ᎠᏕᎳ

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ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ.]]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ, ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏊ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎥᏓᏘᏁᎸ Ꮎ ᎠᎧᎵᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ: ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ, ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏗᏃᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ deferred ᏗᎫᏴᏗ, ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ.[1] ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ, ᎠᏕᎳ ᏩᏎᎯᎰᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎧᎵ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ circulating currencies ᎬᏙᏗ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᏩᎾᎢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ; ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ denominated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎿ currencies ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏓᏓᏁᎳᏁ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏄᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎧᏁᎦ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᎠᏚᎵᎭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏓᎾᏘᏍᎩ.

ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏗᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ (ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅᎯ ᎬᏫᏍᏓᏗ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏓᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ; ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᎢᎬᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎣᏂ ᏧᏩᎫᏛ ᏧᏂᏴᎯ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎤᎧᏛ ᎠᏂ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏕᎳ.

ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ (ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ) ᎪᏢᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ negligible ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ enhanced ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ mandating ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏓᏍᏛᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎫᏴᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎫᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏓᏁᎲ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ ᎠᏚᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ currencies (e.g. ᎤᏃᏍᏗ) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᏤᏗ currencies ᎤᎭ ᎤᏂᎩᏒ ᎾᎿ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ (e.g. Swiss Dinar).

Wishram-Wasco ᎠᎨᏯ ᏙᏄᏭᎢ dentalium shells, which were ᎠᏕᎳ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎤᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᎸ

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎸᏉᏗ conch ᎤᏯᏍᎦ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎤᏓᏅᏖᎸ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏌᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎦᏰᎯ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎦᏌᏆᎸ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ.

ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᏦᎢ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ:

1. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎫᏥᏛ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎠᏓᏎᎮᏗ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏰᎸᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ simplifies ᎯᎠ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏔᎵ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏘ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ.

2. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏐᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎭᏢᏃ Ꮝ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎧᏁᏣ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ.

ᎠᏓᏚᎩ ᎠᎴ IOU ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᎪᎥᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎾᎬᏁᎲ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᏒ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ Ꮎ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏗᏓᏙᎳᏤᎸ. ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ, ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ ᎠᎴ IOU ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ accepted ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏕᎳ.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏗᏌᎭᏓᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎯᏁᎩ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ 10 ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎦᏁᎸ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ 45 ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ. ᎢᏧᎳ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎯᏁᎩ Ꮎ IOU denominated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᏧᎾᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎦᏐᏣᏁᏛ.

3. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏒᎯ ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᏒᏆᎶᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ ᏧᏯᏖᎾ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢᎨᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ Ꮎ ᏗᏂᏂᏴ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ. ᎢᏧᎳ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ reliably ᏚᏳᎩᏛ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏕᎩ ᏐᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏩᎫᏗᏗᏒ ᎢᏳ ᎢᎪᎯ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎣᏏ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ possessing ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏅᎿᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏦᎢ criteria.

ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᏗᏲᏒᎯ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ satisfies ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏌᏊ ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ "ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ" criteria. ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏄᎸᏅ ᎠᎦᏛᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏔᎵ. ᏯᏛᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎯᏌᏅ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᏓᏚᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ.

ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏦᎠᏎᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏠᏗ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ, ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ interchangeably. ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏃᎮᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏚᏗ.

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏣᏪᏐᎸᏍᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ looser ᎤᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏁᏨ.

ᏂᎪᎯᎸ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᏄᏩᎿᏅ ᏎᏍᏗ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ:

ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ:

  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎾ, ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ tradable, ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎠᏰᏍᏛᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎯᎠ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ ᎠᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ, ᎡᎳᏗ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏓᏁᎲ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ
  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ transportable; ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎪᎢ, ᏥᏃᏍᎦ, vermiculite, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ. Ꭺ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎯᏗᎨ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ.
  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ. ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏜᏩᏛ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎬᏍᏉᏍᏗ. ᎯᎠ 20 ᏍᏆᏂ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎦᏟᏌᏅ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏥᏱ ᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗ ᎠᏂᏙᎾᎥ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏣᎴᎩ ᏴᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏛᎢ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ.

