Ayyavazhi

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Ayyavazhi (Tamil:அய்யாவழி "ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ"), Tamil monistic ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, originated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.[1] Ayyavazhi ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎩᎳ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᎴ Ꮝ followers ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ autonomous ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ. [2] ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ recognised ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, Ꮝ followers ᎠᎴ ᏗᏎᎸᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ Hinduism ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎨᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ.

ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi followers ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ [3] ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ[4] [5] faculties too recognise Ayyavazhi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ. ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ practiced ᏙᏯᏗᏢ Tamil Nadu too,[6] ᎯᎠ followers Ayyavazhi ᎠᎴ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᎦᏚᎩ Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli ᎠᎴ Tuticorin ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tamil Nadu. Ayyavazi ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ missionaries ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. [7] ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ Ayya Vaikundar ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ texts Akilattirattu Ammanai ᎠᎴ Arul Nool.

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ Ayya Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ Manu avatar Trimurthi. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Ayyavazhi shares ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ Hinduism ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ mythology ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ differs ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Hinduism, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ concepts "ᎣᏍᏛ vs ᎤᏐᏅᎢ", Dharma ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.

Origins Ayyavazhi[edit]

Origins ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ. ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ implications ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ theories ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ:

  • ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ - ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ-tamil ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ Ayya (ᎠᏓᏙᏓ) + vazhi (ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᏅ). ᎪᎯ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Tamil ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ commonly ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 'ayya' ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ 'ᎬᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ'.
  • ᎯᎠ ultimate ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ - ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Tamil Ayya (ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ) + vazhi (ᎯᎠ ultimate ᏚᏳᎪᏛ) ᎨᏒᎢ derived ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏔᎯ ᎪᏪᎵ usage ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ.
  • ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ Guru - ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Tamil Ayya ᏥᏄᏍᏗ (Guru) + vazhi (ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ - vazhibadu ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tamil).
  • ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ attaining ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ - Ayya ᏥᏄᏍᏗ (ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ) + vazhi (ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ unify) [8]

ᎯᎠ synonymous versions ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ restricted ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ usage ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ 'Ayya' ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ tamil varies ᎠᏟᎶᎥ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᏓ, guru, ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ, ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎠᏢᏉᏙatlvquodod, ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏌᏊ, ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏕᏲᎲᏍᎩ, preceptor ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ 'vazhi' ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ tamil varies ᏥᏄᏍᏗ: ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, acourse ᎾᏛᏁᎲ, ᏄᏍᏛᎢ, ᎢᎬᎾᏗ, mode, ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ, antiquity, succession, ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎿ.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

Ayyavazhi ᎤᎴᏅᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏕᎶᎰᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ Ayya Vaikundar. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ followers Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ marginalised ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Tamil ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. [9] ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ missionaries ᎾᏍᎩ posed ᎡᏆ challenge ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ proselytising ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Ꮝ inception.[10] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ followers ᎨᏒᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Chanar ᏩᏗᏅᏗ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ castes ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ. [11]

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ nineteenth ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, Ayyavazhi ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎾᏍᏋ recognised ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, albeit ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Travancore ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Tirunelveli. [12] ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᏎᏍᏗ followers ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ significantly ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1840s. [13] ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ Vaikundar, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ Akilattirattu Ammanai ᎠᎴ Arul Nool. ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ Citars, ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ deciples Ayya Vaikundar, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ descendants travelled ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏫᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ Ayyavazhi.[14] ᎾᎯᏳ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎯᎠ Payyan dynasty ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ Swamithoppe pathi,[15] ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏐᎢ Pathis ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏂᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎯᎠ followers Ayya.[16] ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ Nizhal Thangals (ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ) ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ Bala Prajapathi Adikalar ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ descendant Payyan dynasty.[17] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ foundations ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᏆ ᏎᏍᏗ Nizhal Thangals.[18] ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ incarnation Vaikundar, Ayya Vaikunda Avataram ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᏨᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᎦᏚᎩ Tirunelveli ᎠᎴ Tuticorin, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ Kanyakumari ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏚᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ.

Scriptures ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ Ayyavazhi ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Akilattirattu Ammanai ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Arul Nool, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ mythology. Ayyavazhi ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎸ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ Akilattirattu Ammanai ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Hari Gopalan Citar [19] ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎢ Akilam ᎤᏃᎮᎴᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ Narayana ᎤᏤᎵ consort Lakshmi.[20] ᎾᎿᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮭ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ origin Arul Nool; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ followers ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Citars ᎠᎴ Arulalarkal (ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ possessed ᎾᎥᎢ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ).[21] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎯᎠ prayers, hymn ᎠᎴ ᏗᎾᏓᏕᏲᎲᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi, rituals, prophesies ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ.

ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi devotees, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Pathi, ᎬᏙᏗ "Panchappathis" ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ.[22] ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ Swamithoppepathi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ headquarters ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ.[23] ᎯᎠ Vakaippathi, ᎭᏢᏃ 700 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏒ Thuvayal Thavasu ᎾᎥᎢ Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ accredited ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Pathi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilam ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎪᎯ site ᎤᎭ Ꮭ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ activities Muthukutty.[24] ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ disagreement ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ followers Ayyavazhi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ holiness ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ Avatharappathi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Thiruchendur ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ accepted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ Akilam ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Pathi, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ followers ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎷᏨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏢᏃ Ayya Vaikundar incarnated ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎤᏅᏌ disagree ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ devotees. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎦᏛ followers ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏗᏳ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ Thiruchendur ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Pathi ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏗᏓᏂᎸᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ secondary ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ site. ᎯᎠ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ Pathis ᏚᏃᏣᎳᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ headquarters Ayyavazhi ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Avatharappathi.[25]

Symbolism[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ 1,008 petalled lotus ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎬ-shaped ᎤᏁᎬ 'Namam'. [26] ᎯᎠ lotus ᎾᏓᏛᏁ ᎯᎠ 1,008-petalled Sahasrara (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tamil, Ladam ) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Namam ᎾᏓᏛᏁ ᎯᎠ Aanma Jyothi ᎠᎴ atman, sometimes translated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ" ᎠᎴ "ᎣᏩᏒ". ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Thirunamam ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ secondary scriptures, Akilattirattu Ammanai [27] ᎠᎴ Arul Nool.[28] ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ, 'Lotus ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎬ Namam', ᎾᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ scriptures. ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ legends ᎪᎯ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ forties ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ.[29]

ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ centers[edit]

ᎯᎠ followers Ayyavazhi ᎪᏢᏅ Pathis ᎠᎴ Nizhal Thangals, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ centers ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ centres ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ propagation ᎯᎠ beliefs ᎠᎴ practices Ayyavazhi. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 3,500 ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ centers ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ.[30] ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ organized ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, Swamithoppepathi ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, religiously ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ officially, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ headquarters ᏂᎦᏛ.

Pathis[edit]

Pathis ᎨᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ centres congregational ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ structures ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Ꮎ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ significance ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ Ayya Vaikundar ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ activities ᎨᏒᎩ historically ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ centers ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏎᏍᏗ.

Nizhal Thangals[edit]

Nizhal Thangal ᎨᏒᎩ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏍᏗ structures ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ Ayya Vaikundar. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ centers education ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ. ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ shelter ᎨᏒᎩ offered ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ centers. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏂ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏃᏛ. [31] ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ activities ᎾᏛnadvndhvgi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ centers.[32]

Beliefs[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ Ayyavazhi ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ

ᎯᎠ followers Ayyavazhi ᎤᏬᎯᏳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ reincarnation ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Dharma Yukam ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ caste ᎢᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ.[33] ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ murti ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ Ayya Vaikundar ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ focus ᎾᎿ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ non-anthropomorphic ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Nizhal Thangal).[34]

ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ Ꮎ ᏐᎢ Hindu sects Ꮎ ᎬᏙᏗ non-anthropomorphic symbols. Shaivism, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ linga ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎬᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Vaishnavism ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ saligrama. Similarly, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi, ᎯᎠ Elunetru, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎾnanahwunvgi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Palliyarai, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎯᎠ Elunetru ᎤᏤᎵ alternative ᏚᏙᎥ, Asanam, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ "ᎦᏗ."

Ayyavazhi beliefs ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎾᏍᎩ Smartism ᎠᎴ Advaita Vedanta, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ beleifs ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ Trimurthi. ᏯᏛᎾ, Ayyavazhi ᎤᏤᎵ followers ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ Brahma, Vishnu, ᎠᎴ Siva ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ aspects ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ Ayyavazhi ᎠᎴ Hinduism). ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ beliefs Akilattirattu ᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ Dvaita ᎠᎴ Vishishtadvaita, Ayyavazhi endorses ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ultimate Oneness. [35]

Followers Ayyavazhi ᏚᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ Hindus ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎠᏎᏍᏙ, Kroni, ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ primordial manifestation ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎪ manifests ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ, (ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, Ravana ᎠᎴ Duryodhana) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ages ᎠᎴ yuga. ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Vishnu, becomes incarnate ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ avatars, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Rama, Krishna ᎠᎴ ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ Ayya Vaikundar, ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ foremost ᎤᏐᏅᎢ.[36]

Kroni, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ Kali Yuga, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ omnipresent ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎯᎠ followers Ayyavazhi, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏐᎢ Hindus, ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ yuga, Kali Yuga, ᎨᏒᎢ decadent. [37]

ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ Ayyavazhi ᎤᏤᎵ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ. ᏌᏊ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Anna Dharmam (offerings ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi centers ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ least ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏏᏅᏙ. [38]

Santror - ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᏗ[edit]

ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Ayyavazhi legends, ᎯᎠ Santror ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Ayyavazhi.[39]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ connotation. [40] ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ followers emphasise ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ.[41] ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎾᏂᎥᏇ ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ Tamil ᎧᏁᏨ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏂᎥᏇ ᎦᎪ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Ayyavazhi. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ occurs ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilattirattu Ammanai ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᏚᏄᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ connotation.[42] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᏓᏛᏁᎸᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ Chanar. [43]

ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ Santror ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ fist inhabitants ᎯᎠ Kali Yukam ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilam, ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ Nadar, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏌᏊ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ castes ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏙᎠ Tamil Nadu. ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ Chanar ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Arabs ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "Al Hind", ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Biblical ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ "ᏴᏫ ᎯᏍᎩ Rivers", ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ scattered ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 250 ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ-ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. [44]

