ᎠᎦᎷᎦ

From Wikipedia
(Redirected from Tornado)
Jump to: navigation, ᎡᏗt
ᎤᏃᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏌᎨᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᎦᏚᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ, ᎠᎦᏴᏖᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ.

ᎠᎦᏅᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎤᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ cumulonimbus (ᎠᎴ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᎤᏬᎩᎸ) ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᏒᏂᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ.

ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ 110 mph (175 km/h) ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 250 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ (75 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ) ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (ᎯᎸᏍᎩ kilometers) ᎤᏓᎷᎸ dissipating. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 300 mph (480 km/h), ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ (1.6 km) ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏔᎳᏚ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 100 kilometers).[1][2][3]

ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏧᏁᏍᏓᎸ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ.[4] ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ, ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᏐᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ-ᎠᏰᎵ ᎨᎾᏓ, ᎤᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ, ᎧᎸᎬ-ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ, ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ-ᎠᏰᎵ ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ.[5]

ᎧᏁᏨ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᎤᏃᎴ" ᎦᎷᎦ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏍᏆᏂ ᎧᏁᏨ tronada[6] ("ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ"), ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯᎭ ᎧᏁᏨ tornar ("ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ").

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ, ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎢᏤ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ: twister, ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ, ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ, willy-willy, ᎦᏰᏌᏛ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ, ᎠᏕᏲᎲ, ᏍᏕᏱᏛ, ᎠᎴ stovepipe. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, willy-willy ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ.

ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ[edit]

ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ.
waterspout ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᏗᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ.
landspout ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎤᏴᏢ Platte, ᏎᎷᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 22, 2004.

ᎤᏃᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ (NWS) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎤᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏫᎧᏁᏉᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ."[7] ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏎᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Bernoulli ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ) ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ.

ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᎦᏛᎢ, ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ, ᎬᏙᏗ Ꮭ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ. ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᏚᎶᎩᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏚᎵᏃᎮᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ.[3]

ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎭ ᏎᏍᏗ vortices, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏚᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᏗᏆᎳᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏰᎵ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᏆ, ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ Ꮭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ "ᎦᏐᏆᎸ" ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ (ᏯᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ), ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᏌᏊ, ᎡᏆ multi-ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ.[3]

waterspout ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎹ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ waterspouts—ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ "ᎠᎾᏓᎪᎾᏛᏗᏍᎬ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ" waterspouts—ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ (F0 ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ), ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎪᎨᏱ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ. ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, waterspouts ᎠᏓᏅ onto ᎦᏙᎯ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ waterspouts ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ supercell ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ waterspouts, ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏓᏲᎱᏎᎲ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ.

landspout ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ mesocyclone. ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ-ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ, ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏅ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ. ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ weaker ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ.[3][7]

Gustnado ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ swirl ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ downburst. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ gustnadoes ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ.[3] [8] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ localized ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᏥᏃᏍᏛ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ.

ᎪᏍᏚᎭ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ swirling ᎤᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ phenomena ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏅᎯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ weakest ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ skies. ᎪᏍᏚᎭ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎠᎾᏓᎪᎾᏛᏗᏍᎬ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ, ᎾᎿ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏤᏫᏍᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ.[9] [10]

ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᎢᎬᏱ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ. ᎪᎯ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏁᏍᎬᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ, ᎦᏙᎬ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ. ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ causing ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Dimmitt, ᏅᏓᎩ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ.

ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ.[7] ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ mesocyclone ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ, ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ supercell. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎧᏁᏉᎠ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎾᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ downdraft (RFD). ᎪᎯ downdraft ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ approaches ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏏᏅᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ mesocyclone ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ mesocyclone approaches ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎠᏐᏴ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ RFD ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᎠ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, creating ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᎤᏠᏱᎭ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ causing ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ (ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ) ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ RFD ᎠᎾᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ.

ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ, ᎦᏚᎵᏓ inflow ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏍᎦ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᎠ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ Ꮝ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎣᏂ ᏂᎬᏉ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ, ᎤᏃᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎯᎠ RFD, ᎾᏊ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ, ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᏛᏰᎶᎲ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ inflow ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ RFD ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎲᎢ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏌᎨᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ dissipating ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏬᎩᎸ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ dissipating ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ dissipating ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, Ꮝ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ mesocyclone ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ downdraft ᏗᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ inflow ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ supercells, ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ cyclically. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ mesocyclone ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ inflow ᎨᏒᎢ concentrated ᎾᎾᎯ ᎢᏤ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎢᏤ mesocyclone ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᏇ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎢᏤ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭᏊ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ, ᎠᎴ occluded mesocyclone, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ mesocyclone ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ.

