ᏎᎼᏂ

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ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ Coho ᏎᎼᏂ
ᎠᏑᎱᏍᎧ.

ᏎᎼᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Salmonidae. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᏧᎾᎦ. ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ Atlantic ᎠᎴ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏙᎯ locked ᎥᏓᎵ. ᎯᎠ Kamchatka ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Russian ᎢᏅ ᎧᎸᎬ, ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏭᏔᏅ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ.

ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ anadromous: ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ. ᎤᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏓᏓᎸ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ 90% ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏕᏅ ᎾᎿᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Alaska, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ populate ᎢᏤ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᏏᏅᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎪᏢᏅ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎩᏌᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏎᎼᏂ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ semelparity. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏎᎼᏂ Ꮎ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ (iteroparity), ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ (ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 40 50%.) ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ, ᎠᏎᏱᎩ, ᏦᎢ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏂᏕᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ.

ᎦᏙᎯ ᎡᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎪᎯᏳᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎯᎠ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ centuries, ᏴᏫ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᏎᎼᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ swam upriver ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ. ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ spearfishing ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Columbia ᎤᏪᏴ ᎾᎾᎢ Celilo ᎦᎶᏍᎦ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ inundated ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ. ᎯᎠ Ainu, ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᏚᏕᏲᏅᎩ ᎠᏂᎩᏟ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᎦᎷᎦ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎧᏁᏉᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏙᎯ en masse. ᎾᏊ, ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ. ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ fisheries ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ banned ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ Ireland.

ᏎᎼᏂ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᏝᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Atlantic ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎩᎵᏏ Columbia ᎠᎴ Alaska ᏚᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎢ ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ Skeena ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎢᏧᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᏂᎷᎬ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ fisheries, ᏅᏁᎯᏯ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ fisheries, ᏗᏁᎸᏗᏱ fisheries ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ wildlife ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ yvwatuwidv ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ watershed.

ᎢᏧᎳ Atlantic ᎠᎴ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ recreational ᎠᎾᏑᎲᏍᎬ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Australian ᏎᎼᏂ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎹ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ salmonidae. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ coastline Australia ᎠᎴ Tasmania. ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎠᎹᏳᎳᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ, Ꮝ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ lyudetiyvda ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ 20 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ[edit]

ᏧᏪᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏥ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎦᏃᎴᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎿᎨ ᏗᎦᏙᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ
ᏎᎼᏂ ᎪᎢᎯ ᎬᏂᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏂᏯᎢᏍᎬ - ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏛᏒ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏥ - ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ arteries ᎠᏗᏆᎳᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎶᏂᎨᏍᏛ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ oildrops, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᎦᏏ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ, ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎩᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ, ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᏍᎪᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏬᏓ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ redd, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ streambed ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏠᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏧᏪᏥ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏫᎵ ᎤᎾᏄᎪᎢᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ, fertilising ᎠᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏗᎫᏝᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏕᏯᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ upstream ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᏪᏥ ᏫᎵ ᏓᏂᏯᎢᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎯ alevin ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎪᎢᎯ ᎬᏂᏍᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎪᎢᎯ ᎬᏂᏍᏙᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ parr ᎬᏙᏗ camouflaging ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ. ᎯᎠ parr ᎡᏙᎠ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᏦᎢ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ smolts ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ colour ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ rubbed ᎤᏣᏘᎾ. ᎯᎠ smolt ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ, ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎹ. Smolts ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ-ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ, ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎣᎩᏌᏛ osmoregulation ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ.

ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ freshwater, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ grilse. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᏔᎵ ᏧᏁᎳ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ (ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏫᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ sexually ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎢᎦᎷᎦ Ꮝ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ iyuwakodi ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ whitling ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ UK. ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ undergoes ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᏂᎯ, ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎩᏟ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏅᏙᎬ, ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ kype (ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏎᎼᏂ). ᏂᎦᏛ ᏫᎵ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ ᎢᏤᎢ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ darker ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏗ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ freshwater ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ kelts. ᏎᎼᏂ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎪᏢᏗ amazing ᎥᎢᏒᎢ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏛ upstream ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴ, ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎯᎠ lyudetiyvda ᏎᎼᏂ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ deduced ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏗᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ, ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ. ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎤᏂᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎨᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ slower ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ, ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎳ. ᎪᎯ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ (annuli) ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎡᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏗᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏡᎬ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ. Freshwater ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎠᏂᎧᎵᎢ ᏗᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ; ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ spaced ᏗᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᏲᎶᎬ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ milt.

Freshwater ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᎴ estuaries ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ aquatic ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ, amphipods, ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ crustaceans ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ. ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ deeper ᎠᎹ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ (ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ) ᎯᎠ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ. ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ predation ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏕᎫᎪᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ siltation, ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ, ᎡᎳᏗ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎫᏢᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ. Estuaries ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ wetlands ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏁᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ. Wetlands ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎪᎸᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎥᏓᎵ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ pollutants, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ.