Dharmic ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ universe Ayyavazhi, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ Dharma ᎤᎭ ᏔᎵ levels ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ: ᏌᏊ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ 'righteousness', ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ 'ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ' ᎠᎴ almsgiving'. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ, Ayyavazhi asserts Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ avatar Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ Dharma ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ destroying ᎯᎠ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ Kaliyan. ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ detached ᎯᎠ caste identities ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏧᎾᏙᎳᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ Kali Yukam. ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilam ᏓᎪᎵᏰ, " ᏩᏗᏅᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ-shaking devils ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏁᎳᏚ castes ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎣᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸ"- Akilam-9:817.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilam, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ ᏴᏫ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ listening ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ Vaikundar, realised Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ Kali, i.e., Kroni ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ withdrawn ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ Ꮎ dharma ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ. Transposed ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ ᎦᏃᎯᎵᏙ, ᎪᎯ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ dharma ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ " protecting ᎠᎴ salvaging ᎯᎠ lowly, ᎯᎠ oppressed". ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Vinchai ᏓᎪᎵᏰ, "uplift ᎯᎠ lowely ᎨᏒᎢ dharmam".Akilam-10:198. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ sociology, doctrine dharma ᏁᎵᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ almsgiving. ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏚᏕᏲᏅᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᏴᏫ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏤᎵᏛᎭ exhorted ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ discriminating ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ beneficiaries. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎾᏍᎦᏅᏅᎠ, Swami Vivekananda ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎵᏴ Ayyavazhi dharma ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᏂ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ followers Ayyavazhi ᎦᎪ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ influenced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ.[45]

ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ[edit]

ᎯᎠ theology Ayyavazhi differs ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ monistic religions. [46] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ Ekam, ᎯᎠ ultimate Oneness ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ Ꮎ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ oneness Ꮎ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ Sivam ᎠᎴ Sakthi ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᎠᏓadatolasdisgi ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ-ᏗᏂᏍᎪᎵ, Sivan, Vethan ᎠᎴ Thirumal. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏓadatolasdisgi Gods. ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Kali Yukam, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎯᎠ boons offered Kaliyan, Thirumal ᏝᏰᎵ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏓᎵᏁ fragment Kroni ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ-ᏗᏂᏍᎪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ unified ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ Ekam, ᎠᎴ Ekam Incarnated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Trinity (Ekam, Narayana ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ) ᎤᏓᏢᏔᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ boons ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ Kali. Akilattirattu Ammanai ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ Dharma Yukam ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ Vaikundar ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ. ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎩ unified ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Vaikundar, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Kali Yukam Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ worshipable ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ viewed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ monotheistic ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ.[47]

Dualism ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi[edit]

ᎯᎠ Kroni, ᎯᎠ primordial manifestation ᎤᏐᏅᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ fragmented ᎾᎾᎯ ᏑᏓᎵ. ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ successive Yuga; ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏛ, Kaliyan (ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ) ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ sentenced ᏨᏍᎩᏃ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ judgement ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ Ayyavazhi ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ dualism. Kaliyan ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ commonly accepted Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ maya (ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ) ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ symbolised ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ.[48] ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ commonly concerned ᎬᏙᏗ Ultimate Oneness ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ dualistic ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎨᏒᎩ contrasted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ monistic narration. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎢ Arul Nool, ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ Vaikundar, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ belived ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ arulalarkal ᎠᎴ Citars, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ monistic.

Pantheism ᎠᎴ panentheism[edit]

ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ekam, ᎢᎦᏛ followers ᎦᏂᎳᏗᏍᏗ Ayyavazhi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Pantheistic, sticking ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Ekan (ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ oneness ᎠᎴ Ekam ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tamil) ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilam ᎦᎵᏉᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ, ᎯᎠ Akilam lays ᎯᎠ groundwork ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ viewing Ayyavazhi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ pantheistic ᎪᎯᏳᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Kappu, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᎦᏛ Akilam ᏌᏊ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ Akilam ᎠᏗᎭ, "ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏨᏌ, ᎰᏩᏧ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ".Akilam1:12.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ Panentheism, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ quotes ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilam ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎦagatudesdi Ayyavazhi ᏥᏄᏍᏗ monistic. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Vinchai, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, Narayana, ᎥᎪᏩᏘᏍᎬ Vaikundar, ᎠᏗᎭ Ꮎ "ᏂᎯ ᎠᎴ Sivan, ᏂᎯ ᎠᎴ Thirumal, ᏂᎯ ᎠᎴ Nathan, ᏂᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Tapas, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎢ omnipresent ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᏚᏍᏗ". ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Vaikundar ᎨᏒᎢ jailed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Thiruvananthapuram ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ alleviates ᎯᎠ Santror ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏁᎬᎢ "ᎠᏯ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ Ekam ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎢ omnipresent ᏂᎬᎾᏓ". -- (Akilam 13:395).

Inclusivistic ᎠᎴ exclusivistic ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎪᎯ formula inclusivism ᎠᎴ exclusivism ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ religio-cultural universe Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎬᏉ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏚᏓᏡᎬ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ inclusivism ᎠᎴ exclusivism ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ themes ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilam, ᎯᎠ mixture ᎢᏧᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ unique. ᎯᎠ inclusivistic ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ accepting ᎯᎠ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ religions ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ onwards exclusivistically rejecting ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎥᎢ narrating Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ substances ᎨᏒᎢ mythical ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏍᏗ-ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ.

ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎾᎿ gods[edit]

Ayyavazhi accepts ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᏂᏍᎪᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ religions ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ Allah ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ-ᏗᏂᏍᎪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Hinduism. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏗᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ incarnates ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ rescuing ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ sufferings. ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ Kaliyan ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᎯ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎤᏤᎵ boons, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ Conciouseness (Ekan) incarnates ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Vaikundar ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ-ᏗᏂᏍᎪᎵ ᎨᏒᎩ surrendered ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ scriptures ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ substances. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Kali Yukam, Ayyavazhi ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ Ꮎ Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ worshippable ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ theology Ayyavazhi ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ channeled ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ exclusivism.

ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎾᎿ scriptures[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ Akilattirattu Ammanai treats ᎯᎠ scriptures ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ religions ᎨᏒᎢ complicated. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ Kalineesan arrested Vaikundar ᎠᎴ ᏗᏱᎸᏓ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ Thiruvananthapuram, ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ narrated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ, "ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ non-liberative ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ, ᎠᎩᎵᏲᏨ ᎯᎠ beatings thorns, ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎠᎴ reanimates ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ uplifting ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ yuga ᎠᎭᏂ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎩagilyoasdi ᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ liberation ᎯᎠ downtrodden."Akilam13:227-231. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ incarnates ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏥᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏢᎬ Akilam accepts ᎦᎶᏁᏛ. ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ recognise ᎯᎠ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Vinchai ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ Venneesan ᏓᎪᎵᏰ, "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ Veda (ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ) ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ". ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ Kaliyan ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏗᎭ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏧᎭᎨᏓ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꮎ ,"ᎾᎿᎢ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ." Akilam10:244 ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢᎨᏙᏗ, Akilam accepts Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ 'Allah' ᎠᎴ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ relation 'Ekam' (ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ). ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ rejects ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ Islam ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ. ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᎪᎵᏰ, "ᎾᎿᎢ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏩᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ caps." Akilam10:243|

Ayyavazhi accepts ᎯᎠ incarnation Rama ᎠᎴ Krishna ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ rejects ᎯᎠ Ramayana ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Mahabharata ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ. ᎾᏍᎩ accepts ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ Vedas ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ 'ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ'.[49] ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎯᎠ Vedas ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ inconsistent ᎬᏙᏗ Hinduism ᎤᏤᎵ ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Hinduism, ᎯᎠ Vedas ᎠᎴ viewed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Sruti, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏐᎢ scriptures ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ramayana ᎠᎴ viewed ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Smriti ᎠᎴ secondary ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ. ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ, Kaliyan ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ Vedas ᏥᏄᏍᏗ boon ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ Vedas ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ Kaliyan. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏗᎭ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ (Kaliyan) ᎠᏰᎲ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ additions ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎬᏍᎦᎸ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᏂ. ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ incarnated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Vaikundar. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ, Akilattirattu Ammanai ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 'ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ'.

Ultimate exclusivism[edit]

Accoriding Akilam, ᎯᎠ Vedas ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ incarnations ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᏯᏛᎿ beliefs ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ.[50] ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎾᏊ, ᎯᎠ Vedas ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Kaliyan, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ, Akilam, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ incarnation ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ, Ekam ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ 'ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ'. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎪᎯ Ayyavazhi rejects ᏂᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ scriptures ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ Akilattirattu Ammanai.

Shamanism[edit]

ᎢᎦᏛ followers Ayyavazhi ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ shamanic ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ centers. [51] ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏩᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎨᏥᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ folk. [52] ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ shamanic ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ exhort ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏱᏓᏛᎿ, practiced divination (Kanakku) discern ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏢᏥᏰᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ misfortunes, ᎠᎴ 'foretold ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ happenings'. ᎢᎦᏛ LMS ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ attest ᎯᎠ prevalence shaman ᎠᎴ shamanistic practices ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ centers Ayyavazhi.[53] ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ centers. ᎯᎠ Akilattirattu Ammanai recognizes shamanic ᏗᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ. [54] ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Arul Nool ᏓᎪᎵᏰ, "ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ imparting ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ, ᎠᏯ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ divination ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ temples." ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ shamanism ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ practiced ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ accepted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ scriptures ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᎦᏔᎲᎾ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ (ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏕᏕᏲᏗ beginner ᎯᎠ metaphysics.

Mythology[edit]

ᎯᎠ mythology Ayyavazhi acombination ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ mythical accounts. history Ꮷtsuqagutanvsv, ᎡᏙᎠ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ. [55] ᎾᏍᎩ unfolds ᏴᏩyvwatuwidv Santror, Kali Yukam ᎠᎴ Dharma Yukam. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ concepts ᎠᏓᏁᏗ symbolic ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ.[56]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ linked Ꮎ Hinduism. Akilam ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎪ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ yugas ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ Kali, shares ᎢᎦᏛ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ, mythical characters, ᎠᎴ concepts ᎬᏙᏗ Hinduism, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎪᏃ ᎨᏒᎩ engendered ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ Yugas ᎠᎴ Avatars differs ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Hinduism. ᎯᎠ personification ᎯᎠ entity ᎤᏐᏅᎢ, Kali ᎨᏒᎢ unique Ayyavazhi, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Hinduism. Akilam ᎠᏗᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ concepts ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅ scriptures ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ substances ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ Kali. [57]

ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏂᏁᎦ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ incarnating ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Kali Yukam (ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎠ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏙ, ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏢᏲᎵᏍᏗ manifestation Kroni. ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ incarnates ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Vaikundar, ᎠᎴ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ Vaikundar ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎸ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ mythology ᎤᎪᏗᏗ mythical ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏱᏓᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎨᏒᎩ woven ᎢᏧᎳ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Muthirikkinaru,[58] ᏙᏄᏭᎢ Headgear ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ,[59] Thuvayal Thavasu [60] ᏂᎦᏛ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ.