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ-accepted ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎪᏏᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ landspouts, ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏎᏍᏗ vortices. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᎭ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ—ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎪᎯ ᏌᏊ.

ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ[edit]

ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ.
ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ dissipating ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ.
ᏎᏍᏗ-ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ Dallas, ᏅᏓᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎫᏬᏂ 2, 1957.

ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ, ᎦᏲᎵ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏕᎬᎢ.

ᎤᏍᏗ, ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ landspouts ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ swirl ᎪᏍᏚᎭ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎦᏚᎢ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 40 mph (64 km/h), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ.

ᎡᏆ ᏏᏴᏫ-ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎡᏆ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏗᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ ᏚᎶᎩᎸ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏚᎵᏃᎮᎸ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᎦᏛᎢ ᎤᎶᎩᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ.

ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ dissipating ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ, ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ -ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ pictured ᎾᎾᎢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎠᎴ roping ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏍᏕᏱᏛ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᏎᏍᏗ-ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ swirls ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ obscured ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎪᏍᏚᎭ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ, ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ obscured ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ meteorologists ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏓᏓᎸ ᎠᏂ.[9]

ᏂᎬᎢ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 500 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ (150 m) ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 5 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (8 km). ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏂᏕᎬᎢ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ.

ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎴ dissipating ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎤᏃᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 7 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ (2 m) ᎦᏅᎯᏓ.[9]

ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ (1.6 km) ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ. ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ Hallam, ᏎᎷᏱ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 22, 2004 ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ 2.5 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (4 km) ᎠᏯᏖᎾ[2].

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ, ᎢᎦᏛ meteorologists ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏦᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᏨᎫᎵ, ᎢᎵᏃᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏂᏗᏰᎾ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ 18, 1925, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 219 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (352 km). ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏏᏴᏫ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᎢᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ-ᎢᎦ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 160 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (260 km) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ northeastern ᎦᏯᎴᏂ ᎾᎿ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ 22, 1992.[11]

ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ[edit]

ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ, ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ swirling ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ. ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎤᏁᎬ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏁᏙᎵᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ waterspout, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ. ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ, ᏛᏓᏓᏂᎸᎬ ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ darker, ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ. ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏂᎬᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏥ-ᎫᏝᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏔᎵ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ Waurika ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, 30 ᎠᏂᏍᎬᏘ, 1976, taken at nearly the same time. In the top picture, Ꮎ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ is front-lit, with the sun behind the east-facing camera, so the funnel appears nearly white. In the lower image, where the camera is facing the opposite direction, Ꮎ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ is back-lit, with the sun behind the clouds.[12]

ᎠᏨᏍᏛᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᎤᏃᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ "ᎦᏐᎯ-ᎠᏨᏍᏓᏗ", ᎠᎴ viewed ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᏫᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏃᎴ, viewed ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᏐᎯ, ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᎪᎸ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎬ. ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ.[13]

ᎪᏍᏚᎭ ᎠᎦᏴᏖᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ, ᎦᎨᏛ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᏐᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏏᎬᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ "ᎢᎦᎢ", ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ. ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏂᏰᎬ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ radar ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ. ᎣᏏ ᎢᏳᎾᎵᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ-ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ updraft, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎠᎦᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ 4 ᎠᎴ 8 pm, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᏅᏙ ᎢᎦ ᎡᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ thickest ᏚᎶᎩᎸ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᏒᏃᏱ-ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ illuminated ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎬ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎩᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ doppler radar ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ[14] ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏕᎳ[15], ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᎭ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ, tohinusdv ᎠᏰᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ, ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ ᎯᎠ agatoli ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ. ᎪᎯ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ (ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎧᎵ ᎪᏍᏚᎭ), ᎤᎭ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎳᏏᎩ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ blocked ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ swirling ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎴ.

ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ cyclonic ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ (counterclockwise ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ). ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ cyclonically ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Coriolis ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ; ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 1 ᎤᏃᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 100 ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ anticyclonic ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ landspouts ᎠᎴ gustnados ᎠᏕᏲᎲ anticyclonically. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, anticyclonic supercell ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏃᎴ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ.[16]

ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ[edit]

ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎾᎪᎲᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏅᏂᏙᎲ F5 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 500 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ (150 m) ᎠᏯᏖᎾ. [11]

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏗᏟᎶᏛ[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ doppler radar, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ guesses ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏘᎸᎩ populated ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ 500 mph, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏍᏋ supersonic.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1950s, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎪᎯᏳᏙ mounted Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ. ᎾᎿ ᎫᏬᏂ 2, 1957, ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ traversed ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎴ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ Dallas, ᏅᏓᎩ. ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏣᎦᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ, ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ (ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ) ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ filmed ᎠᎴ photographed ᎤᏃᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ. ᎦᎸᏙᏗ-ᎾᎥᎢ-ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᎬᎭᎷᏴᎯ footage ᎠᎩᏒᎯ Ꮎ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ flung ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏁᏙᎵᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 170 mph.[13] ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏁᎵᏒ Ꮎ ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᎨ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ Ꮎ ᎢᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏂ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ.

ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎯᎠ Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Beaufort ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Mach ᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1971, ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. Tetsuya Theodore Fujita ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ Allen Pearson, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1973. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ Beaufort ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Mach ᏎᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ; ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ F1 ᎾᎿ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ B12 ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Beaufort ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ F12 ᏗᏓᏛᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ Mach 1. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏓᏥᏲᎯᏎᎸ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ F0 ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ F5.

ᎯᎠ TORRO ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ (TORRO), ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1974, ᎠᎴ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ TORRO ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᎭ 12 ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎫᏢᏗ broader ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ tighter ᏓᏂᏍᏆᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ T0 ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ T11 ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ.[17]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎯᎠ TORRO ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ—ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎵᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏏᏴᏫ TORRO ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ. ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ TORRO ᏗᎦᏛᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏕᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Doppler radar ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ (ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ), videogrammetry (ᎦᎸᏙᏗ-ᎾᎥᎢ-ᎦᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ video footage), ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ vegetation.

ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1980s ᎠᎴ 1990s ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᎤᏃᎴ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏄᎶᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2006, ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ Enhanced Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ, ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏃᎴ assessed ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Enhanced Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ. ᎯᎠ EF-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎾᎿ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᏗᎦᎪᏘ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ F-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎡᎪᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ F0 F12 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ, ᎯᎠ EF-ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ capped ᎾᎾᎢ EF5, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ≥ 200 mph (≥ 320 km/h)".[3] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎯᎠ Enhanced Fujita ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎧᎦᎵ 2, 2007.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏅᎯ Ꮎ F5 ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎫᏬᏂ 26, 1991. ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏅᏯ, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎻ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ monitored ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎢᎦᎢ Doppler radar, ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ radar ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ. ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏫᎪᏍᏓᏴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ 115-120 m/(257-268 mph ᎠᎴ 414-432 km/h). ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ radar ᎠᏰᎲ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ± 5-10 m/(± 11-22 mph ᎠᎴ ± 18-36 km/h), ᎪᎯ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ F5 ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎸᏢ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᏧᏁᎳ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 3, 1999, ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏐᏈᎵ ᏧᎾᏦᏟ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᎤᏩᏒᎯ ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ (ᏌᏊ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ 36 ᏴᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ Moore, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ). ᎾᎾᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 7 pm, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏌᏊ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ 318 mph [1], 50 mph ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᎪᏪᎸ. ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎪᎯ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ F6 ᏓᏂᎬᏩᎶᏗᏍᎬ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 100 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏂᎬᏩᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ.

ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, F0 ᎠᎴ F1 (T0 ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ T3) ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ 80% ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ. ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ, ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ (ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ F4, T8), ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 1%.[18] ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ, ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ. ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ Bangladesh.

ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ[edit]

Template:Rellink

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ lede ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ 110 mph (175 km/h) ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 250 ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ (75 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ) ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ (1.6 km) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ dissipating. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏃᎴ.

ᏔᎵ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ Ꮎ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ drastically ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᏔᎵ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ appearance ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. ᏴᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎥᏝ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ Ꮝ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ approaches. ᎠᏰᎵ 1997 ᎠᎴ 2005 ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, 38 ᏴᏫ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ F1 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᎠᎴ 3 ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ F0 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ.[19] ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ weakest ᎤᏃᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ.

  • ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ, ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ designated F1 ᎠᎴ F0, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎤᏓᏂᎳ" ᎠᎦᎷᎦ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ. F0 ᎠᎴ F1 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ-ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ—ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ 1980 ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ 75% ᎠᎦᎷᎦ rated ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ.[11] ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ.