ᎾᏍᏋ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ:

  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏌᏊᎭ ᏄᏠᏯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ Ꮝ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ; ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏂᎸᏨᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ melted ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᏇ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎦᏃᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ.
  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ fungible: Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ, ᏌᏊ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎬᎭᎸᏓ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏄᏓᎴ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙᏃ ᏅᏯ ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ.
  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎾᏍᏋ verifiably countable.

ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ:

  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎢᎦᎢ, ᏗᏙᎳᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏙᏃ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ, ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎣᏌᏂ ᏏᎵᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏆᎨᏂ ᏯᏖᎾᏰᏍᏛᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᎦᎥᏊ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ.
  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎤᎭ ᏐᏈᎵ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ.
  • ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ.

ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏓᏅᏖᏍᎬ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎠᏏᏇ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏏᏇ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ societies ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ. Platinum ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎤᎭ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ meltable ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᎥ ᏴᏫ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ.

ᏌᏊ ᏍᏚᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎨᎦᏃᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮎ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᎦᎳᏍᏓᏗᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ; ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ.

ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

Banknote (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ Ꭺ ᎠᏕᎳ) ᎠᎴ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎦᎾ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᏴᏫ–ᎠᏏᏴᏫ ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏓᏁᎲ. ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᎾᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎨᏒᎢ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎡᏍᎦᏗᏢ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ. ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ, ᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᏓ ᎪᏪᎸ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏯᏅᎯ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎯᏗᎨᎢ ᏫᏓᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎡᏆᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ. Electronic ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ-ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ traded ᎠᎴ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎾᏁᏍ.

ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏌᏊ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ Ꮝ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᏕᎬᏔᏛ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎬᏗ. Monetarism ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏔᏲᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ.

ᎠᏕᎳ ᏗᎳᏏᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏐᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏍᏓᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ, ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎦᎸᏉᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎨᏥᎾᏢᏗ. ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᎳᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎢᎬᏂᏌᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏛᏁᎵᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎠ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ, ᎯᎠ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎦᏃᏍᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎨᏔᏗᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎤᏛᏏᏗᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎾᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ. ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏕᎶᎰᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ controlling ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ, ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ.

ᎠᏕᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏑᏰᏛ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎠᏏᎾᏍᏛ ᏗᎵᎪᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏲᏂᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ, ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎶᏒᎩ ᎯᎠ Soviet ᏗᏌᏊ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᎯ.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏓᏃᏏᏏᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏰᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᏅ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏯᎾᏛᏁᏗ, ᎢᎦᏛ arguing Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᎽᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᏏᏴᏫ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏂ ᏂᎦᏛ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏄᎾᏍᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᎦᎳᏫᎢᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏂᎦᎥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎦᎾ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ, ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏬᎳᏨ ᏩᎾᎢ.

ᎤᏤᎵᏓ currencies[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏩᏗᏒ, ᎯᎠ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ Ꭺ currencies ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ restricted ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᎧᎿᏩᏛᏍᏗ.