Rituals[edit]

ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏔᎵᏍᎪᎯᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ Pattathu Ayya, Payyan Chella Vadivu (ᎾᎯᏳᎢ administrator) Swamithoppe Pathi ᏙᏄᏭᎢ Thirunamam ᎠᎴ Headgear

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎯᎠ philosophical concepts ᎠᎴ mythology, ᎯᎠ rituals Ayyavazhi evolved ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ rituals ᎠᎴ symbols, ᎯᎠ unique ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ ecstatic mode religiosity, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ritual healing - ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᏓᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ritual corpus Ayyavazhi contributed ᎯᎠ formation emancipatory ideation ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ discourse.ᎾᏍᎩ attempts uplift ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ disenfranchised. Examples ᎪᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ spiritual cleanliness ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Thuvayal Thavasu, eliminating untouchability ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Thottunamam, ᎣᏩᏒ-ᎪᎯᏳᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᎦᎵᏴᎯ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ headgear, ᎠᎴ unifying ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ castes ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ Muthirikkinaru.[61]

ᎯᎠ utopian formula[edit]

ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi proposes emancipatory utopia ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ banner Dharma Yukam.[62] ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ Ayya Vaikundar ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Dharma Yukam ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿᎢ Kali Yukam ᎾᎥᎢ sentencing Kroni ᏨᏍᎩᏃ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ judgement ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ.[63] ᎯᎠ Dharma ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏚᏕᏲᏅᎩ 'uplift ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎢᏳᏛᎾᎮᏕᎩ' ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ Dharma Yukam.

Ayyavazhi legends ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎳ Yugas, ᎯᎠ Dharma Yukam ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ruled ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎪᎯᏓ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ.[64] ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ Ꮭ ᎪᏪᎵᎠ ᎬᏩgvwatuwidv ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏧᏁᎳ yugas ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Hinduism. [65] ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎭ linear ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi ᎾᎥᎢ narrating Dharma Yukam ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi ᎠᎴ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ. [66].ᎯᎠ ᎬᏩgvwatuwidv ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ingredient ᎯᎠ theories karma ᎠᎴ rebirth. ᎠᎴ Ayyavazhi ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ karma ᎠᎴ rebirth ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ Dharma Yukam ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ. ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ Dharma Yukam, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ Ꮎ, "ᎤᎬᏫᏳ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ruled ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ discriminations caste creed ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ". Ayya Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ Santror ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ Virgins ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ.[67]

Phenomenology[edit]

Akilam ᏗᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ Ꮝ ᎠᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ideological regeneration Hinduism ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏤ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ.[68] ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ followers Ayyavazhi ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ Vaikundar ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ incarnation Vishnu, ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ Hinduism. ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢᎨᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ Nizhal Thangals ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Narayana Swami Pathi ᎤᏠᏱ Hindu, Vaishnavism. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ follwers ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ Kali ᎠᎴ folk deities ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ.[69]

ᎢᎦᏛ followers Ayyavazhi ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ Ayya Vaikundar ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎪᎯ avatars Vishnu ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Kalki, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ denominations ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏗᏳ ᎦᏂᎳᏗᏍᏗ moksha, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ liberation ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏃᎮᎸᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Akilam. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi Trinity ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ayyavazhi ᎠᎴ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Narayana ᎾᏍᏋ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅᎢ ᎢᎬᏩᎾᏓᎴᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ. [70] ᎯᎠ unique monotheistic ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ unknown ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ followers ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ.

ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏴᏫ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ Shamanism. ᎯᎠ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ distingish ᎯᎠ practitioners Ayyavazhi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎿᏩᎥᎩ Thirunamam (ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ).ᎯᎠ Nizhal Thangals ᎨᏒᎢ identified ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᏓᏎᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Palliyarai. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Hinduism, deviating ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ Ayyavazhi. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ recitations handfull scholors educated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi scriptures ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎠᏥᏄ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏱᏓᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎠᎴ concepts Akilam ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ philosophical ᎠᎴ ideological deviation Ayyavazhi ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Hinduism. [71]ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ philosophical, ideological ᎠᎴ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ variations ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ Ayyavazhi ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎾᏍᏋ identified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ mistook ᎠᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ offshoot Hindu ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ.