F0 ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏍᏔᎳᎾᎵ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ vegetation. ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎨᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏗᏦᎳᏅ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎦᏦᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ. Billboards ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎪᏪᎵᎠ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏂᎸ ᎡᎳᏗ. ᏕᏡᎬ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ uprooted ᎢᏳᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ.

F1 ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ F0 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ, ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎨᏰᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏗᏦᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ pushed ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏃᎯ. ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏦᏔ.

  • ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ

F2 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ "ᎦᏛᎬᎢ", ᎠᎴ ᎩᎳ ᎠᎴ ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ(ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ). ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎦᏦᏔ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ outer ᏓᏐᏴ. ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏃᏅᎯ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ. ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ, causing ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ. ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏫᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎡᏆ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏕᏡᎬ snapped ᎠᎴ uprooted.

F3 ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ. ᎦᏲᎵ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᏓᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ; ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏓᏲᎱᏎᏗ outer ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏐᏴ. ᏗᏦᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ. ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ vegitation.

  • ᎬᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏰᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ

F4 ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᏚᏁᏅᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎦᏒᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎦᎨᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ airborne, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ flung ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ.

F5 ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ. F5 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᏗᎦᎵᏦᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏃᏌᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎫᏍᏓᎥ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ Ꮎ "ᏂᎬᎢ phenomena ᏫᎵ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ". ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, F5 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᎭ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ skyscrapers, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏍᏓᏲᎯᏎᏗ ᎦᎶᏂᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ.

ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ[edit]

Probabilistic ᎡᎶᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏬᏂ 6-8, 2006 ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏁᏐᏍᎬ, damaging ᏅᎩᏨᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ), ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ 25 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (40 km) ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎯᎠ hashed ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎾᏓᏎᎮ 10% ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ F2 ᎠᎴ ᏭᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᏃᎴ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ 25 ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ (40 km) ᎪᏍᏓᏱ.

ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Norman, ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ. ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᏦᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᎵ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ. ᎯᎠ SPC ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎡᎵᏍ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ NAM, GFS, WRF, ᎠᎴ RUC ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ indicies ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎠᎴ dewpoint.

ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ watches ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ SPC.

ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᏣᏄᎳ Skywarn spotters, ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏓᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ deputies, ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎠᏁᎲᎢ, ᎤᏓᏓᎸ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏁᏐᏍᎬ, ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᏅᎩᏨᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎡᎵᏒ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎢᏯᏓᏪᏎᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ spotters ᎾᏍᏋ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᎦᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎾᏞᎬᏊ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛᏊ ᎾᎿ.

ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ (TORRO) (TORRO) ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ.

ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂ, ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏱᏙᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ.

ᎤᏃᎴ[edit]

ᎠᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ (ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 30 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ), ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ.[20] Bangladesh ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎩᎵᏲᎠᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎢᏗᎦᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ media coverage. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏞᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 179 ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Bangladesh ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ.[21]

ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎬ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏕᎶᏆᎥ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ.[22] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᏙᎢ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ't ᎣᎾᏛ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏃᎴ. ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ, deployment ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ (ᎯᎠ TOtable ᎤᏃᎴ ᎡᎶᎯ), ᎠᎴ ᏔᎳᏚ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏗᏛᏁᏗ, ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏢᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ meteorologists.

ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏓᎧᏁᎲ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ[edit]

ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ-ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ windblown ᎢᎦᏛ. Tornadic ᏅᎩᏨᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ 300 mph (480 km/h). ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏒᎯᏰᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏒᎯᏰᏱ; ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 80% ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᎴ hobbyist, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅᏍᎩ, ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ. ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅᏍᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎪᎭᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ oncoming ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎪᎭᏍᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1990.

ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ Ꮎ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎾᏅᏁᎲ. ᎪᎯ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ-ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ competing ᎾᎥᎢ media ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ TV ᏗᏤᎢ ᏧᎴᏫᏍᏗ, ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ escalating technological ᏌᏊ-upsmanship ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᏝ ᏳᏓᎷᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎴ-ᎠᏞᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏂᎬᏅ.

