ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ

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ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Telegraf Claude Chappe ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Litermont ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Nalbach, ᎠᏂᏛᏥ

ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎳᏛ (ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᎢ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ tele = ᎢᏅ ᎠᎴ graphein = ᎪᏪᎶᏗ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎯ. Radiotelegraphy ᎠᎴ wireless ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ. ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᏞᎬ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ fax, ᎢᎺᎸ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᎵᏍ ᏓᎧᏁᎲᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ. (ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ transmitting ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ, ᎠᏯ.e. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ.) Wireless ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ CW, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ (ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ modulated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎾᎿ-ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ technique ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ).

ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ Morse ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ cablegrams, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ shortened ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎯ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ. ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Telex ᏓᎧᏁᎲ, switched ᏓᎧᏁᎲ teleprinter ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎳᏛ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ telex ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ. ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎳᏛ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ affordable, ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ. ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏓᏂᎾᏕᎬ ᎠᎴ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ, ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᎪᏪᎵᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏓᏂᎾᏕᎬ.

ᎤᏯᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏩᏓᎴ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ.

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎦᏒᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᎦᏒᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎭ existed ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ. ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ Claude Chappe ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1792 ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ 1846. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Europe ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ (ᎠᏂᎤᎦᎾᏍᏔ) ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1880.

ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏩᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᎵᏬ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏧᎦᏒᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ consumed Ꮭ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ. ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎨᏛᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎦᏒᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ 30 km (20 ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏔᎵ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ. ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎬ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ thirtyfold ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ.

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1775 Francisco ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Salva ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ electrostatical ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ. Samuel T. Soemmering ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᎤᏤᎵ electrochemical ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1809. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ, electromagnetic ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ Schilling ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1832. Carl Friedrich Gauß ᎠᎴ Wilhelm Weber ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ electromagnetic ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1833 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Göttingen. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Charles Wheatstone ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ William Fothergill Cooke ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᎸᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏅᏃᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏍᏆᎸᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 13 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Paddington ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ Drayton ᎠᎴ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎫᏬᏂ 9, 1839. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᎲ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1837.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1843 ᎦᏁᎳ ᎦᎾᎦᏗ Alexander Bain ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ "ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ". Bain ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏧᏯᏅᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1855 ᎠᎵᏣᏙᎲᏍᎩ, Giovanni Caselli, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᎶ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ. Caselli ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ "Pantelegraph". Pantelegraph ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ tested ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏃᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Lyon.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ transmitted ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ: "ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎣᏍᏓᎯᎨ?" ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ Samuel Morse ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1844.

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ patented ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1837 ᎾᎥᎢ Samuel Morse. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ, Alfred ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ, ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ Morse ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ signaling ᏗᎦᎶᏆᏍᏙ ᎬᏙᏗ Morse. ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ Morse ᎾᎿ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 6, 1838, ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᏂᏏᎳᏛᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎥᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ "ᎤᏢᎩ ᎦᏍᎩᎸ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ loser." ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 24, 1844, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ, "ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎣᏍᏓᎯᎨ?," (ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ 23:23) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏩᏏᏓᏂ Baltimore, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ. ᎯᎠ Morse/ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ deployed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏔᎵ ᎯᏍᎩ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎫᏰᏉᏂ 27, 1866, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏧᎾᏓᏛᎪᎳᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁ ᏕᎨᏥᎧᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1857 ᎠᎴ 1858 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ underwater ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ accelerated ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ.

ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1891.

ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᏌᎶᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎦᎶᏂ 9, 1892, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Thomas Edison ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᎲ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏔᎵ-ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ patent 0480,567, "ᏔᎵ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ".

Radiotelegraphy[edit]

Nikola Tesla ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ wireless ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ, radiotelegraphy, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ, ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1890s. Alexander Stepanovich Popov ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ wireless ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎬ detector, ᎾᎿ 7 ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ, 1895. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ Guglielmo Marconi ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᎶ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 6 kilometres ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1896. ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏯᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ, ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ, Marconi radiotelegraphed ᎯᎠ ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ "" ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Atlantic ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ England Newfoundland.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1898 Popov ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ wireless ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏥᏳ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1900 ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏲᏂᎢ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᏥᏳ ᏂᎦᎥ-ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Apraksin ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏒᎢ Finnish fishermen ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ Finland ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏔᎵ radiostations, ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎾᎾᎢ Gogland ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏂᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Kotka. ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎴᏫᏍᏗwireless ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Popov ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎾᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎦ.

