Carl Menger

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ᎧᎷ ᎺᏅᎦ, Carl Menger

ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏫᎩᏇᏗᏯ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏓᎵᏔᏕᎬ : ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ, ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏪᏥ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ Karl ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ.

Austrian ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎧᎵ ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾᎧᎵ ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ (ᎧᎦᎵ 28, 1840 – ᎧᎦᎵ 26, 1921) ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏩᏥᎩ ᎯᎠ Austrian ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᏀᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᎪᎯᏓ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ Ꮎ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏫ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ David Ricardo.

ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Nowy Sącz, Poland (ᏀᎢᏳᎢ Neu Sandec, Austrian Galicia). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎤᏪᎿᎢ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ; ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ, Anton, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᏘᏲᎯᎯ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏂᏥ, ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᏪᎿᎢ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ ᎤᏓᎾᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏟ, Anton ᎠᎴ Max, ᎢᏧᎳ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏘᏲᎯᎯ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏁᏙᎲ ᎤᎾᏁᏦᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ Prague ᎠᎴ Vienna ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎦᎾᎦᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Jagiellonian ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Kraków. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 1860s ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎾᏅᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏗᏤᎢ, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Lemberger Zeitung ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Lwów, Ukraine ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Wiener Zeitung ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Vienna.

ᏀᎢᏳᎨᏒ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏕᎶᎰᏒ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᏀᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏚᏕᏲᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ participants ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1867 ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1871 ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᏀᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ (Grundsätze der Volkswirtschaftslehre), ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ ᎯᎠ Austrian ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎣᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᎢ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1872 ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎶᏗᏙᏙᎥ ᎾᏀᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ ᏗᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ Vienna ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎬᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᏛᏏᏒ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏙᎾᏕ ᎶᏆᏍᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1873 ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ 33.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1876 ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᏗᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Rudolf von Habsburg, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ Austria ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎵᏙᎲ, ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏙᎯ Europe ᎠᎴ ᏀᎢᏳᎢ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᏚᎶ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ pamphlet, ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1878, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ Austrian ᏓᎳᏏᏛ. ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᏫᏄᏥ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎣᏂ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ Rudolf ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1889 (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ Mayerling ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ).

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1878 Rudolf ᎠᏓᏙᏓ, ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Franz Josef, ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎢᎪᎯᏓ ᎦᏍᎩᎶ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ Vienna. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓ ᎦᏂᏴᏙ Hofrat ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎵᏃᎮᏗ ᏀᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎢᎪᎯᏓ Austrian Herrenhaus ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1900.

ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏲᎵᎨ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏍᏕᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏀᎾ ᎠᏂᏙᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ, ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ 1883 ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᏀᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᏀᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ (Untersuchungen über ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ Methode der Socialwissenschaften und der politischen Oekonomie insbesondere). ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏓ ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᏀᎢᏳᎨᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᏀᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏙᎾᏕ ᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ "Austrian ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ" ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Germany. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1884 ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎦᏬᎯᎵᏴᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ pamphlet ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏥ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᏀᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ Methodenstreit, ᎠᎴ methodological ᏗᏟᏴ ᏗᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Austrian ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ. ᏀᎢᏳᎨᏒ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ-ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎦᎪ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎤᏙᏪᎸ ᏀᎾ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᏀᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk ᎠᎴ ᎪᎢᎯ ᎬᏂᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏪᎾᎢ von Wieser.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1880s ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ Austrian ᎠᏕᎳ ᎢᏯᎯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎡᎵᏉ ᏚᏓᏡᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏕᏲᎲ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ (1888) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎳ (1892). ᎡᏆᏯ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏥ ᏛᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎠᎾᏏᎦᏯ ᏄᏁᎸᎾ ᎠᏑᎳᎪᏨᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1903 ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᏀᎾ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ.