ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ

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ᎦᎶᏪ ᎨᏒᎢ firearm ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏒᏙᏂ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ ("rifling") ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ Ꮝ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ. ᎯᎠ rifling ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏗ "ᏗᎦᏙᎯ," ᎡᏍᎦᏂ Ꮎ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏚᏓᏂᏴᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ (ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎦᏂ), ᏗᏲᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᏗᏆᎳᏕᏲ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎨᏛᏍᏛᎢ ᏓᎾᏓᏛᎩᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏙᏂ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ Ꮝ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏙᎳᏤᎩ ᏭᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ rugby ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎠᎳᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ "ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ" ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ grooving, ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "rifled ᎦᎶᏇ."

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ rifling ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ. ᎠᎳᏍᏔᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏕᎳᎰᏒᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᏗᏆᎳᏕᏲ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏲᎲ ᎤᎩᏓᎵ fletchings ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏟᏓ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎩᎦᏚᏏᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏥᏃᏍᏛ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ. ᎤᏙᎯᏳ rifling ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎠᏃᏢᏂᎥᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ centuries, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎡᏆᏯ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎯᎠ unrifled ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ.

ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎦᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᎵᏖᎸᎲᏍᎬ ᎦᏁᏰᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᎲᎯ (ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎬᎿᎨ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ, ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ nitrocellulose), ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏁᎶᏗᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ("plinking").

Overview[edit]

35 ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ Remington, ᎬᏙᏗ microgroove rifled ᏒᏙᏂ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ, ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ firepower massed ᎤᏒᏕᎾ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ fired ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 0.75 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏛ (19 mm). Benjamin Robins, ᎩᎵᏏ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ, ᎠᏕᎳᎰᏒᎯ Ꮎ extruded ᎦᏂ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ kinetic ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎦᎸᏓᎸᏓ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᎾᎢ. ᎯᎠ innovative ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏥᏉᏉ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᎢᏍᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ.

ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ—ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏏᏴᏫ-ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙᎳ Ꮿ-ᎠᎧᎵᎢ—ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ aimed, ᏫᎵ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏊ, ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎤᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ, ᎾᏍᏋ braced ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᏬᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ. ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ tended ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ—1890 ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ-Henry ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᏑᏓᎵ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏕᎾ (1.8 m) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ, ᎠᎴ shortened ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ-ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ, ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏙᏗ fired ᎾᎾᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏴᏑᎸ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏙᏂ. ᏫᏄᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ bounced ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ fired ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏭᎵᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏴᏑᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ unpredictable. (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏱᏳ 1800s, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ "rifled ᎤᏒᏕᎾ" ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ smoothbore ᎠᎴ rifled ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ.)

ᎢᎬᏱ ᏓᎾᏩᏄᏁᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏛᏁᎲᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎠᏍᏆᎵᏛ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ rifling ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏍᎩᎦᏚᏏᏁ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎠᎳᏍᏔᎵᏙᎯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏕᎳᎰᏒᎯ Ꮎ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂᏓᏛ ᏧᎷᏄᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏟᏓ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᏂ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎦᏒᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏦᎸᎯᏓ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏚᏅᎦᎸᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ; ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏄᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ scrubbing, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᏗ 'ᎤᏦᎸᎯᏓ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ' ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ perceived ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ Ꮭ-ᏌᏊ ᎠᎦᏔᎭ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ. ᎤᏙᎯᏳ rifling ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-15th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮝ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎠᏃᏢᏂᎥᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᏯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ centuries.

ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ[edit]

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎬᏱ rifled ᏗᎦᎶᏇ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ Ꮎ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ. ᎤᏤᎵᏛᎭ-ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᏂ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏗᏆᎳᏕᏲ Ꮎ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᏙᎢ ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏙᏂ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ, ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ rifling ᎨᏒᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ Glock ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏍᏆᎳ ᎦᎶᏇ.

