏅᏬᏘ ᏗᏔᏲᏍᏙᏗ (ᎠᏯ.e., ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎩᎬ clotting).

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ digakohidi Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏐᎢ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎤᏅᏌ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ iyahdvnelidasdi, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ Ꮎ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏩᏐᎳ (Tyria jacobaeae) ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ striped ᎠᎴ coloured ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ - ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ colours (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ aposematism).

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏐᏍᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ atuyasdodi Ꮎ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ predator Ꮎ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏗ (ᎠᎴ tries ᎠᎩᏍᏗ) ᏌᏊ ᎠᏂ ᏫᎵ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ associating ᎤᏅᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏙᏒᏓᎵ. ᎯᎠ Lycaenid butterflies ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ. ᎾᏞᎬ ᎥᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏙᏒᏓᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ chemical ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ.

Behaviour[edit]

ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ-humped ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ (Schizura concinna)

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ, ᏚᎦᏔᏬᎸ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᎦᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᏍᎩ itsuwakodi, ᎠᎴ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ pupate ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ fastest ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ gantlai ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᏦᎳ hornworm ᏫᎵ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ itsuwakodi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏔᎳᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ adaptations Ꮎ ᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ specialized midgut ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ions ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎯᎠ lumen (midgut ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ), ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ potassium ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ midgut ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎬ. ᎪᎯ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ vertebrates.

ᎢᎦᏛ Hawaiian ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ techniques ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏂᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ. [1]

ᏐᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ larvae.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

Larva Locomotion: A Closer Look —- video ᎦᏂᏴᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎸᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ larvae ᎠᎢᏒ. More video clips from nature

3D animation Papilio polyxenes larvae ᎠᎢᏒᎢ.

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. "Hawaiian ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎦᏃᎭᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏂᎧᎾᏁᏍ", MSNBC, online ᎾᎾᎢ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8659911/.

ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ[edit]