ᎧᎹᎹ (ᏨᏍᎪᏱ)

From Wikipedia
(Redirected from ᎧᎹᎹ)
Jump to: navigation, ᎡᏗt
?ᎧᎹᎹ
A ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎧᎹᎹ, mimic of the ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎧᎹᎹ
Scientific classification
ᎴᎬᎾᎻ: Animalia
Division: Rhopalocera
ᏆᎢᎳᎻ: Arthropoda
ᏗᎦᎪᏗ: ᏨᏍᎪᏱ
ᎣᎸᏙ: Lepidoptera
Families

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Lepidoptera, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᏣᎵ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ superfamilies Hesperioidea (ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜ) ᎠᎴ Papilionoidea (ᏂᎦᏛ ᏐᎢ ᎧᎹᎹ). ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ superfamily Hedyloidea, ᎯᎠ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎧᎹᎹ ᏩᏐᎳ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ—proceeding ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵl ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ pupic metamorphisis ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᏢᎯ ᎢᎪᏢᎯ ᎢgᏁᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ ᎠᏑᏫᏒ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ-ᎩᎳ-ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎤᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎦᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏛ.

ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏳᏓᎵ, ᎿᏊ ᏱᏗᎦᏁᏌᏴᏜᏗᎠ, ᎢᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᎢᎦᎢ, ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏍᏆ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏓ ᎠᎾᏂᎩᏍᎪ Ꮲ ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎪᎳ ᎢᎪᎯᏓ. ᎪᎨᏱ ᎠᏂᎷᎪ, ᎠᏁᎬ Ꮲ ᏓᏂᎲᏍᎪ ᏧᏪᏥ. ᎠᏓᏁᏍᏗᎵ ᎠᎾᏣᎢᏍᎪ ᎠᏂᏏᎳᏕᏍᎪ ᎤᎾᏣᎢᏍᏗ ᏧᎾᏔᎾ ᎧᎹᎹᎢ.

ᏴᏫ ᎦᎪ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏂᏢᏗ ᎧᎹᎹ (ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᏩᏐᎳ) ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ lepidopterist ᎠᎴ aurelians.

ᎧᏁᏨ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎹᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ buttorfleoge ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏘᏉ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎦᏃᏍᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏗ. ᎤᏠᏱ ᎧᏁᏨ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Dutch ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏥ originating ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏒ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏗᏅᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ Ꮝ ᎡᏙᎠ ᏚᏙᎥ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ - ᎧᎹᎹ.

ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎠᏍᎦᏯᎭ ᎧᏁᏨ, ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ, ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ originated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎪᏢᏅ-ᎠᏑᏫᏒ tᎥᎦ ᏩᏎᎯᎲᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ ᎧᎹᎹ Gonepteryx rhamni, ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ. ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᎷᏨᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏨᏍᏙᏗ "flutterby".

ᎧᎹᎹ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ[edit]

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ, microphotography

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ Lepidoptera ᎠᎴ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ-ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ (lepidos = ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ pteron = ᎪᏯᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎪᎢ). ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᎭ ᎣᏌᏂ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ Ꮎ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎣᏌᏂ ᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏑᏫᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ ᎬᏂᎲᎢ ᏗᏑᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᎸᎾᏍᏗ ᏗᏑᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ camouflage ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏒᏂᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏂᏴᏫ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏓᏲᎱᏎᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮭ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ tᎥᎦ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ, ᎢᎦᏛ lepidopterans ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎯᎠ Clearwing ᏩᏐᎳ (Sesiidae) ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏅᏙᎲᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Glasswing ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ. ᎣᏏ ᎢᏳᎾᎵᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ evolutionary ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ, ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᏣᎦᎸᏓ ᎠᎴ tattered ᎪᏯᏛ, ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ properties, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ, Ꮎ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎪᎵᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ developmental ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ processes Ꮎ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ morphological ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ.

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ, spanning ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, evolutionary ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ (Boggs ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ., 2003). ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ aposematism ᎠᎴ mimicry ᏚᎴᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ nineteenth ᏍqᎣᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ lepidopterists ᏚᎾᎦᏎᏍᏛ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ. ᎤᎪᏗ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ H. F. Nijhout ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎾᎿ developmental ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎪᏯᏛ.

ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ[edit]

ᎾᎯᏳᏊ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ classified ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏔᎵ superfamilies, Hesperioidea, ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ 'ᎠᏜ' ᎠᎴ Papilionoidea ᎠᎴ 'ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎧᎹᎹ'. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎸ taxa, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎹᎹ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ clade. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ taxonomists ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᏂ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ superfamily Papilionoidea, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎢᏯhᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, Papilionoidea ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ Hesperiiformes (ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᏊ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏜ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Hesperiidae) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ Papilioniformes (ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ).

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ recognized ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Papilionoidea ᎠᎴ:-

ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ/ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ[edit]

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ 15,000 ᎠᎴ 20,000 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎧᎹᎹ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ yvwatuwidv ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ:-

ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏐᎳ[edit]

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏐᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏔᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏐᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎧᎹᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏩᏐᎳ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᏘᎸᏓ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ ᎧᎹᎹ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎢᎦ ᎦᏃᎯᎸᏒ ᏩᏐᎳ.

Taxonomic ᎠᏯᏙᎯᎲ[edit]

ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎢᏤ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ (Wahlberg ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ., 2005) combining morphological ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎠᏍᏆᏛ Ꮎ Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae ᎠᎴ Riodinidae ᏰᎵᏇ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏗᏳ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ monophyletic clades, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ Nymphalidae ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏝᏏᏛ. Lycaenidae ᎠᎴ Riodinidae ᎨᏒᎩ ᎦᎫᏍᏛᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᎸ taxa, ᎠᎴ Papilionidae ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ outgroup ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎧᎹᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎷᎯᏍᏗ Pieridae ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ unclear, ᎬᏙᏗ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎠᏂᏁᎢᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏐᎳ Hedyloidea ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᎢ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏓᏛᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏐᎢ ᏩᏐᎳ.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏁᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ Danaidae, Heliconiidae, Libytheidae ᎠᎴ Satyridae, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ subfamilies ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Nymphalidae.

ᎯᎠ ᏅᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ lifecycle ᎧᎹᎹ[edit]

ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᎧᎹᎹ
ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏯᏖᏃ ᎦᏅᏗ ᎧᎹᎹ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ

ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ, ᎧᎹᎹ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᎦᏙᎲᏒ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ pupal ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏓᏂᎾᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ (ᎯᎠ imago).

ᎤᏪᏥ[edit]

ᎧᎹᎹ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ-ridged outer ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎤᏯᏍᎦ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎯᎠ chorion. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎦᎶᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏌᎨᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏜ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ ᎠᏥᏄqᎣᏫᏍᎬ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᏂᎧᎵ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ. ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎤᏪᏥ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᏎᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᏍᏗᏱ-ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᏚᎵᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ micropyles; ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎸᏉᏛᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏥᏍᏚ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ. ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏐᎳ ᏧᏪᏥ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᏰᎵ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏐᏆᎸ.

ᎧᎹᎹ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏄᏩᏁᎸ ᎤᎦᎶᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏗᎧᏅᏬᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᎾᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎠᏐᏩᏅᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏥ. ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏅᏬᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᏓᎦtᎤᏫᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗdᏒ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᎤᏪᏥ ᏑᏓᎴᎩ ᏗᏓᎨᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎧᏅᏬᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎧᏁᎳ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏗᎧᏅᏬᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏔᎡ ᎯᎠ cremaster. ᎪᎯ ᏗᎧᏅᏬᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏏᎵᎩ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᏔᎡ ᎠᎴ glued, ᏝᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ separated.

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ[edit]

Larvae, ᎠᎴ ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ multi-ᎠᏗᏌᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎬ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎦᎪᏘ ᏧᎦᎶᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎤᏠᏱᏊ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.

ᏍᎪᏯ ᎠᏁᏍᎩᎸᎥᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ, ᎤᏯᏅᎲ instars. ᎾᎥᏂᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ instar, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ undergoes ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ apolysis, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ chitin ᎠᎴ specialized ᏤᎵ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ instar, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ moults ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ. ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ larval instar.

ᎪᏯᏛ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ larval ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ[edit]

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᏓᏣᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ specialized ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏚᎾᏓᏚᏓᎸ holometabolous ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏗᏯᎦᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ larvae ᎠᎴ dissected, ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏙᎷᏩᏘᏍᎬ "ᎪᏯᏛ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ" ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢᏁ thoracic ᎢᎦᏛ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ.

ᎪᏯᏛ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎲᏣᏬᎳᏛ Ꮎ ᏓᏍᏆᎶᏗ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗdᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎦtᎤᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏌᎨᎢ "peripodial ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ", ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎯᎠ outer ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ.