19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ[edit]

ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ, ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏒᏙᏂ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏓᏍᏟᏁᎦ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ "ᏗᎦᏙᎯ". ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏍᏆᎵᎯᎨ preceded ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎦᏙᎳ Ꮿ-ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ overbore ᎦᏂ ᎡᎳᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ rifled ᏒᏙᏂ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ (ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ) ᎠᏥᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎦᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ pushed ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᎬᏱᏘᏢ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ), ᎠᎴ, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎿᎢ, ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ deformation. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏁᎶᏔᏅ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ-ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ ᎦᏂ Ꮎ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᏴᏑᎸ-ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᏂᎦ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᎾᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ rifling ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ, ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏗᎧᎵᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᏅᎦᎸᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ rifling ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ did not ᏧᎾᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ wrapped ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏃᏥ ᎦᎵᏍᏜᎥ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ rifling ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ.

ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏴ ᎯᎠ 19 ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎤᎪᎲᎩ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1826 Delirque, ᎠᎦᎸᏥ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ, ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎦᏙᎳ Ꮿ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏊ ᎦᏅᏬᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎦᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ rammed ᎡᎳᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎯᎠ rifling ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ. Delirque ᎤᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ.

Minié[edit]

ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ Minié ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ relied ᎾᎿ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎦᏂ (ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Minié ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ) ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏒᏙᏂ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ Ꮎ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ exploding ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ rifling ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ fired. Minié ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ Springfield ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ Enfield ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ 1860s, featured ᏂᎬᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᎯᎠ enhanced ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎠᏐᎠᏍᏙ ᎤᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎤᎳᏘᏒ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏔᎴᏍᏗ (ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ) ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎦᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᎳᏍᎦᎶᏗ. Enhanced ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ rifling, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ spun ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ.

ᏄᏓᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏣᏱ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᏅᎬᎪᎪᎩ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏙᎳ Ꮿ-ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᏦᏬᏰᏂ ᎬᏗ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ, Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 20,000 ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ removable ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ-ᎨᎶᎸᎯ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Christopher ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1860. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᏱ rimfire ᏣᏱ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ removable ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ, enabling ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎾᏍᏋ fired ᏌᏊ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏄᏓᎴ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ emptied ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ.

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏂ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏙᏂ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏗᏆᎸᏕᏯᏛ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ rifling, ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ Ꮎ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᏚᏄᏩ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏙᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏒᏙᏂ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ-ᎦᎶᏇ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ-ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ swapped ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ, ᎠᎴ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ, ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎹ-ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ. ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 1,000 ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ, ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᏍᏓᏰᎯᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎾᏍᏋ fired ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎪᎭᏍᎬ. (ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎤᎭ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ-ᎠᏰᎦᎶᏛ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ rifling.) ᎦᎸᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ-ᎤᏴᏢ ᎦᏂ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏄᏬᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ encased ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ softer ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ Teflon.

ᎦᏂ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ[edit]

ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎦᏂ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏂᎸ ᎠᏱᎸᏓ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ. ᎾᎥᎢ 1910 ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎪᏍᏗᏳᎵ-ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎦᏂ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏎᎸ, 'spitzer' ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏍᎬ. ᏣᏱ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ Ꭺ ᏧᏒᏙᏂ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏕᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᎿᎨ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ sealed ᏣᏱ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏗᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎬᎿᎨ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏌᏊ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏐᎢ smokeless ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ, ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎦᏂ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ velocities ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ.

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏉᏨᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏁᎵᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎢᏤ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᏂ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏩᏂᎨᎢ ᎦᏂ ᎠᏍᏓᏰᎯᎨ ᎦᏂ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏥᏱ jacketed, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᏗᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎯᎠ spiraled ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ "stripping" ᎠᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏗᏆᎸᏕᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎭᏓᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏗ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏓᏍᏓᏲᎯᏎᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏂᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ.

20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ[edit]

