ᎠᎧᏔᏘ

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50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᎠᎧᏔᏘ" (ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ tele = 'ᎢᏅ' ᎠᎴ skopein = 'ᎭᎦᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ'; teleskopos = 'ᎢᏅ-ᎥᎪᏩᏘᏍᎬ') ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ electromagnetic ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏐᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵes electromagnetic ᎤᏣᏘᎾ. ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ. ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᎾᏢᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ - lenses ᎠᎴ ᏓᏎᏘ- ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ electromagnetic ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ, photographed ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-astronomical ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ, ᎠᏁᏙᎯ, spotting ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ, monocular, ᏗᎦᏙᏗ, ᏗᏓᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᎨᏗes ᎠᎴ spyglasses.

ᏏᏴᏫ-ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎧᏔᏘᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ antennae ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎲᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ conductive ᎤᏯᏅᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᎵᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ wavelength. Multi-ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎧᏔᏘᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏖᎵᏙ synthesize ᎡᏆ "ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ" ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ: ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2005, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ itsuwakodi ᎯᎠ ᎾᏯᏛᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, utilizing ᎤᏜᏅᏛ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵese HALCA (ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎠᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ tsunadatvgotanv ᎠᎴ ᎡᎶᎯ) VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) satellite. ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ (ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎠᏚᏢᏙᏗ Interferometry ᎾᎾᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ.

X-ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ gamma-ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ "glancing" ᏓᏎᏘ, ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎨᏛ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ, Ꮎ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏨᏓᏓnusdv tsvdadakenedi ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ. ᎯᎠ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ rotated ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ. High energy particle telescopes ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏍᏉᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ originating ᎾᎾᎢ astronomical ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ Assyrian ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ lenses[1], ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Visby lenses ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎶ ᎤᎾᏣ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ. Leonard Digges ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ adatunv ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ England ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1570s, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ adatudi ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ assembling ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ Dutch ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꭺgoweli gowlisgi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1608. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᏙᎥ Ꮎ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Hans Lippershey (c. 1570 – c. 1619), ᎠᎴ Jacob Metius ᎠᎴ Zacharias Jansen ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ Lippershey ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏌᏊ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ publicized ᎾᏍᎩ. Galileo Galilei ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1609, ᏓᏯᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ "perspicillum," ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ "telescopium" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Latin ᎠᎴ "telescopio" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Italian (ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ). Galileo ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ adatunv ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ astronomical ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ. Galileo ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ agatoli ᏗᏓᎨᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Galilean ᎠᎧᏔᏘ (ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ viewfinder ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏗᏓᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ). ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, Johannes Kepler ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ lenses (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ Astronomiae ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ Optica ᎠᎴ Dioptrice), ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏤ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ astronomical ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ lenses (ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ Kepler ᎠᎧᏔᏘ). ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ. ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ yvwatuwidv ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ.

ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ[edit]

ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ classified ᎾᎾᎯ ᏔᎵ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ.

  1. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ
  2. ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ uniyatolv ᎾᎾᎯ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ.

  1. Galilean refractor ᎠᎧᏔᏘ(ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ)
  2. Newtonian ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ(ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ)
  3. Catadioptrics (ᎠᏯ.e. Schmidt-Cassegrain, ᎠᎴ Maksutov-Cassegrain)

Galilean ᎠᎴ refracting ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᏓᎾᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ refractive properties ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ lenses. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ astronomical ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ.

Newtonian ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᏓᎾᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏁᎵᏒ properties ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ paraboic ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎠᏓᏂᏢᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ onto ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ (ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ) ᏓᏎᏘ Ꮎ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏨᏓᏓnusdv tsvdadakenedi ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ eyepiece.

Catadioptrics (ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Cassegrains) ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎠᎴ lenses ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ.

ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ Cassegrain ᎠᎧᏔᏘ (ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ, ᎠᎴ narrower ᏠᎨᏏ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ magnification) ᎠᎴ Newtonian ᎠᎧᏔᏘ (brighter ᏠᎨᏏ). ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ pierced ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏓᏎᏘ, Newtonian ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᎿᏁᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ replaceable ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏓᏎᏘ.

ᎢᏤ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ inaugurated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ (MMT), ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎢᎦᏛ synthesizing ᏓᏎᏘ 4.5 ᎠᏎᎯᎯᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏊ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ 6.5m ᏓᏎᏘ. Ꮝ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘᎬᏙᏗ 10 m segmented ᏓᏎᏘ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎠᏰᎵ 6 ᎠᎴ 11 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏌᎨᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ optimal ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ actuators (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ lyadvnehi ᎠᏨᏍᏛ). ᎪᎯ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏱᎵᏒᎩ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ 30, 50 ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ 100 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ.

ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ-ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ~2 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ astronomical ᏗᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ monitored ᎦᏌᏆᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᎷᎾᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ surveyed. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ robotic ᎠᎧᏔᏘ, ᎡᎵᏍ controlled ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ e.g. ᎯᎠ Liverpool ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Faulkes ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ), ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ automated ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ-ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ astronomical ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ.

ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ detector ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ agatoli. ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ sensitized photographic ᎠᏖᎵᏙ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ Ꮝ ᎾᎿᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ spectrograph ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ photographic ᎠᏖᎵᏙ, ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ electronic detector, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ-ᏔᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ (CCDs), ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ perfected, ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ sensitivity ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ wider wavelength coverage.

ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ:

  • imagers, ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ
  • spectrographs, ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ
  • polarimeters, Ꮎ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ polarization.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎢᎦᏛ technologies ᎤᏓᏢᏔᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ-ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ adaptive ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ imaging ᎠᎴ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ interferometry.

ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ diffraction ᏗᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ Ꮎ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᏔᎵ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ nanahwunvgi. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ diffraction ᎠᏎᎸᎯ (ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ Rayleigh ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ, Dawes ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏍᏆᏯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ). ᎪᎯ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ wavelength ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ) ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏓᏎᏘ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ wavelength. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮎ wavelength, wider ᏓᏎᏘ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ nearby ᎠᎧᏔᏘ.

ᎠᏍᏆᏛ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ[edit]

Ꮭ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏓᏎᏘ, ᎠᎴ refracting ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ diffraction ᏰᎵᏇ ᏙᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎳᏘᏒ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏍᏛ, ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ lenses ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ diffraction ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏔᎵ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏚᎾᎵᎪᏒ, monochromatic, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1857, Philipp Ludwig von Seidel (1821-1896) ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ monochromatic ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᏍᎩ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ Seidel ᏧᎾᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ Seidel ᏧᎾᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ 
ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ paraxial ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᏧᏅᏏᏯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ.
ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ 
ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏲᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᎴ imaged ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎳᏢᏓᏥ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ asymmetrical patches ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ imprecise. Ꮝ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ deduced ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ.
agatoli 
ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ sagittal ᎠᎴ tangiental foci ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙᎲᏅ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ) ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ.
ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ 
ᎯᎠ Petzval ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏝᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᏓᏂᎾᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ. ᎪᎯ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ imaging ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ e.g. photographic ᎠᏖᎵᏙ ᎠᎴ CCD ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ sensor.
ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ 
ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎴ pincushion, radial ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ (ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᏰᏫᏒ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ).

ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎪᎯ expresses ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ/ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ Seidel ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ-ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ). ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ, ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ᎤᏠᏱ dependencies ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ[edit]

ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ 
ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᏗᎪᏪᎶᏗ.
ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ (ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ Magnification)

ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏂᎯ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᏂᎯ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎾᎥᎢ astronomical ᎥᎪᏩᏘᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ diffraction ᏩᏎᎸᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ coverage ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ultraviolet (UV) ᎠᎴ infrared.
  • ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2005) ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᎵ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ superseded ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Gran Telescopio Canarias ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ African ᎡᏆ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ (VLT) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2002) ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎸ ᏧᏂᏴᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏓᏓᏂᏟᏍᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏅᎩ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ 8 ᎠᏎᎯᎯᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ, ᎤᎾᏙᏣᎵ ᎯᎠ European ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ (ESO) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Atacama ᎢᎾᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Chile, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎸᏕᎸ astronomical ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏦᎢ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ (ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ) Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏊ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2005) ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ wavelengths.
  • ᎯᎠ CHARA (ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ) ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏊ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2005) ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ-infrared wavelengths.
  • ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ. ᏌᏊ ᎠᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ (ᎤᎫᎫ), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᎵᏒ ᎤᎭ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ 100 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ.
  • ᎯᎠ 200-ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏛ (5.08-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ) ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎾᎿ Palomar ᎣᏓᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᏏᏴᏫ borosilicate (Pyrex™) ᏓᏎᏘ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᎾᎵᎩᎾᎶ ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏤᎵᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏭᏎᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓ.
  • ᎯᎠ 100-ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏛ (2.54-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ) ᏥᏳ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗ Wilson ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Edwin ᏂᎯ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ galaxies ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ redshift. ᎯᎠ ᏓᏎᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎨᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ-Gobain. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1919, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏗᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ interferometry. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎭ adaptive ᎠᏨᏍᏛ iyahdvnelidasdi, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ.
  • ᎯᎠ 72-ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏛ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ Birr ᎦᏁᎸ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ireland) ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1845 iyuwakodi ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ dismanlted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1908. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ succeeded ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ iyuwakodi ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ.
  • ᎯᎠ 1.02-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ Yerkes ᎠᎧᏔᏘ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Wisconsin) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ aimable refracting ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ.
  • ᎯᎠ 0.76-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎣᏍᏛ refractor (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ France) Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ operational ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1888 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ Ꮎ iyuwakodi ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ refractor. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ iyuwakodi ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ operational ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Europe. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ exceeded ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏌᏊ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ 0.91-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ refractor ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᎢᏍᏗ refractor ᎢᏳᏊ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ 1900 ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ. Ꮝ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ, prefigured ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏴᏨ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ aimed ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ Foucault sidérostat, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎬᏙᏗ 2-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, mounted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᏩᏗᏅᏗ-ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ 60 m ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ 1.25 m ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ.
  • ᎯᎠ 1-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ refracting Swedish ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ (SST) ᎾᎿ ᏂᏚᏍᏛᎢ Palma, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ-ᎠᎵᏁᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᏐᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎠᎧᏔᏘ[edit]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]