ᎤᏤᎵᏓ 1 ᎤᏃᏍᏓ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ "Delaware ᎠᏒᏢᎢ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ" ᎢᏤ ᎫᏢᎥᏍᎬ 1836-1841.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏎᏊᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏗᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏄᏪᏨ ᎠᏰᎵ 1837 ᎠᎴ 1866. ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, municipalities, ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ, ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᏅᏃᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᏚᎾᏓᏡᎬᎢ, ᏓᏓᎾᏅ, ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᏧᏂᎳᏫᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎦᎴᏯᏔᏅᎯ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ 8,000 ᏄᏓᎴᎿᎥ monies ᎾᎥᎢ 1860. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ issuer ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ, ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ, ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎦᏚᎲ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏃ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏪᏅᏒ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᏓᏠᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎾᎥᎢ "ᎬᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ" ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ unreliability ᎠᎴ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᎿ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏅ-ᎤᏣᏘᎾ, unpopulated ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏄᏪᏒᎩ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎥᏝ ᎤᏓᎷᎳ ᎬᎯ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏴᏫ. ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ ᎤᏬᏰᏂ, ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ Lawrence H. ᎤᏁᎬ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏓᏡᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ[2] "ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᎠ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ Ꮎ “wildcat” ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎡᏆᏯ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᎷᏚᎧᏘ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏓᏅᏘ ᏓᎾᎵᏃᎮᏍᎬ—ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ Ꮎ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏄᏩᎫᏔᏅ ᎾᎵᏍᏆᏗᏍᎬᎾ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏓᏓᎶᏙᏗ—ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᎳᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᎪᏪᎵᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ Ꮎ ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎦᏲᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ Ꮎ ᏰᎵ ᎢᎩᏛ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ ᏩᏎᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎬᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ." ᎯᎠ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ 1863 ᎤᎵᏍᏗᏅ ᎯᎠ "ᎬᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ" ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏒᎳᏗᏝ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎯ 1910 basically ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏗᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ currencies ᎾᎥᎢ ᏭᎵᏍᎨᏗᏴ ᎦᏅᏍᏙᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᎾᎯᏍᏙᏗ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏚᎾᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏠᏱ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏧᎾᎳᏏᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎪᏣᎴᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎪᏅᏙᏗᏱ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Scotland ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ Ireland ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎦᎴᏯᏛ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ Ꭺ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ accepted ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎳᏏᏛ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ.

ᎪᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏄᏢᏉᏛᎾ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ electronic ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᎾᏗᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ currencies ᎠᎴ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ digital ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ. ᏓᎾᏓᏅᏓᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ currencies ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᎾᏕᏘᏴᎯᏒ turnover ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᎤᏂᏃᏍᏓ.

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏄᏢᏉᏛᎾ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏴᏫ ᎠᏘᏲᎯᎭ ᎬᏩᏚᏫᏛ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ. ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᏂᎦᏛ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᎴ platinum, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ, ᎤᎭ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏓᎦᏎᏍᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᏧᏩᎫᏔᏅᏒ (ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ properties ᎥᏓᏓᎫᏴᎡᏗᏱ), ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ (ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ joules) ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ (ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ kilogramme*kilometre/ᏑᏟᎶᏛ) ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ[3] ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ accepted ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏴᏫ, ᎢᏳᏃ legalized. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ Ꮎ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ (ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩᏇ ᏱᎩ ᏗᏂᏂᏴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎾᎥ ᏄᎾᏓᎸ) ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏕᏯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᏭᏚᎸᏛ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏟᏌᏃᏅᎯ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ.

ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ[edit]

ᏣᏆᏂ ᎠᏕᎳ (ᎤᏪᏘ)

ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᏗᎪᏍᎩ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎣᏩᏍᎬ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎾᏛᏁᎲ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏅᎩ escalating ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ M0, M1, M2 ᎠᎴ M3. ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎬᏙᏗ M3 ᎾᏓᏛᏁᎲ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ (ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏚᏗ) ᎠᎴ M0 ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎳ (ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏴᏴᏚᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ). M0 ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏕᎳ Ꮎ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎣᏏ ᎠᏰᎸᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᏚᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ, ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎾᏚᏓᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ controlling ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏳᎳᏛ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏥᎸᏉᏗ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ECB. ᏐᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏓᏓᏛᎾᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ global ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᎬᏔᏂᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏣᏩᏂ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ, ᏴᏫ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᎦᎾᏫᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎵᏍᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ.

ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏛᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏳᏍᏗᏊ ᏔᎵ ᏫᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ. ᎢᎬᏱ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎧᏁᏉᎠ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ mining ᎾᎾᎢ 2% ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᏗᎴᏪᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ rushes ᎠᎴ discoveries, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ Columbus ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᎡᎶᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎸᎯ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎦᏐᎯ Spain, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ California ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1849. ᎪᎯ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎠᏥᏚᎩ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᏕᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎡᎪᎢ ᎡᎳᏗ. ᏔᎵᏁ, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎡᎪᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᎯ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏚᏂᎲ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗᏯ. ᎪᎯ ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᏧᎾᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ savers ᎠᎴ ᏧᎾᏓᏚᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ deflation, ᎭᏢᏃ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎧᏂᏉᏤᎩ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎤᎪᏗ ᏗᎵᎬᏩᎸᏍᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏓᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ. Deflation ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎦᏬᎯᎸᏙᏗ 100 ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ 1792–1913.

ᎠᏒᎾᏍᏗᏱ ᎯᎠ Ꭺ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ[edit]

ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ (ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ, ᎠᏥᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏗ,) ᎠᎴ ᏐᎢ ᏗᎦᏘᎴᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ ᎤᏦᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ, ᎠᎴ ᏩᎾᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎯᏴᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏯᏔᏍᏗ. ᎣᏂᏯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛᎩ Ꭺ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎾᏊ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ capitalism ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏂᎩᏒ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᏴᏎᎬ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ :

  1. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ - Ꭺ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ-ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ. (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎨᏒᎩ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ 19th ᏍᏉᎯᏧᏈ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᎪᎲᎢ anymore.)
  2. Ꭺ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏧᏓᎴᎾᎯ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎦᎸᏉᏗ ᎠᎾᎦᎵᏍᎩ ᎦᏂᏱᏍᎩ (ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎤᏯᏅᎲ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᏩᎾᎢ) ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ=ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ. ᎾᎿᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎾᎥᏂᎨ-ᎠᏕᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᏗᏚᎳᏙ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮ-ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎯᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᏓᏂᎬᏩᎶᏗᏍᎬ.
  3. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᏗᎬᏩᎶᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ chequable ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᏗᎦᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᏗ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ. (ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏓᏚᎯᏌᏘ Ꮎ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎪᎵᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏗᎪᏢᏅ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ, Ꮎ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎫᏴᏓ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ Ꮎ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᎤᎫᏴᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᎵᏃᎯᏴᎯ.)

ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ denominated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏂᏃᏍᏓ – ᎠᎦᏘᏗᏍᏛ, ᎠᏕᎳ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ, ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ, ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ -- ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎤᏃᏍᏓ-denominated ᎠᏓᏚᎩ (ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏚᏓᎸᏁᏗ) ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ (ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏚᎦᏘᎸᏒ ᎠᏓᏚᏗ ᎠᏆᏂᏲᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏓᏡᎩ) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ. "ᎦᎸᎳᏗ powered" ᎠᏕᎳ (M0) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏓᎩᏴᎲ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏩᏍᎬ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎵᏏᏅᏙᏗ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏗᏓᏁᏟᏴᎡᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᏘᎭ ᏌᏊ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ (ᎠᏓᏚᏗ) ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᏚᎵᎬᏩᎳᏅ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᏂᎬᎿᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᏚᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ (M0). ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏂᏚᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ M0 ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎤᎵᏁᏨ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎪᎯᏳᏙ (ᎠᎴ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ) ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᏗᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᎪᎸᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎣᏩᏍᎬ ᏗᏚᎳᏙ ᎠᎴ T-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᏐᎢ. Ꮭ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᎦᎪ ᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏚᎳᏙ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏫᎵ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ M0. ᎯᎠ ᎨᎶᎸᎯ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎧᏁᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ Ꮎ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎠᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏰᎸᏛᎢ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ ᎤᏟ ᎢᏲᏍᏛ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎠᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏚᎳᏙ.

ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ Ꭺ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ[edit]

ᎠᏎᏱᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᎬᏂ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏳᏃ Ꭺ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓ ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᏓᏓᏚᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᏴᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏓᎾᏗᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ. ᎠᎴ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏅᏓᏛᎯ Ꮎ ᎧᎵᏗᎳᏏᏗ ᏩᎾᎢ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎪᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᎪᎵᏰᏗ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ 4% ᎯᎠ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ.