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎨᎾᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏝᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏥᎸᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴ 12 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ 1 (12,000,000:1). ᏌᏊ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ factually ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎡᎳᏗ. ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎿᏛᎦ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎤᏂᏃᏍᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ injuries ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

Cultural ᎦᏛᎬᎢ[edit]

ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ; ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ labeled 'Democratic ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ'. ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ (1894)

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ cartoonist ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 100 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ Oz, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᎪᎢ Dorothy ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ Oz, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᎾ ᎠᏣᏍᎩᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᎦᎪ ᎠᏰᎲ oppressed ᎤᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ, ᎯᎠ Munchkin. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎣᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᎲᎢ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1894 ᎾᎾᎢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ.

1960s advertising ᏙᎩᏯᏛ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᎿᎥ cleaner, Ajax, ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏒᎯ "ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏃᎴ".

ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏍᎩᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏛᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏤᎸᏗᏱ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏢᏃ ᏌᏊ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏍᎩᏘᏍᏗ, e.g. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ, ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ.

ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ[edit]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Williams, Jack [http://www.usatoday.com/weather/tornado/wtwur318.htm "Doppler radar measures 318 mph ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ-Ꭿ." ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ. 1999 (2006-09-08)
  2. 2.0 2.1 [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/oax/archive/hallam/hallam.php "Hallam ᏎᎷᏱ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ." (2006-09-08) Omaha/Valley, NE ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ Forecast Office. 2005-10-02
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 [http://www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/tornado "The Online ᎠᎦᎷᎦ FAQ." (2006-09-08) Edwards, Roger.| 2006-04-04. ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ
  4. Perkins, Sid. "ᎠᎦᎷᎦ Alley, ᎠᎹᏰᏟ." Science News. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 11, 2002.
  5. "ᎠᎦᎷᎦ." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006.
  6. Online Etymology Dictionary
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Doswell, Moller, Anderson ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. "Advanced Spotters' Field Guide." ᎠᎹᏰᏟ Department of Commerce, National ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ Service. 2005.
  8. "AMS Glossary of Meteorology." American Meteorological Society. ᏕᎭᎷᏱ, 2000.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Lyons, Walter . ᎯᎠ ᎠᎯᏛ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ. Detroit, ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ: ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏁᎯ ᏗᎨᏪᎶᏗ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1997.
  10. ᏍᏆᏂᏤᏍᏛᎢ Severe ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ Climatology
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎪᏪᎸ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ SeverePlot, ᎠᏎᏊᎢ software ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ John Hart, ᎦᏂ forecaster ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ SPC.
  12. Edwards, Roger. "Public Domain ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ." Storm Prediction Center.
  13. 13.0 13.1 VIDEO Lloyd, Linda ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ. ᏗᏲᏍᏗ: ᎤᏃᎴ. Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ Channel Enterprises, Inc. 1996.
  14. Monastersky, R. "ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ Sets ᎤᏃᎴ Record." Science News. ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ 15, 1999
  15. ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, Alonzo . "Seeing the Inside of a ᎠᎦᎷᎦ." ᏏᏅᏙ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏒ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏅᎬᎪᏙᏗ. ᎠᏂᏍᎬᏘ 1930.
  16. Monteverdi, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ. "Sunnyvale ᎠᎴ Los Altos, CA ᎠᎦᎷᎦ." San Francisco State University, Department of Geosciences. (ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏂ 25, 2003).
  17. Meaden, ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. Terence. "A Brief History of TORRO (to 1985)." ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ (TORRO). 1985.
  18. Edwards, Moller, Purpura ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ. "Basic Spotters' Field Guide." ᎠᎹᏰᏟ Department of Commerce, National ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ Service. 2005.
  19. "Climatological or Past Storm Information and Archived Data." Storm Prediction Center. 2006.
  20. Elsom, Prof. Derek M. "ᎠᎦᎷᎦ Facts." ᎠᎦᎷᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ (TORRO). 2002 (17 ᎦᎶᏂ 2006)
  21. Bhuiyan, Paul. [http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/qr/qr169/qr169.pdf "Ꮎ ᎧᏬᏂ 2004 Tornado in North-Central Bangladesh: A Case for Introducing ᎠᎦᎷᎦ Forecasting ᎠᎴ Warning ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ." 2004 (17 ᎦᎶᏂ 2006)
  22. "VORTEX: Unraveling the Secrets." National Severe Storms Laboratory.

ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ[edit]

  • Thomas P. Grazulis (1993). ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᎦᎷᎦ 1680-1991, Chronology ᎠᎴ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ Environmental ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ISBN 1-879362-00-7

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]

ᏂᎦᎥ[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ[edit]

ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ[edit]

ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ[edit]