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ ᏏᏴᏫ-ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ, ᎤᎵᏴᏑᎸ-ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 18th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ , ᎦᏙᎳ Ꮿ-ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏎᎸ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ reload ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎫᏢᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏃᏢᏅᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᏯ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ-ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎠᏐᎠᏍᏙ ᎠᏲᎠᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, multi-ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᏅᎬᎪᎪᎩ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ, ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎦᎭᏓᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎧᏁᏉᏤᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᎴ minimizing ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᏠᎯᏎᏗ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎧᎵᎢ firearm. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏐᎠᏍᏙ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏣᏱ ᏣᏱ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᏓᏁᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ sealed ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎳ Ꮿ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲᏊ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎦᏐᎯ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᏘᏂᏒ ᎦᎭᏓᏙᏗ-ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ Ꮎ Paul Mauser, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎵᏖᎸᏗ—ᏨᏓᏓᏨᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᏯ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎯᏍᎩ-ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᎪᎵᏰᏗ—ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏔᎵ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ. ᎯᎠ Mauser ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ paralleled ᎾᎥᎢ Britain ᎤᏤᎵ ᏍᎪᎯ-ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ-Enfield ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎤᏤᎵ 1903 Springfield ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ (ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂᏯᎨ pictured ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ), ᎢᏧᎳ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ copied ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Mauser ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ massed, ᎦᏣᏄᎳ firepower ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᎦᎶᏇ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ rifled ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎵᏍᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎦᏓᎷᎦᏅ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ riflemen ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᎯᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏔᏅ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᎩᎾᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎾᎥᎢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ, ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏁᎵᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᎯᏴ, ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ.

ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ[edit]

ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏥ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ researchers ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏏᏐᏗ Ꮎ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ aimed ᎠᏥᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏓᎾᏟᎲ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ 500 m. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ, ᎤᏍᎪᏛᎭᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᏯ, ᏴᎩ-ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᎩ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ M1 Garand, ᎤᎾᏄᎪᏨ. ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᎤᎪᎲᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ-ᏠᎨᏏ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ culminated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Walther MKb-42, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏗᏓᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ, ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᏚᎾᏙᎷᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ.

ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎢ, ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎠᏤᎸ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ. ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏂᏃᎯᎵᏙᎲ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎤᎭ fiberglass ᏚᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1910. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ sniper ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎦᏐᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ; ᎯᎠ ᏲᏂᎢ 7.62 x 54 mm ᏣᏱ, ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ SVD Dragunov, ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1891.

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ[edit]

ᎤᏒᏕᎾ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ, unaimed ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᏥᎸ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ conscripted ᎠᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎠᎨᏲᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ (ᎤᎵᏴᏑᎸ-ᏗᎧᎵᎸ) ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏜᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎠᎴ sniper ᎠᏥᎸ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ Napoleonic ᏓᏄᏩ, ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ 95th ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ (ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎦᏌᎴᎾ) ᎠᎴ 60th ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ (ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏴᏫ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ) ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎡᏆ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎠᏥᎡᏗᏱ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ slower ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏒᏕᎾ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᏣᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏙᎳ Ꮿ-ᎠᎧᎵᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎵᎪᏁᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ 20th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ, ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᎨᏲᏅᎯ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-powered ᏣᏱ. ᎡᎶᎯ ᏓᏄᏩ ᎠᏯ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ-Enfields ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ (ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ) ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ 'ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ' ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ massed ᎠᏥᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ (1600 m). ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎧᏁᏍᎦ ᎠᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎠᏤᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᎦᎶᏇ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ WWI ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸᎩ Ꮎ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏥᎸ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎶᏇ.

ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ WW ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ accepted Ꮎ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᏗᏱ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 500 m; ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ "overkill"; ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎨᏓᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎠᏂᏛᏥ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎯᎠ 7.92  x 33 mm Kurz (ᏍᏆᎳᎢ) ᎦᏌᏆᎸ, ᎯᎠ MKb-42, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, infantryman ᎤᏤᎵ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ optimised ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ 300 m ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏫᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎨᏲᏅᎯ ᏩᎯᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᎷᏘᏓ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, ᎦᏅᎯᏓ-ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎯᎠ sniper ᎠᎴ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ sniper ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ arcminute (300 μrad).

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎯᏍᎩ, ᎡᏆ-ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ anti-ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ sniper ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ, ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ 0.50 (12.7 mm) ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏣᏱ, ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ Barrett M82A1 ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᎾᏍᏗ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ, ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ radar antennae ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᎩ ᏦᏍᏗᏓᏄᏫ aircraft. Anti-ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏴᏫ ᏗᏲᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏍᏓᏲᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏴᏑᎸ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂ impractical ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎬᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ Barrett M82 ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᏚᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗᏱ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ 1800 m (1.1 ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ).

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]