ᎠᎵᏱᎵᏒ ᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏚᎳᏏᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎢᏳᏃ depositers ᎤᏎᏒᎲᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏕᎠᎲ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ. ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ withdrawn ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ Ꮭ ᎦᏅᎯᏓᎨ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏯᏔᎵᏍᏔ ᎠᎴ ᎣᏍᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎠᏕᎳ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎠᏕᎳ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎨᏥᏍᏕᎸᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎤᏓᏅᏗ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ — savers ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᏁᏉᏨ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎯᏕᎨᎢ ᎠᎴ Ꮝ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ (ᏗᏓᏂᎸᎢᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᏓᏲᎱᏎᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎤᏚᏃᎯᏍᏔᏍᎧ). ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎪᎯ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏖᎵᏍᏓᏍᏗ Ꮝ ᎢᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᏒ (Ꮝ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎢᎦ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᏒ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ). ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏎ ᎾᏍᏋ recalled Ꮎ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᏍᏚᏅᎩ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ. ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏓᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ B ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎪᏪᎳᏅᎯ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ B ᏓᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ C ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏎᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ C ᏓᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸᏗᏗ ᎤᏬᏢᎯ ᎠᎾᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏬᎩᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎦᎪ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎠᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎦᎪᏃ:) ᎾᎿ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎢᎦ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᏃᏍᎩᏍᏗ ᎤᏚᎸᏗ ᏄᎾᏛᏅ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏍᏆᏛᎯ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏓᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏤ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎫᏴᏓ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏕᎠᎲ. ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏗᏒᎯᎯ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏄᏓᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᏣᎴᏍᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ.

ᏄᏓᎴ ᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎫᏴᏓ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏙ ᎠᎴ T-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏩᏒᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎢᎦᏛ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏧᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏓᏁᏤᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏙ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏲᏍᏔᏅ — ᎠᎩᏒᎯ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᏓᎾᏗᎦᎴᏴᏍᎬ. ᎢᏳᏃ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ defaulted ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏁᏉᏨ" ᎤᎫᏴᏓ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏐᎢ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎫᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ. ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ "ᎤᏁᏉᏨ" ᎤᎫᏴᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏙᎯᏳᎯᏯ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎬᏗ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎠᏥᎾᏝᎢ ᎫᏢᏗ ᎤᏲᎢ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ ᎣᏍᏛ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏙᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏍᎩᏂ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏕᎦᎸᏛ ᎧᏁᏌᎢ ᎭᏢᏃ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏓᎾᏓᏙᎳᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎢᏅ ᏕᎨᏒ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎨᎶᎸᎯ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎤᎭ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏩᏓᏔᏅᏒ, rescued ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗᏱ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎢᎦᏰᎵᏍᏗ Ꮎ ᎯᎠ taxpayers ᎠᎴ/ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎳ ᏧᏂᏴᎯ (savers) ᏫᎵ ᎠᎫᏴᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏚᎩ. ᎯᎠ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ ᏫᎵ ᎾᏍᏋ controlled, ᎠᏏᏇ, ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏙ ᎠᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏅᎪᏢᎯᏐᏗᏱ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏩᎾᏕᏍᎩ T-ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᏗᎦᎾᏗᏅᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏩᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ.

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᎶᏒᏍᏔᏅ ᏚᏙᏢᏒ, ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏗᏍᏆᎸᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏰᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎠᏱᎴᎦ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏚᎳᏗ ᎠᎴ, ᎢᏳᏃ uninsured, ᎯᎠ ᎨᏥᏍᏕᎸᏓ ᏂᎦᏛ Ꮝ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛors ᎠᎴ ᎤᎴᎾᎯᏛ. ᏯᏛᎿ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎤᏄᎸᎲᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏳ ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏕᎳ ᎠᏓᏁᏗ Ꮎ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮎ ᏙᏱᏗᏢ ᎦᏚᎲ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᎠᏓᏅᏘᏐᏗ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ enacted ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏤ ᏗᏓᏅᏓᏁᏗᏱ, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᏁᏝᎾ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎾᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏓᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ ᎫᏓᎸᏙ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᏚᏓᎸᏗ ᎤᏤᎵᏓ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏗᏗ ᏚᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏛ.