Ayyavazhi identity[edit]

Ayyavazhi ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ prayers, ᎾᏛnadvndhvgi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tamil, ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏴᏫ ᎾᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ aspect ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ Ꮎ distinguishes Ayyavazhi ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏅᏙᎲᏅ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ priestly mediation, ᎠᎴ inclusion ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗᎭ ᏗᎦᎪᏗ centers ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ Pathi ᎠᎴ Nizhal Thangal, ᎨᏒᎩ ᏐᎢ characterised Ayyavazhi ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ concepts Panividai (ritual ᎾᏛᏁᎸ) ᎠᎴ Panividaiyalar (ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ performs Panividai) ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗᎭ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ritual ᎾᏛᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ritual ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗᏳ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ uniqueness Ayyavazhi ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ.[72]

Ayyavazhi controversies[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ followers Ayyavazhi ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏗᏱ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ Ꮎ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ followers ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏃᎵᏍᎬᎢ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ Hindu sect ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ autonomous ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ.[73] ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ practises ᎠᎴ mythology resembles Hinduism ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏩᏥᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Ꮝ followers ᏥᏄᏍᏗ incarnation ᎯᎠ Hindu ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ Vishnu. Ayyavazhi followers ᎠᏓᏲᏔᎡᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ gods Brahma, Vishnu, ᎠᎴ Siva ᎬᏙᏗ Hindus. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ mystic practices posessions ᎠᎴ divinations ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ tribal religions Tamil Nadu. ᎯᎠ widespread ᎪᏪᎵ ᏂᏓᎦᏔᎲᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ followers ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ (ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ widespread ᎤᏓᏍᏓᏲᎯᏎᏗ) ᎤᎭ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏂ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏁᎶᏗᏍᎩ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Ayyavazhi ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ degenerated ᎾᎾᎯ ᎩᎳ ᏄᏓᎴ Hindu sect.

ᎯᎠ penetration Ayyavazhi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tamil Nadu ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᏲᎵ territories ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Tamil Nadu ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ Kerala. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ followers ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Nadar ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏒᎧᎵ ᏗᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ followers Ayyavazhi. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ recognise ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ, ᎯᎠ followers ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Hindues ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎨᎦᏎᏍᏛ. ᏧᎦᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Akilattirattu Ammanai ᎠᎴ Arul Nool, ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ texts ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ Ayyavazhi, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ Ꮭ ᏐᎢ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎪᎯᏳᏗ, Ꮝ mythology, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ practices ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ practices Hinduism ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Advaita ᎠᎴ Smartism.