ᎪᏯᏛ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᏂ larval instar, ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ dramatically ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ, ᎠᎴ invaded ᎾᎥᎢ ᏴᎩ tracheae ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᎴᏅᏗdᏒ Ꮎ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᏓᎵᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎢᎦᏪᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ markers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎾᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ.

ᎾᎥᏂᎨ pupation, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ hemolymph, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏅᏘᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᎳᎯᎨ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏧᎵ ᏍᏆᎵᏓ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎯᎠ larval ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ adhered ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎯᎠ outer ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ obtect pupae). ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᎾᏖᎳᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎸ Ꮎ pupae ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏑᏰᏒ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏱᏙᎸᎩ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ.

ᎠᏲᎵ[edit]

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏭᏍᏗᎬᎢ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎢᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏅᏗ "ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ" ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᎦᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ pupation ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎯᎠ underside ᎤᎦᎶᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏲᎵ (ᎠᏲᎵ), ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ. ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎶᏁᏍᎬ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎡᏆ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ usable ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ, ᎯᎠ pupal ᎪᏯᏛ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏙᎲ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ mitosis ᎠᎴ ᎠᎧᏲᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ nutrients. ᎢᏳᏃ ᏌᏊ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ surgically ᎠᎲᏓ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎾᎿ, ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᏦᎢ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ, ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏚᎢ ᎭᏫᏂ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴᎢ ᏚᎵᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏍᎦ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᎾᏍᏋ unfolded Ꮝ ᎧᎵ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ boundaries ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏲᎵ.

ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ

ᎤᏔᎾ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ Imago[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ, sexually ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ, ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ ᎯᎠ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ imago. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Lepidoptera, ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᎭ ᏅᎩ ᎪᏯᏛ Ꮎ ᎠᎴ ᎫᏝᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ), ᎠᎴ, ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏩᏐᎳ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎬᏱᏗᏢ- ᎠᎴ hindwings ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎢᏧᎳ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎡᎵᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ. ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᎭ ᏑᏓᎵ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ; ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎵ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎭ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏗᏂᏅᏍᎨᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏎᏍᏗ prolegs. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Ꮝ pupal ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏲᏓᏜᎥ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏝᏰᎵ tvga ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎩᎳ unfolded. ᏧqᎠᎫᏔᏅᏒ-emerged ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ 'inflating' Ꮝ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᎪᎸᏘᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏭᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏂᏰᎩ predator.

ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎪᏯᏛ

ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ[edit]

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ - ᎤᏃᏴᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎬᎪᏩᏛᏗ morphological ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏴᏫ, varieties, polymorph ᎠᎨᏴ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ, mimetic ᏚᏙᏢᏒ, sexual dimorphism, ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏑᏰᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎲᏓ ᏅᏬᏘ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ sexual ᎢᎦᏛᎭ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ sexually dimorphic.

Batesian mimicry ᎠᎴ Mullerian mimicry ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ.

ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ abnormalities ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ gynandromorph ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ.

ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎾᎿ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏗᎫᎪᏔᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ pollen, ᏡᎬ ᎠᏔᏍᎩᏍᎬ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ, ᎠᎴ dissolved ᎪᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ ᎾᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏓ. ᎧᎹᎹ ᏗᏁᎶᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ecological ᎠᏛᏁᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎡᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ pollinator.

Antennae ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ lepidoptera ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ C. T. Bingham (1905)

ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏔᎾ, ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎦᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎯ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ patches. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎹ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᎪᎢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ.

ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏙᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏗᏔᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ attracted ᎯᎠ ᏙᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ (ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏥᏍᏚ). ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᎠᎷ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎹ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎿ ᏴᏫ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ patches, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ, ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎤᏓᏔᏅ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ carcasses ᎣᏤᎵ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎪᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ.

ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏩᏒᎬ, ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ antennae. ᎯᎠ antennae ᎦᎷᏨ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏑᏫᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ hesperids ᎤᎭ ᏭᏎᎸ ᏓᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᏚᎷᏨ ᎠᎴ ᏑᏗ ᎯᎠ antennae.

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᎹᎹ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ ᎧᎹᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ.

ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ, ᎧᎹᎹ, ᎠᎴ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ[edit]

ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏁᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎧᎹᎹ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎪᏏᏌᏅᎯ ᎢᎦᎢ (ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ) ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗ-ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᎸ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᏌᎨᎢ airfoil ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏯᏛ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎦᏌᏙᏯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Kutta ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ.

ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ[edit]

ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Papilionidae- ᎯᎠ Swallowtails

ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Pieridae - ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎳᏩᏎᏗ

ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Riodinidae - ᎯᎠ Metalmarks, Punches ᎠᎴ Judies

ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Nymphalidae - ᎯᎠ ᎦᏄᎪᏅᏙᏗ-ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎧᎹᎹ

ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Lycaenidae - ᎯᎠ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ

ᎯᎪᏩᏔ ᎾᏍᎦ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᏄᎢ[edit]

  • Bingham, C. T. (1905). ᎦᏂᏝᎢ ᎡᎵᏏ ᎢᏅᏗᎾ. ᎧᎹᎹ. ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ 1.
  • Boggs, C., Watt, W., Ehrlich, P. (2003). ᎧᎹᎹ: ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ. ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ Chicago ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ, Chicago.
  • Heppner, J. B. (1998). ᏗᏓᎴᎾᏔᏅ ᏗᎦᏘᏌᏅᎩ Lepidoptera. Holarctic Lepidoptera, Suppl. 1.
  • Pyle, R. M. (1992). ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎧᎹᎹ Watchers. Houghton Mifflin. ᎠᎴᏅᏔᏅ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ, 1984. ISBN 0-395-61629-8
  • Wahlberg, N., M. F. Braby, A. V. Z. Brower, R. de Jong, M.-M. Lee, S. Nylin, N. E. Pierce, F. A. H. Sperling, R. Vila, A. D. Warren & E. Zakharov (2005). ᎠᎵᎪᏒ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ combining morphological ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎾᎯᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ resolving ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏜ. ᎠᎯᎵᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, ᎧᏁᏉᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ B (Biological agatohvsdi) 272, 1577-1586.

ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎧᎹᎹ[edit]

Lepidoptera
  • ᎧᎹᎹ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, Jim P. Brock ᎠᎴ Kenn Kaufman (2003)
  • ᎧᎹᎹ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏗᎦᏙᏗ: ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬ, Jeffrey Glassberg (1999)
  • ᎧᎹᎹ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏗᎦᏙᏗ: ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ, Jeffrey Glassberg (2001)
  • ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎧᎹᎹ, Paul Opler (1994)
  • ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎧᎹᎹ, Paul Opler (1999)
  • Peterson ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏐᎳ, Paul Opler (1994)
  • Las Mariposas ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎦᏘᏯ Machu Picchu ᎾᎥᎢ Gerardo ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏌᏕᎩ (2003)
  • ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ Ireland ᎾᎥᎢ Jim Asher (ᏗᎦᎴᏴᏗᏍᎩ), ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏫᏒ.
  • ᎠᏜᏩᏛ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎡᏆ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ Ireland ᎾᎥᎢ Richard Lewington
  • ᎧᎹᎹ ᎩᎵᏏᏲ ᎠᎴ ᏳᎳᏛ (Collins Wildlife ᎰᏩ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ) ᎾᎥᎢ Michael Chinery
  • ᎧᎹᎹ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏂᏤᎷᎯᏍᎩ Tolman ᎠᎴ Richard Lewington (2001)
  • ᎧᎹᎹ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎢᏤ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ Tristan Lafranchis (2004)
  • ᎧᎹᎹ Sikkim Himalaya ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ Meena Haribal (1994).
  • ᎧᎹᎹ Peninsular ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ Krushnamegh Kunte, Universities ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ (2005).
  • ᎧᎹᎹ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ Col M. . Wynter-Blyth, Bombay ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ, Mumbai, ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ (1957).
  • ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎧᎹᎹ Singapore ᎾᎥᎢ Steven ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎯᏁᎩ Hian (Singapore agatohvsdi Centre)
  • ᎧᎹᎹ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ Malaysia ᎠᎴ Singapore ᎾᎥᎢ W..Fleming. (Longman Malaysia)
  • ᎯᎠ ᎧᎹᎹ ᎯᎠ Malay ᎦᏙᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ .. Corbet ᎠᎴ H. M. Pendlebury. (ᎯᎠ Malayan ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ)
  • F. Nemos: Europas bekannteste Schmetterlinge. Beschreibung der wichtigsten Arten und Anleitung zur Kenntnis und zum Sammeln der Schmetterlinge und Raupen. Oestergaard Verlag, Berlin, ca. 1895, http://hdl.handle.net/10013/epic.28790.d001 (pdf, 77 MB).

ᏙᏯᏗᏢ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]