ᎢᏤ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᏁᏨ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎩᎵᏏ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ[edit]

ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

  • ᎠᏬᎩᎸᏍᎩ ᎥᏓᏘᏁᎸ
  • Bling (ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏩᏎᎯᎲᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ)
  • ᎦᏚ
  • ᏧᎧᏅᏍᏕᎾ ᎠᏫ
  • ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ
  • ᎤᏅᏗ ᎦᏚᏅ
  • ᎤᏆᏔᎸᏓ
  • ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ
  • ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ
  • ᎠᏥᏱ
  • ᎤᏲᎱᏒ ᎤᏂᎬᏫᏳᎯ (ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ)
  • Deniro
  • ᏍᎪᎯ ᎢᏯᏓᏅᏖᏗ
  • Dosh
  • ᎦᏓᏆᎵ
  • Duckets
  • ᎦᏇᏅᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ (ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ)
  • Frogskins (ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ)
  • ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ (ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ)
  • ᎠᏕᎳ (ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ)
  • ᎦᏂᏴᏗ (ᎡᏆ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎠᏕᎳ)
  • ᎠᎵᏰᏑᏍᏔᏬ
  • Moola
  • ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏓᏅᏖᏗ
  • ᏗᏂᏃᎨᏂ (ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᏩᏎᎯᎲᎢ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ)
  • ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ
  • Skrill, Skrilla (ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎠᎹᏳᎸᏗ ᎧᎾᏓ, ᎢᎬᏱᏗᏢ Halifax)
  • (ᎯᎠ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ) Spondulix
  • Yay

ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

  • ᎦᎸᏓᎸᏓ ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᎨᎵᏍᏙᎩ
  • ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏕᎦᏒᏛ
  • ᎠᏆᏤᎵ ᏧᏠᎯᏍᏗ

ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏕᎳ[edit]

  • ᎠᎳᏍᏔᎵᏙᎯ = £2000
  • ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ = 1,000,000 ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏌᏊᎭ
  • ᏆᏆ = 1 ᎠᏕᎳ
  • ᏧᎧᏅᏍᏕᎾ ᎠᏫ = $1
  • C ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ, Benjamin (ᎢᏧᎳ ᎠᏴ) = $100 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ
  • Fiver, ᎯᏍᎩ ᎤᏓᏓᎸ, Finsky = 5 ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏌᏊᎭ
  • Foonie = $5 (ᎧᎾᏓ) - ᎬᏙᏗ-ᎬᏂᎨᏒ ᏄᏍᏛᎢ $5 ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏤᎸᏗᏱ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏁᎳ ᎠᏕᎸ ᏧᏃᏢᏗ
  • ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ, G, ᎦᏅᏛᎢ, ᎡᏆ ᏌᏊ, ᎡᏆ ᎠᎴ K = 1,000 ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏌᏊᎭ
  • Loonie = $1 (ᎧᎾᏓ)
  • ᎠᏓᎵᏍᎩᏱᏍᎩ = £500
  • Nicker = £1
  • ᎠᏫᏗᏍᎩ = £25
  • ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ = £1
  • ᎤᏝᏅᎯ = £1
  • ᎤᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ = £20
  • ᏏᏴᏫ = $1 ᎠᏎᎯᎯ ᎢᎦ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ (ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ) ᎠᎴ £1 (ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ)
  • Sov = £1 (ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ)
  • ᏕᎦᏒᏛ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ = 10,000 ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏌᏊᎭ
  • Tanner = sixpence
  • Tenner = 10 ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᏌᏊᎭ
  • ᎢᏯᏛᏂ = £100
  • Toonie = $2 (ᎧᎾᏓ)

Benchmark ᎡᎶᎯ Currencies[edit]

ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏯᏩᏍᎩ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ currencies ᎬᏔᏅᎯ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏍᏗ[4].

ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᏗᎨᏒᎾ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ currencies ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ traded globally ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏗ: ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ (XAU) ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ ᎠᏕᎸ ᎤᏁᎬ (XAG) ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 1000 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ[edit]

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢ[edit]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛ[edit]