Albert Einstein ᏂᎬᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ radiotelegraphy ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ,

"ᎤᏯᏅᎯ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏪᏌ. ᏂᎯ ᎦᎾᏌᏁᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ York ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Los Angeles. ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏗᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᏪᏌ." [1]

Radiotelegraph ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ. ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ.

ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸ[edit]

Teletype ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ

ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ-ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎬ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ encodings. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ. ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎬ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ telegraphese.

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎯᎠ teletypewriter, ᎦᏣᏄᎳ encoding ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ automated. ᎢᎬᏱ teletypewriters ᎬᏔᏅᎯ Baudot ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, 5-ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ. ᎪᎯ yielded ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏦᏍᎪᎯ ᏔᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ-ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏔᎵ "ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ," "ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ" ᎠᎴ "ᏗᏎᏍᏗ." ᎦᏛᎬᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ prefaced ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏙᏓᎦᏅᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ airline ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏙᎢ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ Teletype ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ SITA ᎠᎴ AFTN ᏓᎧᏁᎲ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ Airways ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ (FICO) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2004 ᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ teletype ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ airline ᎡᎵᏍ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎡᎪᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ PARS (Programmable Airline ᎧᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ) ᎠᎴ IPARS Ꮎ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏠᏱ shifted 6-ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ Teletype ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 8 ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗᏍᎬ bandwidth ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎳ. teletype ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ EDIFACT ᎠᎴ XML ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ.

[[Asynchronous start-stop|ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ timing ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ]] ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ telecommunications. ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏙᏪᎸ" ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ powered ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏯᏅᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎤᏄᎸᏅᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎬ "ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ" Ꮎ ᎤᎾᏌᏁᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎯᎠ unpowered "ᎤᏜᏅᏛ" ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ triggered wheeled commutator ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ (ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, digital electronics). ᎯᎠ commutator ᎠᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ "ᎠᏥᏂᏱᏍᎬ" ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ. "ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ" ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ powered "ᎤᏙᏪᎸ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ" ᎠᏚᏯᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ commutator ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ triggered ᎯᎠ ᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ vibrating.

Telex[edit]

Siemens T100 Telex ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ.
ᎣᏂᏱᏳ-ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎩᎵᏏ Telecom ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ.

ᎾᎥᎢ 1935, ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏩᏎᎸ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ ᎡᏆ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎧᎵ automation. ᎡᏆ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ providers ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎳᏛ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᏩᏥ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏗᎵᎪᏙᏗ teletypes. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "telex". Telex ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ-ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎳᏛ-ᎠᏣᏅᏗ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᏩᏥ ᎪᏯᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ baudot ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ. ᎪᎯ "ᏗᎦᎪᏗ " telex ᏩᏎᎸ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ automated ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏩᏎᎸ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ-coverage telex ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ implemented ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 1930s. ᎯᎠ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ.

ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ-ᏧᎦᏙᏴᎢᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ 45.5 ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ, ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 25 telex ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎳᏛ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ telex ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᏯ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1970, Cuba ᎠᎴ Pakistan ᎨᏒᎩ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ 45.5 baud ᏗᎦᎪᏗ telex. Telex ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ developing ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ' bureaucracies, ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗᏱ Ꮎ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ entities ᎠᎴ reliably ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ telex ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ.

ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ca. 1960, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᏗᏎᏍᏗ" baudot ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ "ᏗᎦᎪᏗ B" telex ᏩᏎᎸ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

Telex ᎤᏛᏒ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ. ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᎩ telephony ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ Africa ᎠᎴ Asia, ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ (shortwave) telex ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏓᎾᏓᏛᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ (PTTs). ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, CCITT R.44 ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ-ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ retransmitting ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ-ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ impoverished PTTs ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ telex-ᎾᎿ-ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ (ᏂᎦᏛᎢ) ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂ.

ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ telex ᎾᎿ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ (ᏂᎦᏛᎢ) ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎵᏱᎸᏛ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ specialized ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ RTTY) ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ software ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ adapters ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ shortwave ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ "cablegrams" ᎠᎴ "ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ" ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ dedicated telex ᏓᎧᏁᎲ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎤᏩᏒ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 400,000 telex ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ telex ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ.

ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ Telex ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ (ᎨᏒᎢ) Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᎩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ "answerback". ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ, ᎯᎠ sender ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏩᏗᏱ WRU (ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎯ) ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ automatically ᎠᏓᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ encoded ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎠᎱᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ, ᎤᏣᏘ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏙᎯᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ sender, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ sender ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ. ᎯᎠ WRU ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏓ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ Telex ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏜᏅᎠᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏧᎾᏓᏛᎪᎳᏅ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎳᏛ ᎠᎴ fax.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ Ꭺ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ Telex ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎯ 5-ᎠᏔᎴᏒ Ꭺ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ Ꭺ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ. ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎯᎠ Ꭺ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᏘᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ transmitted ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏍᏗᎬᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. Telex ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓᏚᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ minimizing ᎯᎠ ᏗᎵᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎸᎲᎩ ᎠᏕᎳ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᎵᎪᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ "ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ", ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ sender ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ keyboard ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ.

TWX[edit]

ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏦᏔᏩᏘ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎤᏤᎵ telex ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎾᎾᎢ&T ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1930s ᏚᏭᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ telex ᏌᏊ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ (ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ ᏩᏥ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᏐᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ) ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "Teletype ᎠᏯᏖᎾ-ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ" (TWX). ᎾᎾᎢ&T, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎭᎸᏂ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Teletype ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1930 ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ Ꮝ teleprinter ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ TWX.

TWX ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᏚᏍᏆᎸᏔᏅ 75 ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ, ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎬ Baudot ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏥ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎭᎸᏂ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ "ᏅᎩ ᎤᏓᏅᏅ" modems ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᎭᎸᏂ 101 dataset", ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏧᏂᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎭᎸᏂ 103 modem Ꮎ launched ᎡᎵᏍ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ-sharing. ᎯᎠ 101 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏍᏆᎸᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ subscriber ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ (ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ) ᎾᏍᏋ routed ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎠᏯᏖᎾ-ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ". ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ switched ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎠᏏᎳᏛ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ, TWX ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ: 510, 610, 710, 810 ᎠᎴ 910. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ TWX ᎾᏛᏁᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ re-provisioned ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ geographic NPA ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1990s.

ᎤᎭᎸᏂ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏩᏥ ᎪᏯᏛ telephony. ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1939 ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ITT ᎤᏤᎵ PTT ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ deemphasis ᎾᎿ telex ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᏪᏌ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ telex ᎠᎴ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ regulatory agencies ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ".

  • ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ spinoff ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ." ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ.
  • ITT ᎤᏤᎵ "ᎡᎶᎯ ᏧᎾᏓᏛᎪᎳᏅ" ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ amalgamated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ: "ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ," "ᏂᎦᏛ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ," "ᎡᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᎾᏕᎾ Wireless," ᎠᎴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ Mackay ᎠᏜ.
  • RCA ᏧᎾᏓᏛᎪᎳᏅ ᎠᏰᎲ specialized ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ MCI.
  • ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏯ, ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Radiotelegraph ᏩᏗᏱ ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎾᎿ ᏥᏳ ᏧᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎤᏤᎵᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏩᎯᏗ ᏆᏁᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ-ᎠᎫᏱᏍᎬ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ. ᏧᎾᏓᏛᎪᎳᏅ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ UFC ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. TRT Telecommunications (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ) ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ PTT ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ (ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᎸᏥ investors) ᎠᏰᎲ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎦᎸᏥᏱ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ "Monsieur Puyer-Quartier". ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎩᏒ Ꮝ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏩᏎᎸ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ID "PQ".
  • Firestone ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ Ꮝ ᎣᏤᎵ IRC, ᎯᎠ "Trans-Liberia Radiotelegraph ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ". ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ shortwave ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Akron OH ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Liberia. TL ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akron.

ᎤᎭᎸᏂ telex ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ IRC ᎬᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᏎᎸ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏎᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ IRCs ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ TWX ᎠᎴ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ. ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ.

ᎤᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ[edit]

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 2006, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ.

ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1965, DARPA ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ decentralized ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎠᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ARPANET ᎦᏇᏅᎯ ᎣᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏓᏣᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏦᎢ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎢᎬᏱ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ digital ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ media. ᏔᎵᏁ, ᏩᏎᎸ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ decentralized. ᏦᎢᏁ, ᎡᏆ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᏇᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ reassembled ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎦᏛᎢ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ controlled media, centralized routers ᎠᎴ dedicated ᏓᎾᎵᎪᏗᏍᎬ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᎤᏛᏒ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᎨ digital ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ, ᎠᏓᎾᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ digital ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ PSTN.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ PSTN ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ digital ᏓᎧᏁᎲ, T-ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ "ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ" ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ T-1 ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᎭ "ᎦᎸᏙᏗ" 193 ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ Ꮎ ᏅᎬᎪᎪᎩ 8000 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ "sync" ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ, ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ 1 ᎠᎴ 0 ᎠᏓᏙᎯᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ 8 ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ 24 ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎧᏁᎬ ᎤᏲᏴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ. Customarily, T-1 ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏄᏘᏴᎾ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ transformers ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ. Europeans ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ (E-1) 32 ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ (ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎸᏙᏗ synchronisation).

ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, SONET ᎠᎴ SDH (ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ digital hierarchy) ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎧᏁᏉᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ wavelength ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ rerigging ᎢᏤ fibre. ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ fibres ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ fibre ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ fibre ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎯᏯᏍᏗ "ᎤᎳᏏᎩ fibre", "ᎤᎳᏏᎩ wavelengths", ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ SONET ᎦᎸᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ."

ᎾᏊ (2006), ᎯᎠ fastest ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ SONET ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ OC-768, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 40 gigabits ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ.

ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 10^12 ᎤᏍᎦᎶᏨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ. Ꮭ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ (2006) encoding ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ approaches ᎪᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ wavelength ᎠᏰᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᏛ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ.

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᏗᏂᎪᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ digital ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ, ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏏᎾᏒᎢ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ.

E-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ[edit]

E-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Multics ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1960s. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ, e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎡᎵᏍ. UUCP ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ relayed ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎡᎵᏍ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ, E-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏔᎵ ᎡᎵᏍ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ.

ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ (UUNET, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, GEnie, DECNET) ᎠᏰᎲ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ 1970s, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ, $25 $50 ᏏᏅᏙ, ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ E-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ. ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, academia ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ contractors ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1980s.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1992, ᎡᎵᏍ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ modem ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎡᎵᏍ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ & ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏗ interfaces ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎤᏓᏣᏙᏗ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ telex ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ: ᎠᏏᏴᏫ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ.

ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ISPs ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎯ app. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ smoothed ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-1990s.

ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ Telex ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᏥᏳ ᏗᏔᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏤᎵ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ numeric ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ prefixes ᏗᎪᏍᏗᏱ ᏌᏊ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. Telex ᎤᎭ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "answerback" Ꮎ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎦ ᏄᏩᏓᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᏌᏊ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ telex ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ, ᎪᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᏩᏓᎴ telex ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ e-ᎪᏪᎵ ᏫᎦᏅᏅ ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ.

ᎾᎿ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 27, 2006, ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ announced the discontinuation Ꮝ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ; ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎶᎩ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ. 20,000 ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2005, ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ 20 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1929. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏙᎢ ᎠᏂᏍᎪᎳᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ, Ꮝ ᎣᏂ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ ᏧᎾᎩᎶᏍᏗ, ᎧᎦᎵ 3, 2006.

ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ. [1] ᎢᎦᏛ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏂᎤᎦᎾᏍᏔ Telia ᏙᎢ ᏩᎯᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ nostalgic ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏗᏛᎪᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᏧᏩᎦᏔᏅᏍ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎩᎵᏏ Telecom ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ spun ᎤᏣᏘᎾ [2] ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ retro ᎤᎵᎮᎵᏤᏘ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Netherlands, ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎠᏥᏰᎶᎲ ᎤᏑᎳᎪᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2004. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Belgium ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ, ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎬᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Belgacom, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᏧᏩᏚᏃᎯ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ, NTT ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ (denpou) ᎾᏛᏁᎸ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏕᎨᎦᏨᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᏓᎾᏓᏂᏏᏍᎬ, ᏓᏂᏍᏆᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎠᎾᎦᎳᏔᏅ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ decorated Ꭺ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏍᏚᏗ.

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. Michael Fripp ᎠᎴ Deborah Fripp, "'ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎬ agatohvsdi".

ᏫᏓᏎᏄᎢ[edit]

  • Jeffrey L. Kieve. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᎪᎳᏛᏅ: ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ David ᎠᎴ Charles (1973) ISBN 0-7153-5883-9.
  • ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ Standage. ᎯᎠ Victorian ᎧᎾᏁᏍ Berkley ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ, (1998) ISBN 0-425-17169-8.

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

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