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

  1. ᎯᎠ 'zhi' (ழி) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ, 'Ayyavazhi', ᎨᏒᎢ retroflex, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅᎯ transliterated ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏕᎦᏅ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ Calcutta romanization ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ayyavalᎠᏯ.
  2. G.Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 120,121.
  3. V.T. Chellam ᎤᏤᎵ Thamizhaka Varalarum Panpadum ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 12, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 493 ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ "Vaikunda Samikal (1810–1851) " ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ 11 "Ayyavazhi ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᏓᎩᏍᎬᎢ originated".
  4. G.Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 91 "ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ nineteenth ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗtsudetiyvdi, AV ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎾᏍᏋ recognisable ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ phenomenon , ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Tiruvitankur ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ Tirunelveli."
  5. Samuel Mateer, The Land of Charity, [1] ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 222–223, "ᎪᎯ singular ᏴᏫ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎪᏗ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ defence ᎠᎴ propagation"
  6. V.T. Chellam ᎤᏤᎵ Thamizhaka Varalarum Panpadum ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 12, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 494 "ᎯᎠ refined ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Vaikunda Samikal ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏗᏍᎦᏚᎩ Thiruvithancore ᎠᎴ Tamil Nadu."
  7. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎠ LMS ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ Ayyavazhi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ missionaries ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ.
  8. Arisundara Mani ᎤᏤᎵ Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 1, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 4.
  9. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 90
  10. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 91
  11. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 91 "ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳᏊ, ᏴᏫ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ 'casts' too ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏟᏏᏍᎬ"
  12. G.Patrick, ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, University Madras, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 91: "ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ nineteenth ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, AV (abbrevation Ayyavazhi) ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎾᏍᏋ recognisable ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ phenomenon, ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Tiruvitankur (Travancore) ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ Tirunelveli. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ LMS ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ, ᏌᏊ gathers ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ Ꮎ AV ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ spreading ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ 'ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ' ᎦᏣᏄᎳ."
  13. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 92
  14. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 120 "Vaikunda cami ᎤᏁᎵᏒᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏩᏗᏙᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ associates ᎠᎴ propagate ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ"
  15. N. Elango ᎠᎴ Vijaya Shanthi Elango 1997 Ayya Vaikuntar - ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 4, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 21 "ᎯᎠ ᏧᏂᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ Gurus ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ Vaikuntar ᎤᏤᎵ gurukulam. ᎯᎠ Gurus ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ descendants Guru Podukutti."
  16. N. Elango & Vijaya Shanathi Elango 1997, Ayya Vaikuntar - ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 8, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 41 44 (ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ).
  17. N. Elango & Vijaya Shanthi Elango 1997 Ayya Vaikuntar - ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 4, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 21-22 "ᎯᎠ Gurus ᎠᎴ Payyan Chella Raj, Bala Prajapathi, Bala Janathipathi, Balalokathipathi, Payyan Sami, Thangapandian ᎠᎴ Sekar ᏚᏙᎥ ᎦᏲᎵ. Bala Prajapathi ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂ."
  18. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ centers. N. Elango & Vijaya Shanathi Elango 1997, Ayya Vaikuntar - ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 4, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 22, "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᎦᎫᏍᏓᎥ ᎠᏂᏅᏯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ nizhal thangals."
  19. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 118-119 "ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᏗᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏰᏨᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎦᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ commissioned ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ 'ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎬ' ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ"
  20. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 119 "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏁᎸᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ Vishnu ᎨᏒᎢ narrating ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ consort Leksmi"
  21. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 119 "Arulnul, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ supplementary (tunainul) Akilattirattu, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎦᏲᎵ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ literatures composed ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ arulalarkal (ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ 'ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ divinised' ) ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎠᎴ unknown. "
  22. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 117 " ᎯᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎿ patikal ᎠᎴ belived ᎤᎭ emerged ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi Vaikuntacami. "
  23. N. Elango & Vijaya Shanthi Elango 1997 Ayya Vaikuntar - ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 8, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 41 " ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ Pathi ᎨᏒᎢ Swamithoppu ᎤᏩᏌᏊ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎵ ᎠᏂᎩᏄᏙᏗ Ayyavazhi. "
  24. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 117 " ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ Vakaipati ᎭᏢᏃ tuvaiyal tavacu ᎤᎩᏒᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ "
  25. N.Elango ᎠᎴ Vijaya Shanthi Elango, Ayya Vaikuntar ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 8, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 41 (Panchappathi)
  26. Arisundara Mani ᎤᏤᎵ Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai (ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ) ᎤᏆᏓᏛ XII " Athara thana vilakka attavanai "
  27. Akilam15:39 "Petti ceelai Uduthu Periya Thirunama Pottumittu"
  28. Sivakanda Athikara Pathiram, ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ. (ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ: N.Vivekanandan ᎤᏤᎵ Arul Nool - Moolamum Uraiyum, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 62
  29. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎴ ther ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏪᏅᏒ Bala Prajapathi Adikalar ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 50 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎧᏁᏨᎯ traditions ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᏳᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ symbolism.
  30. N.Elango & Vijaya Shanthi Elango 1997 Ayya Vaikuntar - ᎯᎠ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ - 9, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 53, "ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 3,500 nizhal thangals ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ." ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎪᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ 1997 ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏁᏨᎯ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏛᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 7000.
  31. G.Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 118. Vaikuntacami ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᏅ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ nilaltankalkal ᎾᎾᎢ Chettykudiyirrupu, Agastisvaram, Palur, Chundavilai, Vadalivilai, Kadampankulam ᎠᎴ Pampankulam.
  32. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 118. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ activities ᎾᏛnadvndhvgi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ centers.
  33. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 114 " ᏐᎢ ᎤᏓᏢᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Akilattirattu ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ, 'ᏩᏗᏅᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏁᎳᏚ castes ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ demons ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏓᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ', 'ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ discriminate ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ powreful ᎠᎴ powerless', 'ᎯᎠ caste ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏗᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ', ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ., ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᎪᏗ indoctrination ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ inequalities Castes."
  34. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 103
  35. Akilam10:664 (Thiruvasakam - 2) .
  36. Akilam10:(Thiruvasakam - 2) ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᏓᎵᏍᏛ: Akilathirattu Ammanai ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ P. Thangaiyah Nadar, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 225 .
  37. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ transform ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎾᎾᎯ tarmayukam ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ - Akilam ᏌᏊ - 1:108,109
  38. G.Patrck ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 118 "ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ activities ᎾᏛnadvndhvgi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ centers."
  39. G.Patrck ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 151 "Canror (Santror)ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᏙᎥ Ꮎ ᏓᏂᏙᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ AV (Ayyavazhi)
  40. G.Patrck ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 151
