ᎤᏪᏴ

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ᎯᎠ Murray ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ.
ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏓᏟᏒᎢ ᎾᎾᎯ Harrietville ᏧᎾᎦ ᎦᎶᎨᏒ

ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ waterway. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎤᏍᏗ streams, ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ headwaters. ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ, ᏂᎦᏛ rivers ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ downhill, typically terminating ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎰᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗᎨ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ, ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎠᎴᏅᏗalenvdidsv ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ.

ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ normally ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎦᏂᏟ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ rainfall ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏓᏂᎶᏍᎬᎢ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎾᎿ Ꮝ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ. Smaller ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ streams Ꮎ ᎠᏕᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ tributaries. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ flowing ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ waterway ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ; ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎣᏍᏛ shorthand ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ.

Topography[edit]

ᎤᏪᏴ flowing ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ slight ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ topography.
File:A21a.JPG
Bridges ᎠᎴ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏫᏍᏗ rivers, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎠᎭᏂ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ Buller ᎤᏪᏴ, ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ, ᎢᏤ Zealand.

ᎤᏪᏴ conducts ᎠᎹ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎪᎯᎸᎢ flowing perpendicular ᎯᎠ elevation ᎠᏓᏲᎲ Ꮝ ᎦᏂᏟ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ converting ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎾᎾᎯ kinetic ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ. ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏪᏴ flows ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ areas, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᏫᎵ ᎤᏪᏴᎢ: ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ loops ᎠᎴ ᎢᎾᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ eroding ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏕadel didiyi. Sometimes ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎫᏓᎸᏗ, shortening ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ forming oxbow ᎥᏓᎵ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ. Rivers Ꮎ ᎠᏫᏛᏗ ᎡᏆ amounts sediment ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ conspicuous deltaᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ mouths. Rivers ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ mouths ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ saline tidal ᎠᎹᏱ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ estuaries.

ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi, rivers ᎠᏰᎳᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ beds, ᏭᎵᏱᎶᎸ forming ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ gradient.


  • Youthful ᎤᏪᏴ - ᎤᏪᏴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ gradient Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏲᎵ tributaries ᎠᎴ flows ᏄᎵᏍᏛ. Ꮝ channels erode deeper ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ wider.
  • ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᏪᏴ - ᎤᏪᏴ ᎬᏙᏗ gradient Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ youthful rivers ᎠᎴ flows ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎷᏍᎦᏃᎵ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ youthful rivers. ᎤᏩᎾᏒ ᎤᏛᏒ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎨᎶᎸᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ tributaries ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ youthful ᎤᏪᏴ. Ꮝ channels erode wider ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ deeper.
  • ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎤᏪᏴ - ᎤᏪᏴ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ gradient ᎠᎴ ᎡᎳᏗ erosive ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ. ᎠᎦᏴᎵ rivers ᎠᎴ characterized ᎾᎥᎢ ᎦᏃᎱᎩᏍᎬ plains.
  • Rejuvenated ᎤᏪᏴ - ᎤᏪᏴ ᎬᏙᏗ gradient Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏅᏏᏙᎠ.

ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏪᏴ descends ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ sloped topography, ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎬᏙᏗ whitewater ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎠᎹᏍᎧᎦᎯᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ. Rapids ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ recreational ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ Whitewater kayaking). Waterfalls ᎠᎴ sometimes ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᎾᎿ ᎢᏗᏢ watermillᎠᎴ hydroelectric ᎦᎪᏘ.

Rivers ᎠᎴᏅᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᎠᎵᏌᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏄᎪᎬ, forming ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ glacial meltwater, flowing ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾᏊ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ, boggy ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ waterlogged. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᎴᏅᏗalenvdidsv ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᎹ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ, ᎥᏓᎵ, ᎠᎴ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ tributary ᏄᏓᎴ (ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ) ᎤᏪᏴ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ arid areas rivers sometimes ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏲᎱᏎᎲ ᎠᎹ evaporation ᎠᎴ percolation ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎧᏲᏗ, porous ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏳ, ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ pervious ᏅᏯ. ᎯᎠ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ drained ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ tributaries ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ Ꮝ watershed, catchment ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ drainage ᎠᏟᏍᏙᏗ. (Watershed ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ drainage basins.)

ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ upstream ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏚᏩᏂᎦᎸ ᎠᏏᏇ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᏇ, ᎯᎠ resulting ᎤᏪᏴ network ᏚᏙᏢᏒ dendritic (ᏡᎬ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ) structure Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ fractal.


Geopolitical boundaries[edit]

Rivers ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ historically ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ determining ᎠᏙᏱᏯᏛ ᎠᎬᏩᎵ boundaries.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏪᏴ discharges ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ Atlantic ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ provinces ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Lesotho ᏙᏓᎸ. ᎯᎠ Lesotho Highlands ᎠᎹ ᎠᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏁᎭ divert ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Lesotho ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ Vaal ᎤᏪᏴ ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi, ᎤᏩᏌᏊ tributary ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎯᎠ Gauteng province ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Africa. ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ tunnel ᎨᏒᎢ discharged ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏍᏚ ᎤᏪᏴ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏓᏓᎸ ᎤᎭ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏂᎸᏉᏗ Kayaking venue.

ᎯᎠ Danube ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎶᎻ Empire, ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏛ ᎬᎪᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ Bulgaria ᎠᎴ Romania.

ᎯᎠ Mississippi ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Rhine ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Europe, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎧᎸᎬ-ᏭᏕᎵᎬ boundaries ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ continents.

ᏓᏂᎬᏩᎶᏗᏍᎬ systems[edit]

  • ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ - ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ rivers -- ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ rapids -- ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᏯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ easiest ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ VI ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏩᏍᏓᏴ.
  • Strahler ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ - ᎯᎠ Strahler ᎤᏪᏴᎢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏦᏍᏛᎾ algorithm ᎢᏴ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ rivers ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ heirarchy ᎠᎴ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ tributaries. Headwaters ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ Amazon ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏔᎵᏚ. 80 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ rivers ᎠᎴ streams ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ planet ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ.

Biology[edit]

ᎯᎠ flora ᎠᎴ fauna rivers ᎠᎴ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏤᎢ (non-salty). ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅ ᎠᎹ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᎦᏔ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ processes, ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ lotic ᎢᏯiyahdvnelidasdi ecology.

ᎠᎹ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ[edit]

ᏴᏫ pollution rivers ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵ rivers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ-ᎪᏢᏅᎯ substances. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ pollutant ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᏓᎷᎸᎾ sewage piped ᎾᎾᎯ rivers, ᎠᎴ chemical pollution ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ, ᎠᎴ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ accidents (ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ negligence) ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ significant ᎤᏲᏨᎯ riparian biome. Heated ᎠᎹ discharged ᎾᎾᎯ rivers ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎦᎪᏘᎠᎴ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎤᏃᏢᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ affects ᎤᏪᏴ biota. Non-ᎪᏍᏓᏱ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ pollutants ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ diffuse pollution ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ, urbanisation, logging, ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ slash-ᎠᎴ-ᎦᎴᏴᏒ techniques ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏛ recognised ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏙᏧᏓᎴᏅ sediment ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ pollutants.

Techniques ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ analyze dispersal ᎠᎹ pollutants ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏪᏴ systems. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ U.. Environmental ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᏧᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ funded ᏅᎠᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎷᏬᏗ ᎯᎠ DSSAM ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ assess ᎯᎠ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ soluble nitrogen, reactive phosphorus, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ dissolved solids ᎠᎴ dissolved oxygen ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Truckee ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ flows ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎢᏧᎳ California ᎠᎴ Nevada.