ᏎᎼᏂ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ[edit]

Edouard Manet: ᏙᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ

ᏎᎼᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ Ꮝ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏤᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ-3 ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏛ ᏧᏄᏦᏍᏔ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ overall ᎡᎳᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᏗᎬᏁᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᎦᏙᎲᏍᏗ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, farmed ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ dioxin. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ 8 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ farmed ᏎᎼᏂ ᎤᏠᏱᎭᎢ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ-3 ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ. ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏩᏙᎯᏯᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎵᏏ FSA (ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ) ᎯᎠ ᎤᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ farmed ᏎᎼᏂ ᏙᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꮎ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᎤᏲᎢ ᎾᎥᎢ methylmercury ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏣᏗ.

ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏚᏂᎯᏯᏍᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ Atlantic ᏎᎼᏂ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ farmed (ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 99%), ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ-ᎦᏂᏴᏛ (ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 80%).

ᏎᎼᏂ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ colour, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᏁᎬ fleshed ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ colour ᏎᎼᏂ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ carotenoid ᏗᎧᏃᏗ astaxanthin (E161j) ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ. ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ carotenoids ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ krill ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ gantlai. ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ canthaxanthin (E161g) ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ Vitamins, ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ colourants ᎯᎠ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ farmed ᏎᎼᏂ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. Astaxanthin ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏛ antioxidant Ꮎ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ ᏄᏛᎿᏕᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏥᏍᏚ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ. Canthaxanthin ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎤᎭ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ agatoli, causing ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ intakes [1].

ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏔᏅ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Ꭴ.. ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ farmed ᏎᎼᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎦᎸᏔᏅ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. Alaskan ᏎᎼᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ. Smoked ᏎᎼᏂ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏗᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ smoked. Lox ᏰᎵᏇ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎤᏴᏢ smoked ᏎᎼᏂ, ᎠᎴ ᏎᎼᏂ cured ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹᎭ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ gravlax).

ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎤᏇᏓᎵ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏂᏌᎩᏓᎡ, ᎠᏜ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢᎾ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏂᏌᎩᎠᏏᏍ. ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ availability ᎦᎸᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵese ᏄᏛᏁᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᏎᎼᏂ. ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏎᎼᏂ gantlai ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ ᎦᎷᏨ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ sashimi (ᏄᏩᎾᏒᎾ ᎠᏣᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᏑᏏ.

Environmental ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ ᏚᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎯᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ Atlantic ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ European ᎠᎹᏱ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᏬᎳᏨᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ:

  • ᎥᏳᎩ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᏎᎼᏂ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏘᎾ. ᎯᎠ European ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏏᏂ (2002) ᎠᏍᏆᏛ “The ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ salmonid ᎬᏩᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᏐᎢ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎠᏃᏢᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏘᎾ-infested ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏙᎲᎩ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎥᏓᎵ.” ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Scientific Evidence.
  • Overfishing ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Faroes ᎠᎴ Greenland.
  • ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎪᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ smolting.
  • Ulcerative ᎠᏰᎵ ᎥᏳᎩ (UDN) ᎥᏳᎩ ᎯᎠ 1970s ᎠᎴ 1980s ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎦᎸᏉᏔᏅ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ freshwater ᎤᏪᏴ.
  • ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ freshwater ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ redds.
  • ᎯᎠ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᏓᎦᏴᎵᎨ, ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ "ᎦᏃᎱᎩᏍᎬ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ" ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏪᏴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ accessibility ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ.
  • ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ invertebrate ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎦᎶᎨᏒᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎢᏗᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ ᎥᏳᎩ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ availability.
  • ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ freshwater alenvdidsv ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ, hydroelectric ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎾᏁᎶᏔᏅ, ᎠᎹ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗᏱ ᎪᎯ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ NGOᎠᎴ sharing ᎠᎴ participating ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ documentation ᏓᏁᎸᏔᏅ.

Aquaculture[edit]

ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ-incubated ᎤᎾᎵᎢ ᏎᎼᏂ

ᏎᎼᏂ aquaculture ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ contributor ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ farmed ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ-ᎠᏣᏗ, ᎾᏓᏛᏁᎲ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ $1 ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ. ᏐᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ cultured ᎠᏣᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ: tilapia, ᏧᎵᏍᏓᎾᎵ, ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎤᏔᏅ ᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ, carp, bream, ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᎦ. ᏎᎼᏂ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Norway, Sweden, Scotland, Canada, ᎠᎴ Chile ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ consumed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ ᎠᎴ Europe. Atlantic ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ farmed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Russia ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Tasmania, Australia.

ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎨᎶᎸᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏓᎯᎯ ᏐᎢ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏜ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ. ᏫᏄᎳᏍᏙᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏍᏗ farmed ᏎᎼᏂ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ. ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏫᎬᎵᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᎿ substituting ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᏤᎵᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ gantlai ᏤᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ. ᎡᏍᎦᎢᏳᎾᎵᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ, ᎪᎯ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ-3 ᎣᏍᏛ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ farmed ᎤᏛᏒᎯ. Intensive ᏎᎼᏂ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ ᎾᏊ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᎢᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏐᏅᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎥᏳᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏘᎾ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ ᏚᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ.

ᏄᏓᎴ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ safer ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ controllable, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ hatcheries iyuwakodi ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏁᎸᏙᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ. ᎪᎯ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ Sweden ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ Norwegians ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᏎᎼᏂ ᏓᎦᎶᎩᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏂᎥᏇ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ, ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏓᏝᏅᏓᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎪᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᏚᎾᎳᏏᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ kanquotsegi ᏎᎼᏂ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᏱᎸ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ overharvest ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ. ᎡᏍᎦᎢᏳᎾᎵᏍᏓᏁᎸ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᏗᏑᏰᏍᏗ ᎾᏂᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ "ᎠᎹ" ᎯᎠ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏚᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᏂᎧᏅᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ favour ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏫᏒ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ ᎠᎵᎢᎵᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ. variant ᎢᎬᎾᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᏩᎦ ᏗᏛᎿᏗᏍᏙᏗ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Alaska. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎢᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎨᏯᏔᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ iyuwakodi ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎥᎦᎷᏨ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᎭᏢᏃ fishermen ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎠᏂ.

ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ.

Atlantic ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ[edit]

Atlantic ᏎᎼᏂ

Atlantic ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Salmo. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ,

  • Atlantic ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏎᎼᏂ (Salmo salar), ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ.
  • ᎦᏙᎯ-locked ᏎᎼᏂ (Salmo salar sebago) ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᎪᎯ subspecies ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎥᎢᏒᎢ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ.
  • Salmo trutta, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ classified ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᎦ, ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ Atlantic ᏎᎼᏂ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏎᎼᏂ. ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏬᏗᎨ ᏧᎾᎦ.

ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ[edit]

ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ Oncorhynchus, ᎢᎦᏛ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ;

  • Sockeye ᏎᎼᏂ (Oncorhynchus nerka) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎩᎦᎨ ᏎᎼᏂ" ᎠᎴ "ᎠᏕᎳ ᏎᎼᏂ." ᎪᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Klamath ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ California ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ Hokkaido ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏅ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Bathurst ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎳ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Anadyr ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ.
  • ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᏎᎼᏂ (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ, Tyee, ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᏎᎼᏂ, Quinnat, Tule, ᎠᎴ Blackmouth ᏎᎼᏂ.
  • ᎩᎦᎨ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ Humpback ᏎᎼᏂ (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ California ᎠᎴ Korea, ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ Mackenzie ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Canada ᎯᎠ Lena ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ.
  • ᎤᎾᎵᎢ ᏎᎼᏂ (Oncorhynchus keta) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎩᏟ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏣᏛᎤᏥᎸ ᏎᎼᏂ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ geographic ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ: ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎯᎠ Sacramento ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ California ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ Kyushu ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ; ᎤᏴᏢ ᎯᎠ Mackenzie ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Canada ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Lena ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ.
  • Coho ᏎᎼᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏎᎼᏂ (Oncorhynchus kisutch) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎹᏱ Alaska ᎠᎴ ᎩᎵᏏ Columbia ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ-ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏪᏴ.
  • ᎩᏔᏯ ᏎᎼᏂ (Oncorhynchus masu ᎠᎴ O. masou) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ, Korea ᎠᎴ Russia.

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]


ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ[edit]

  • Atlas of Pacific Salmon, Xanthippe Augerot ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ Consortium, ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ California ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 2005, hardcover, 152 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ, ISBN 0-520-24504-0
  • ᏧᎾᎦ ᎠᎴ ᏎᎼᏂ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, Robert J. Behnke, ᏚᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ R. Tomelleri, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, 2002, hardcover, 359 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ, ISBN 0-7432-2220-2
  • Come back, salmon., ᎾᎥᎢ Molly ᏒᏙᏂ, Sierra ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ, 48 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ, ISBN 0-87156-572-2 - ᎪᏪᎵ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏛᏍᎩ decribes ᎯᎠ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ 'ᏬᏱ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ'.
  • ᏎᎼᏂ, ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎳᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ, ᎾᎥᎢ Anthony NetBoy, © 1973, Houghton Mifflin ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ., 613 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ, ISBN 0-395-14013-7