  41. G.Patrck ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 151 "ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ theologians AV emphasis ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ."
  42. G.Patrck ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 152
  43. G.Patrck ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 152
  44. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎶᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ site nadar.kuttyjapan.com ᏫᏓᎧᏃᏗᏱ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ extracts ᎢᎬᏱ historians ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ Herodotus.
  45. Dr. Poulose ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ Advaita ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎯ Brahmashri Chattampi Swamikal (Ayyavazhi ᏚᏂᏃᏣᎳᏅ), ᎠᏗᎭ Ꮎ Atmanada Swamikal ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏩᏗᏙᎯ Ayya Vaikundar ᎠᎴ Atmanada Swamikal ᎤᏕᎶᏆᎥ ᎯᎠ Marmavidya ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Sidha vidya ᎠᎴ ghecherividya (Chinmudra) ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Ayya Vaikundar ᎠᎴ Atmanada Swamikal ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏚᏕᏲᏅᎩ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ vidyas ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏩᏗᏙᎯ, Sri Chattampi Swamikal. ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏗᎭ Ꮎ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Swami Vivekananda ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ernakulam, Sri Chattampi Swamikal ᏚᏕᏲᏅᎩ ᎪᎯ Chinmudra ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ.
  46. V.T. Chellam ᎤᏤᎵ Thamizaka Varalarum Panpadum, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 12, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 493
  47. Akilam 9:667-670 (Narayana ᎤᏯᏅᏛ Vaikundar "ᏂᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎦᎪ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ adored ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ mystics"
  48. Arisundara Mani ᎤᏤᎵ Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 1, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ -36, "Kroni ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᏝ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ subtile ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ spiritual ᎤᎧᏁᎳ."
  49. Akilam 12:151 - "Poorana Vetha Purana mun akamangkal"
  50. "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ Veda (ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ) ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ". - Akilam5:571
  51. G.Patrck ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 93 "ᎯᎠ followers ᎠᎴ 'ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏩᏗᏙᎯ' AV too ᎠᏰᎲ practiced shamanism ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ centers AV."
  52. G.Patrck ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 93 " ᎤᏓᏢᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Arulnul (Arul Nool) confirms ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ shamans ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ AV centers ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ imparting ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏴᏫ"
  53. Ebenezer Lewis (ed.) "ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ Santhapuram ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ 1858", ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ Travancore ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᎠᎧᎻᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ LMS ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ 1858, Nagercoil: London ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1859, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 4-5. " ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᏑᎶᏨ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎦᎪ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ Muthukutty. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ tsgvwalodi-ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎸᏅ ᎠᏅᏬᏗ diseases ᎾᎥᎢ incantations. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ allowed ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᏍᏗᏰᎬ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ matted ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Ꮎ Pantaram, abstained ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎾᎿ Tuesdays ᎠᎴ Fridays, ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ablutions ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᏚᏃᎩᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ honour ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ swami ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ occationally ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏨᏍᎩᎾ"
  54. Akilam
  55. G. Patrick', ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 151, "ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ mythography AV ᏗᎪᏢᏅ explicite ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ essence ᎪᎯ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ - Ꮷtsuqagutanvsv, ᎡᏙᎠ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ - ᎠᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ weaving ᎢᏧᎳ empirical ᏱᏓᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ mythical accounts."
  56. G. Patrick', ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 151, "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᏂᎦyeli igidv nigallisdisgv analyse ᎠᎴ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ concepts ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ woven ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ symbolic ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏟᏏᏍᎬ. "
  57. Akilam8:Thiru Nadana Ula -6th&11th Venpaas (species ᎤᏓᏢᎬ).
  58. Samuel Zecharia (1826-1906), ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᏃᏣᎵ pastors ᎯᎠ London ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, testifies ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ titled ᎯᎠ London ᎧᏃᎮᏛ ᎨᏥᏅᏏᏓ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Travancore 1805-1855, Nagercoil:LMS ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 1897, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ-201.
  59. Cf.M... Pandiyan ᎤᏤᎵ Meanings 'Colonialism ᎠᎴ 'Nationalism' ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 180.
  60. LMS ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ 1838, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 71 ᎠᏗᎭ "ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ 70 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᎪᎯ sect, ᎤᎲᎢ subsequently ᎪᏢᏅ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎠᎲᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ guidance ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ seashore Tinnevelly, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ erected huts, ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎢᏳᏓᎵ ablutions, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ assembled ᎠᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᎩᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᏘᏁᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏔᎯ ᎯᎠ miracles ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ."
  61. Akilathirattu ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 252: "ᎯᎠ ᏁᎳᏚ castes ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᏊ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ bathed ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ."
  62. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 159 ᎠᏗᎭ, "AV, ᎤᎲᎢ emerged ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ context distress, proposes emancipatory utopa ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ banner tarmayukam."
  63. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 159 ᎠᏗᎭ, "ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ Vaikuntacami ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ tarmayukam ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ kaliyukam."
  64. . Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 109 ᎠᏗᎭ, "Akilattirattu ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ Ꮝ narration ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏓᎦᎷᏥ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎪᎯ kaliyukam transform ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ tarmayukam ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ."
  65. G.Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 161 "ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏩgvwatuwidv ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi Ꮎ eternally ᎬᏙᏗ Vaikuntacami ᏚᏄᎪᏔᏅ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎪᎯᏓ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ."
  66. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 6, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ - 161 , "ᎩᎳ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ symbolic ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ AV ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮝ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi. AV gives ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ aeons, ᎠᎴ, ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ, postulates tarmayukam Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏗ
  67. Akilam17:1161,
  68. Akilam8:Thiruvasakam - 1 (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Akilam ᎪᎯ Thiruvasakam ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Sarasvathi ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ previouse ᏧᏁᎸᏗᏯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᏈᏙᏪᎸ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ Kaliyan.)
  69. Ayya Vaikundar Nootti ezhubathavathu Avathara thina Vizha Sirappu Malar ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Vaikundar Seva Sangham, (T. Ashok Kumar) ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 2, ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ 17 "ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ Ꮎ Kali ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ ᎾᏊ . ᎠᎴ Kali ᎨᏒᎢ jailed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Kayilai ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Vannima Mandapam..."
  70. Arisundara Mani ᎤᏤᎵ Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ 1, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 1, ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ 1-2, "Sreehari ᎦᎪ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Athi Narayana ᎨᏒᎢ praised ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ayya."
  71. Samithopu Ayya Vaikunda Suvami 172-vathu avathara thina vizha, Thina Malar vazangkum Avathara Thina vizha Sirappu Malar, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 3, " ...ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ questionable Ꮎ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎣᎾᏛ Ꮎ. ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎦᎪ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᎣᎾᏛ newly ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ Ayya wonders ᎠᎴ... " Bala Prajapathi Adikalar ᎪᏪᎵᎠ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ Vaikundar.
  72. G. Patrick ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ Subaltern ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏯᏙᎸ - 5, ᎤᏆᏓᏛ 106
  73. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ http://www.vaikunt.org/AyyaVaikuntar/ᎠᏩᏛᏗ.htm

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