Dams[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏚᏙᏢᏒᎢ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ elevation ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ, damᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ hydroelectric ᏗᎦdigakohidi ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ. ᎪᎯ disrupts ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎠᎴ creates ᎥᏓᎵ ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ dam. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ dams affects ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ dam, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ migrating ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᎴ hindered (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ ladder), waterflow ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ bounded ᎾᎥᎢ seasonal ᏗᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ sediment ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ blocked. Dams ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ: ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎳᏍᎬ hydro-ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ; acting ᏥᏄᏍᏗ regulator ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ occurrence flooding, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎦᏚᎵᏓ-ᏗᎵdiligwu ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ; ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ. ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, dams ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Hoover Dam ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ Colorado ᎤᏪᏴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ tourist attractions. Critics dams, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ 'ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ' ᎦᏂᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᏘᏲᎯᎭ Ꮎ dams ᎠᎲᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ-ᎤᏪᏴ biodiversity ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ deforestation ᎠᎴ ᎤᏩᏌᏙᏴ migration ᎠᏍᏛ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ villages ᎠᎴ indigenous tribes. ᎤᏗᏗᏢᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ, trapping ᎤᏪᏴ sediments ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ dams ᎦᏂ salination ᎠᎴ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ nutrients ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎡᎳᏗ-ᎠᎹ ᎠᏣᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ raises ᎤᏃᏝᎩ earthquakes ᎤᏍᏆᎸᎲ instablity incompetent dams ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᎦᏴᎵ tonnes sediments ᎣᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏂ. ᏌᏊ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᏗᎦᏃᏣᎵ ᎠᎴ problematic dam ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ Aswan ᎦᎸᎳᏗ Dam ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ Nile.

Flooding[edit]

ᎦᏃᎱᎩᏍᎬing ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᏤᎵ cycles. ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ, ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᎭ ᏧᎷᏆᏗᏅᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ flooding occurs ᎾᎥᎢ walling ᎤᏣᏘᎾ rivers ᎠᎴ straightening ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ. ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ bogs, swamps ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ wetlands ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ farmland ᎤᎭ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ ᎯᎠ absorption zones ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ floods ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᎳᏂᎩᏓ disasters ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ gradual ᎧᏁᏉᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎸᎯᏳᎢ Egypt, ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ floods ᎯᎠ Nile ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ accompanying silt ᎠᎴ sediment ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ enriched ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᎶᎨᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎢᏤᎢ nutrient. Nowadays, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ floodplains, floods ᎠᎴ disasters, causing untold ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎤᏲᎱᏎᎸ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ.

ᏴᏫ interference ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ deforestation ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ worsen conditions. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎲᏏᏓᏍᏗ vegetation ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ interception (vegetation ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏗᏍᎬ precipitation) ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ 'weakening' ᎦᏙᎯ ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᎦᎪᏘ roots Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᏚᏂᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏛᎯ Infiltration ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ (ᎯᎳᎪ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎠᎹ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏚᏂᏴ) ᎠᎴ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ infiltration (precipitation ᏓᏰᏏ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏙᎯ). ᎪᎯ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎦᏣᏄᎳᎯᎨ ᎦᏙᎯ saturation ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ overland ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏚᎢ runoff) ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎬ floods ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎶᎪᏂᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi decrease.

Logjams[edit]

LogjamᎠᎴ barriers ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ rivers, ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎠᎴ uprooted ᏡᎬ. ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩiyuwakodi, ᎯᎠ obstruction prevents ᎤᏗᏗᏢ logs bypass, resulting ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎢᏤ network channels. ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎪᏪᎵ Ꭺgoweli gowlisgi David R. Montgomery ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎠᏣᏗ, logjam ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᎹ buildup ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ, forming ᏙᎯ pools ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ shelter ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏲᎵ ᏎᎼᏂ. ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ pools ᎨᎳᏛᏍᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ complex ᎤᏂᏏᎳᏛ channels creates ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᏎᎼᏂ habitat. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏬᎯᏳ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ rebuilding ᏎᎼᏂ ᏓᏍᏆᎶᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏩᎵᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ reproducing ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ environment shaped ᎾᎥᎢ logjams. ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ scientistᎤᎭ ᎠᏁᎳᏛᏅ recreate ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ logjams. Marc Duboiski ᎠᎴ Mike Ramsey ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ Recovery Funding ᏒᏓᎷᎦ ᎠᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᎯᏙᎯ, George Pess ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ Marine Fisheries ᎾᏛᏁᎸ, ᎠᎴ Kevin Bauersfeld Washington ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᏣᏗ ᎠᎴ Wildlife ᎤᎭ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏃᏅᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏎᎼᏂ Recovery Funding ᏒᏓᎷᎦ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ Engineered ᏕᎪᏪᎸ Jam (ELJ) Workshop ([1]), ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎩ ᎬᏗ mimicking ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ logjams.

ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏍᏛ ᏕᎦᏅᏅ Indiana, United ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. Rivers ᎪᎯ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ "ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ."

ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᏓᏙᎳᎬᎾ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. Rivers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ inhabited areas ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᎠᎴ controlled ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏂ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ disruptive ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ.

  • ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎤᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ dredged ᎪᏢᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ deeper ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ flooding.
  • Dams (ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ) ᎠᎴ weirᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ, ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᎠᎹ, ᎠᎴ extract ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ.
  • LeveeᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ flooding.
  • Sluice gates ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏁᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ controlling ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᎤᏪᏴ levels.
  • floodwayᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎤᎶᏒᏍᏗ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎹ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏧᏩitsuwakodi ᎦᏃᎱᎩᏍᎬ.
  • CanalᏗᎵᎪᏙᏗ rivers ᏌᏊ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎹ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ.
  • ᎤᏪᏴ ᏫᏂᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ modified ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗ ᏥᏳ, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏥᏃᏏᏌᏅ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᏴᎠᏍᎬ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ.

ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏙᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ongoing ᎠᎵᏂᎬᏁᏗᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ rivers tend 'ᎢᎬᎾᏕᏍᏗ' ᎯᎠ modifications ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ. Dredged channels silt ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, sluice mechanisms deteriorate ᎬᏙᏗ lyudetiyvda, levees ᎠᎴ dams ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᎩagilyoasdi seepage ᎠᎴ catastrophic ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ.

ᎤᏪᏴ lists[edit]

ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏍᎪᎯ ᎦᏅᎯᎢᏍᏗ rivers[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎤᏪᏴ, ᎠᎬᏫᏳᏛ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ rivers ᎤᎭ fractal ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ precise ᎯᎠ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ ᏫᎵ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎵᏍᏛ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ, upstream rivers ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᎯ Ꭲgotlvhi ignelvhi ᎾᎥᎢ seasonal streams, swamps, ᎠᎴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᎬ lakes.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᎸ ᏗᏟᎶᏛ.

  1. Nile (6,690 km)
  2. Amazon (6,452 km)
  3. Yangtze (Chang Jiang) (6,380 km)
  4. Mississippi-Missouri (6,270 km)
  5. Yenisey-Angara (5,550 km)
  6. Ob-Irtysh (5,410 km)
  7. Huang ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ (ᏓᎶᏂᎨ) (5,464 km)
  8. Amur (4,410 km)
  9. Congo (4,380 km ᎠᎴ 4,670 km). (ᎯᎠ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏪᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ disputed.)
  10. Lena (4,260 km)

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᎢᏍᏗ rivers. ᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ gives ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᎿ measuring ᎤᏪᏴ lengths.

ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ-ᎤᎾᏅᏛ rivers (ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ alphabetic ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ)[edit]

ᏐᎢ lists[edit]

Rivers ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ myth ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎸᏅ ᎬᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ[edit]

ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ rivers[edit]

Mythological rivers[edit]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᏪᏴ deity.

Fictional rivers[edit]

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

Crossings[edit]

Rivers ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ crossed ᎾᎥᎢ:

ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎤᏗᏗᏢ ᏓᎪᎵᏰᏍᎬ[edit]

  • Luna B. Leopold, ᏗᎧᏃᏗᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ, Harvard University ᏗᏂᎴᏱᏗᏍᎩ (1994), hardcover, 298 ᏚᏆᏓᏛ, ISBN 0-674-93732-5 non-ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᏗᎴᏅᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ geomorphology ᎠᎴ hydraulics ᎯᎠ ᎤᏪᏴ. Luna B. Leopold, Emeritus Professor Geology ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ University California ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ Hydrologist ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ U.. Geological ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᏗᏟᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ ᎩᎵᏏ units.

External ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]